Inger Martinussen

Avdelingsleder

(+47) 976 78 488
inger.martinussen@nibio.no

Sted
Holt

Besøksadresse
Holtveien 66, 9269 Tromsø

Sammendrag

Rhodiola rosea is a perennial flowering plant with a long history as a medicine plant. The plant contain a range of bioactive compounds including salidroside, rosavin, rosarian and rosin. Some of the compounds are characterized as adaptogens, meaning they can increase the body’s resistance to various stressors. An increased demand for better pharmaceuticals has stimulated the development of new methods for agricultural as well as in vitro cultivation of medicinal plants. A new technology, called rhizosecretion of biologically active chemicals, can provide a continuous supply of biologically active compounds over the lifetime of plants. The plants will then be grown under controlled conditions. In order to increase the production of bioactive compounds in Rhodiola rosea under these conditions it is therefore hypothesized that the biosynthesis can be upregulated by growing it under specific temperature and light quality treatments. An experiment with different light and temperature regimes was established for optimal accumulation of biologically active compounds. Four different clones of Rhodiola rosea were grown under three different light conditions (red, blue and white) combined with two different temperatures (9 and 18 °C) for three weeks. The gene expression of Tyrosine decarboxylase (TyrDC), found to have a key role in the biosynthesis of salidroside, were investigated. In addition, the content of various bioactive compounds were quantified before and after treatment. The results indicate that use if high producing clones is most important for high production and that there is a short-term upregulation during blue light treatment. During the three-week treatment, there was no significant effect of the temperature treatments.

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Sammendrag

The population structure of cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.), collected from Krkonose Mountains (the Czech Republic), continental Norway and Spitsbergen, was examinedusing microsatellite analyses (SSR). Among 184 individuals, 162 different genotypeswere identified. The overall unbiased gene diversity was high (̂h=0.463). A high level of genetic differentiation among populations (FST = 0.45; p < .01) indicated restricted gene flow between populations. Using a Bayesian approach, six clusters were found which represented the genetic structure of the studied cloudberry populations. The value of correlation index between genetic and geographical distances (r = .44) indicates that gene flow, even over a long distance, could exist. An exact test of population differentiation showed that Rubus chamaemorus populations from regions (Krkonose Mountains,continental Norway and Spitsbergen) are differentiated although some individuals within populations share common alleles even among regions. These results were confirmed by AMOVA, where the highest level of diversity was found within populations(70.8%). There was no difference between 87 pairs of populations (18.7%) mostly within cloudberry populations from continental Norway and from Spitsbergen. Based on obtained results, it is possible to conclude that Czech and Norwegian cloudberry popula-tions are undergoing differentiation, which preserves unique allele compositions most likely from original populations during the last glaciation period. This knowledge will be important for the creation and continuation of in situ and ex situ conservation of cloud-berry populations within these areas.

Sammendrag

Rhodiola rosea is a well-known herbal medicinal plant, valued for highly active secondary metabolites. It is growing wild in most parts of Norway and mountainous areas in a number of countries. Some of the most important metabolites are believed to be salidroside, cinnamyl alcohol, glycosides (rosine, rosavine, rosarine), flavonoids (rhodionin, rhodiosin,rhodiolin) and terpenes (Galambosi 1999). In Norway, germplasm collections of R. rosea are maintained by NIBIO; at Apelsvoll in southern Norway, consisting of 97 different clones. The ranges in content of secondary metabolites in the collection are for rosavin 2.90-85.95 mg g-1, salidroside 0.03-12.85 mg g-1, rosin 0.08-4.75 mg g-1, tyrosol 0.04-2.15 mg g-1 and cinnamyl alcohol 0.02-1.18 mg g-1. Clones selected from the collection has throughout been studied for different aspects affecting plant growth and production of secondary metabolites. We have looked into cultivation requirements of the plant like water requirement, effects of nutrient levels (N and K) and soil types. Postharvest treatment from washing, cutting,drying and differences in the plant parts. Finally we will in this presentation also present results on requirements for dormancy release and the clonal differences and also how use of primers may affect production of secondary metabolites.

Sammendrag

Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) is a wild perennial shrub growing on peatland with a circumpolar distribution. The combined berries have a high polyphenol content comprised primarily of ellagitannins. A few commercial cultivars are available, and pre-breeding trials on clonal material from different geographical origins are in progress. The objective of this study was to investigate how the content of polyphenols of four different cloudberry cultivars were affected by harvesting time and climatic variations during a 3-year-period. Plants were grown outside in plots and berries were harvested when mature. Berries were analyzed for total polyphenols and total anthocyanins by spectrophotometer. Total ellagic acid was identified and quantified using HPLC-MS after hydrolysis of the extracts. Results showed that all measured parameters; total anthocyanins, total polyphenols and ellagic acid are strongly influenced by the genetic background. Although low anthocyanin contents were present in all genotypes, they were highly affected by climatic conditions, being highest at low temperatures. However, the content of ellagic acid was less affected by environmental conditions and showed little response to changing temperatures. In conclusion, ellagitannin content was the most dominating polyphenol group observed in this study and was affected by genetics and is therefore a good breeding criterion for increased health benefit of cloudberry.

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Sammendrag

Two field trials with five strawberry cultivars planted on a woven black polyfibre ground cover sheet with or without translucent sheet plant coverage during winter and the growing season as combined treatments were started in 2004 and 2005. In total, nine different cultivars were included in the two fields. One early cv. ‘Polka’ and one late cv. ‘Korona’ acted as standard cultivars, while the other cultivars were new, named or labelled selections from Norwegian, Finnish and Swedish breeding programs. Winter survival, spring vigour, earliness, saleable and total berry yield, berry size and berry quality were registered for three years. The cultivars differed in earliness, berry size, yield (gram per plant) and total production (sum of all years). A combination of fibre sheet winter and spring coverage and more open net sheet harvest season coverage showed favourable results for overwintering, earliness and berry yield, and enhanced the ripening process in all cultivars.

Sammendrag

Feltforsøk og feltforsøksbasert forskning er et svært viktig element i NIBIOs faglige og vitenskapelige profil. Feltforsøk betyr også mye for instituttets økonomi. 11 avdelinger bruker i større eller mindre grad feltforsøk som verktøy i sin FoU-aktivitet. Disse avdelingene har en bruttoomsetning på om lag 300 mill. kr, og dekker sentrale forskningsfelt innen agronomi, jord- og plantefag, miljø og nyskaping. Feltforsøksvirksomheten er helt avgjørende for NIBIOs tilstedeværelse rundt omkring i landet og er fundamentet i aktiviteten ved instituttets forskningsstasjoner. Feltforsøk og feltbasert FoU krever betydelige ressurser; høy kompetanse innen en rekke fagfelt for forskere og forskningsteknikere, gode feltareal, et bredt spekter av ordinære landbruksmaskiner og spesielt forsøksteknisk utstyr, og omfattende fastliggende infrastruktur. NIBIO står foran betydelige utfordringer for å opprettholde kvaliteten og videreutvikle denne virksomheten........

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Sammendrag

Anthocyanins are the main pigments in the Vaccinium berries. Besides contributing to the characteristic bluish to reddish colors of the berries, anthocyanins are also recognized as potential health beneficial compounds. The biosynthesis of anthocyanins is well understood and the key regulators have been characterized in many plant species. The final anthocyanin composition in ripe berries is regulated by developmental and environmental factors, determined by the genetic background. We have studied the role of different light and temperature conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.), in controlled and in field experiments. These experiments include specific growth conditions with clones from northern and southern latitudes as well as from different altitudes. The results show speciesspecific interactions in quantitative and qualitative composition of anthocyanins as a response to light and temperature conditions. For instance, lower temperature and specific light wavelengths induced accumulation of delphinidin glycosides in bilberry.

Sammendrag

The paper is a mini review on the climatic effects on berry production and berry quality in the Arctic north. Plants in the north are facing short growing seasons with low temperatures and long days with a unique light quality. The winter time is cold but with fluctuating temperatures, especially along the coast. Fluctuating winter temperatures and unstable snow cover is a challenge for the perennials that need to be dormant during winter time. Dormancy is induced in the autumn by a combination of day length and temperature. The wild berries domestic to the Nordic countries are adapted to these growth conditions while many of the commercially important berry species originate from more southern areas. Pre-breeding studies on interactions between genotype and environment are essential in order to develop climatically adapted berry cultivars for northern growth conditions.

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Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites with important roles in plant defence against pathogens and pests and are also known for their health benefits. Understanding how environmental factors affect the level and composition of glucosinolates is therefore of importance in the perspective of climate change. In this study we analysed glucosinolates in Arabidopsis thaliana accessions when grown at constant standard (21 °C), moderate (15 °C) and low (9 °C) temperatures during three generations. In most of the tested accessions moderate and pronounced chilling temperatures led to higher levels of glucosinolates, especially aliphatic glucosinolates. Which temperature yielded the highest glucosinolate levels was accession-dependent. Transcriptional profiling revealed also accession-specific gene responses, but only a limited correlation between changes in glucosinolate-related gene expression and glucosinolate levels. Different growth temperatures in one generation did not consistently affect glucosinolate composition in subsequent generations, hence a clear transgenerational effect of temperature on glucosinolates was not observed.

Sammendrag

Important losses in strawberry production are often caused by the oomycete Phytophthora cactorum, the causal agent of crown rot. However, very limited studies at molecular levels exist of the mechanisms related to strawberry resistance against this pathogen. To begin to rectify this situation, a PCR-based approach (NBS profiling) was used to isolate strawberry resistance gene analogs (RGAs) with altered expression in response to P. cactorum during a time course (2, 4, 6, 24, 48, 96 and 192 h post-infection). Twenty-three distinct RGA fragments of the NB-LRR type were identified from a resistance genotype (Bukammen) of the wild species Fragaria vesca. The gene transcriptional profiles after infection showed that the response of most RGAs was quicker and stronger in the resistance genotype (Bukammen) than in the susceptible one (FDP821) during the early infection stage. The transcriptional patterns of one RGA (RGA109) were further monitored and compared during the P. cactorum infection of two pairs of resistant and susceptible genotype combinations (Bukammen/FDP821 and FDR1218/1603). The 5′ end sequence was cloned, and its putative protein was characteristic of NBS-LRR R protein. Our results yielded a first insight into the strawberry RGAs responding to P. cactorum infection at molecular level.

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Sammendrag

Effects of different environmental factors (origin, climate, fertilization and soil properties) on berry nutritional quality were studied in eight forest fields of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) in Northern-, Mid- and Southern Norway. No clear trend between locations could be found, however untargeted multivariate analysis of metabolite profiles revealed clear segregation patterns between locations. Anthocyanin, and phenolics content, and titratable acidity were significantly affected by mineral fertilization (Mid-Norway), while organic fertilization did not show any significant effects (Northern Norway). Bilberry chemical composition was affected by harvest time point, as indicated by a potentially higher nutritional quality regarding the content of phytochemicals when harvesting at mid or towards the end of the production season (Southern Norway). Regional and annual climate had strongest impact on the nutritious content of bilberries. Significant differences were found between locations, however previous findings on increasing anthocyanin content with latitude were not confirmed due to environmental impacts confounding the population effects.

Sammendrag

An investigation of the wild European blueberry (E. blueberry; Vaccinium myrtillus L.) was financed for four years starting in 2008. One part of the project was to examine natural development of E.blueberry in five Norwegian fields, effect of fertilization and cutting of plants. Examinations were undertaken in two fields in Bardu municipality in Troms county and of three fields in Snåsa and Lierne municipalities in Nord-Trøndelag county. The basic idea was to examine the possibility of half cultivation on situ in the forest, a similar system as developed in north America with Vaccinium angustifolium. The five fields were arranged in block designs, and in the Bardu fields Organic Matter (OM) were added (compost and wood chips) and in the Snåsa/Lierne fields mineral fertilizers (N-P in kg haa-1: 0-0, 3-2, 3-4, 6-4). Treatments were compared with natural development. In addition to fertilization and OM the Snåsa field had two more treatments, cutting of the plants to the ground in autumn 2008 and site (placed on two moraine ridges). From our research and investigations we can conclude that the soil O-layer is very important. The fields that performed best had thick O-layers. It could be suggested that layers close to 7 cm or thicker would be optimal. The C/N ratios indicate that N was not easily available in any field. This may explain why long shoot growth increased and more nodes were developed, when mineral fertilizer, and especially N, was added. However, number of short shoots per long shoot was not clearly influenced by fertilizer, except last year when the effect was positive- maybe a long term effect. This was not followed by higher yields throughout the years, rather the contrary, but it should be added that weather conditions the last two years were rainy; and the high yield in 2009 could have initiated alternate bearing, and more browsing because of more attractive shoots and leaves; factors that would reduce the yield in subsequent years. Adding OM had some positive influence on tiller growth in the Bardu birch-field (F1), but not in the pine-field (F2). However, annual shoot growth increased in the pine-field in the first of two years. Yields, however, were clearly reduced by adding OM in average of two years. The importance of a thick O-layer was confirmed in the examination of growth conditions on two moraine ridges. The ridge with lowest yield had less loss of ignition in the O- and B-layers, a shallower O-layer and lower levels of P, Mg and Ca in both O- and B- layers. Cutting of shoots to the ground was not beneficial and full yield potential was not recovered before the third year after cutting. Fruit quality was influenced by latitude, soil factors and fertilization treatments. However, variations between years were the most important single factor.

Sammendrag

An investigation of the wild European blueberry (E. blueberry; Vaccinium myrtillus L.) was financed for four years starting in 2008. One part of the project was to examine natural development of E.blueberry in five Norwegian fields, effect of fertilization and cutting of plants. Examinations were undertaken in two fields in Bardu municipality in Troms county and of three fields in Snåsa and Lierne municipalities in Nord-Trøndelag county. The basic idea was to examine the possibility of half cultivation on situ in the forest, a similar system as developed in north America with Vaccinium angustifolium. The five fields were arranged in block designs, and in the Bardu fields Organic Matter (OM) were added (compost and wood chips) and in the Snåsa/Lierne fields mineral fertilizers (N-P in kg haa-1: 0-0, 3-2, 3-4, 6-4). Treatments were compared with natural development. In addition to fertilization and OM the Snåsa field had two more treatments, cutting of the plants to the ground in autumn 2008 and site (placed on two moraine ridges). From our research and investigations we can conclude that the soil O-layer is very important. The fields that performed best had thick O-layers. It could be suggested that layers close to 7 cm or thicker would be optimal. The C/N ratios indicate that N was not easily available in any field. This may explain why long shoot growth increased and more nodes were developed, when mineral fertilizer, and especially N, was added. However, number of short shoots per long shoot was not clearly influenced by fertilizer, except last year when the effect was positive- maybe a long term effect. This was not followed by higher yields throughout the years, rather the contrary, but it should be added that weather conditions the last two years were rainy; and the high yield in 2009 could have initiated alternate bearing, and more browsing because of more attractive shoots and leaves; factors that would reduce the yield in subsequent years. Adding OM had some positive influence on tiller growth in the Bardu birch-field (F1), but not in the pine-field (F2). However, annual shoot growth increased in the pine-field in the first of two years. Yields, however, were clearly reduced by adding OM in average of two years. The importance of a thick O-layer was confirmed in the examination of growth conditions on two moraine ridges. The ridge with lowest yield had less loss of ignition in the O- and B-layers, a shallower O-layer and lower levels of P, Mg and Ca in both O- and B- layers. Cutting of shoots to the ground was not beneficial and full yield potential was not recovered before the third year after cutting. Fruit quality was influenced by latitude, soil factors and fertilization treatments. However, variations between years were the most important single factor.

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Sammendrag

After pollination outdoors individual bilberry plants from two Northern and two Southern clones were studied for climatic effects on berry yield and quality in a controlled phytotrone experiment at 12 °C and 18 °C. At each temperature the following light treatments were tested; 1) 12 h natural light; 2) 24 h natural light and 3) 24 h natural light plus red light. The first experimental year there was no difference in yield between temperatures, however, the second experimental year the berry yields was significantly higher at 18 °C. Berry ripening was faster in the Northern than in the Southern clones at 12 °C. Northern clones also showed significantly higher contents of total anthocyanins, all measured anthocyanin derivatives, total phenolics, malic acid and sucrose. Metabolic profiling revealed higher levels of flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids, quinic acid and carbohydrates at 12 °C.

Sammendrag

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), also called European blueberry, is native to Norway and strongly preferred by the Norwegian food industry due to its genuine flavour and high content of phytochemicals. However, Norwegian natural resources are underexploited, and only few investigation have focused on quality aspects of bilberries from wild populations with regard to potential cultivation and industrial utilization. Important goals of the 4-years study were to investigate (a) Berry quality parameters, (b) Fertilization effects, and (c) Geographic and seasonal variation in trial locations at regions in Southern, Mid and Northern Norway. Berry quality assessment included parameters such as total anthocyanins (ACY) and phenols (TPH), antioxidant capacity (AOX), pH, titratable acidity (TAC) and soluble solids (SS). Based on multivariate statistics (PCA), regional segregation patterns could be observed which were strongly overlapped by year-to-year variation. Within-seasonal variation of parameters were recorded for berries harvested at different time points throughout the season (Southern location/ Hedmark), but between-seasonal effects were generally stronger. Similar year-to-year effects were also found in bilberries from Northern Norway (Bardu), but not in berries harvested from the field in Mid Norway/Langvatnet. The field in Northern Norway was treated with organic fertilizer (compost and wood chippings), while the field in Mid Norway was fertilized with mineral fertilizer combinations (N+P). Application of organic fertilizer did not have any clear effect on berry quality, while mineral fertilizer resulted in clear segregation patterns of berry samples after three years of treatment, thus minimizing year-to year variation. Mean values of quality parameters ACY, TPH and AOX, measured at the different locations (all years and treatments) varied between 330-427 mg/100 g f.w., 531-640 mg/100 g f.w., and 5-8 mmol/100 g f.w., respectively, thus underscoring the phytochemical value of bilberries from Norwegian populations.

Sammendrag

Individual bilberry plants from two Northern and two Southern clones were studied for climatic effects on production and quality in a controlled phytotrone experiment at 12 °C and 18 °C in a 2-year trial. At each temperature the following light conditions were tested: 1) 12 h natural light (short day); 2) 24 h natural light (long day) and 3) 24 h natural light (long day) plus red light. In order to ensure sufficient and comparable fruit set between treatments, flower pollination was executed outdoors. Berry yield, quality parameters such as total anthocyanins, total phenols and antioxidant capacity, and chemical composition (GC/MS-based metabolite profiling) were recorded in both years, while HPLC-based anthocyanin analysis was only carried out in the second year. All analyzed compounds showed significant year-to-year variation with the exception of antioxidant activity. The experiment was conducted under natural light conditions, and therefore light intensity and quality varied between the two growing seasons. The first experimental year there was no difference in yield between temperatures, however, the second experimental year the berry yield was significantly higher at 18 °C. Temperature treatments led to faster berry ripening in the Northern than in the Southern clones at 12 °C. Metabolite profiling also revealed higher levels of flavanols, hydroxycinnamic acids, quinic acid and carbohydrates at 12 °C. Clonal effects showed that the content of all anthocyanin derivatives, as well as levels of antioxidants, total phenolics, malic acid and sucrose were highest in the Northern clones, while Southern clones had higher levels of hydroxycinamic acids, epicatechin, quinic acid and myo-inositol. Northern clones were also more responsive to additional red light with highest levels of anthocyanins under long-day treatment.

Sammendrag

The effects of climate on production and the quality of bilberries have been studied in a controlled phytotrone experiment using clonal material originating from Northern and Southern parts of Finland. In the experiment individual plants from two Northern clones and two Southern clones have been grown at 12° and 18°C. At each temperature 3 different light treatments have been tested; 1) 24 h natural light (long day), 2) 12 h natural light (short day) and 3) 24 h natural light with an addition of extra red light. All berries produced by each plant have been harvested at maturity and have been analyzed for several important quality parameters. The metabolic profiling results show that levels of flavonols (epicatechin and catechin), hydroxyl acids (chlorogenic acid, hydroxyl cinnamic acid), quinic acid and all analyzed carbohydrates (myo-inositol, fructose, glucose and sucrose) are highest at 12°C. On the contrary, total anthocyanins levels were highest at 18°C and this was also reflected in the results on analysis of several anthocyanins derivates with the exception of Del 3‑Ara that was significantly higher at 12°C than 18°C. Northern clones had significantly higher levels of total anthocyanins, all measured anthocyanin derivates, total phenols, malic acid and sucrose than Southern clones.

Sammendrag

 A high through-put Abbreviated liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometric (ACMS) method was used to assess the relative influence of genotype and temperature on polyphenol composition in cloudberries. Principal component analysis (PCA) plots of the collated ACMS data showed a separation between crosses based on their female parents (Nyby or Fjellgull). Crosses with Nyby as female parent had higher relative levels of masses assignable to certain ellagitannin derivatives. Crosses with Fjellgull had higher levels of distinctive masses assignable to quercetin derivatives (including a hydroxy-3-methylglutaroyl hexose derivative not previously identified in cloudberry) and  anthocyanin-derivatives. There was also a separation between samples grown at lower and higher temperatures, which was driven by m/z signals associated with ellagitannins and notably a major component, Sanguiin H-6. Therefore, abbreviated MS techniques can discern genetic and/or environmental influences in polyphenol composition and can quickly assess quality in breeding programmes or in response to environmental changes.

Sammendrag

I et fireårig prosjekt på ville blåbær finansiert av Norges forskningsråd og private deltakere, er det nå gjennomført undersøkelser i tre år. Det er anlagt forsøk i skogsfelt i Hedmark (61°N), Nord-Trøndelag (64°N) og I Bardu (68°N). I feltene er det plassert klimastasjoner og det er tatt ut jordprøver for å bestemme innhold av mineraler og tykkelse på jordskikt. Ved feltetablering ble det gjennomført en bestemmelse av botanisk sammensetning. Hensikten med forsøkene i skogsfeltene er å undersøke virkning av klima, jordtype, gjødsling og høstetidspunkt på vekst, avling og fruktkvalitet. I tillegg ble det anlagt to feltforsøk på dyrket mark på Bioforsk Kvithamar for  å undersøke virkning av gjødsling på etablering og  vekst av blåbærplanter og utvikling av mycorrhiza . I tillegg er det utført kontrollerte vekstforsøk i fytotron på Bioforsk Nord Holt, forsøk med oppformering på Bioforsk Øst Apelsvoll og ved "University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Science" i Wien. I 2009 startet prosjektet enundersøkelser på blomsterknopputvikling på Bioforsk Apelsvoll. Fra disse feltene og noen felt som kun er med for innsamling av bær, er det hvert år samlet inn prøver av bær for analyse av innholdsstoffer ved NTNU og til produktutvikling ved Tine AS og Skartnes gård (Snåsa). I tillegg til å være en del av en nasjonal undersøkelse, blir Bardufeltet brukt i lokal skolesammenheng av gårdeieren. Prosjektet har internasjonalt samarbeid med land i Norden og med Østerrike, Canada og Tsjekkia. Det er i tillegg knyttet to masterstudenter ved NTNU til prosjektet. Begge studiene er rettet mot genetisk variasjon i populasjoner av blåbær.Analyser over to år har vist at Innholdsstoffer i bærene har variert mellom regioner og år. I 2008 var for eksempel innholdet av antioksidanter høyere i regionene nord for enn sør for Dovre , men i 2009 var det ingen entydige forskjeller. Dette tyder på at region har betydning for utvikling av antioksidanter men at også variasjoner i klima spiller en avgjørende rolle.  Det ble også funnet forskjeller i innholdet av sukker mellom høstetidspunkter. Gjødsling av skogsfelt og felt på dyrket mark har gitt utslag på fruktavling og vekst. I forsøket der tuer av skogsblåbær fra en hogstflate med gran ble flyttet til dyrket mark ble både blåbærplanter og mycorrhiza  som fulgte med plantene, etablert. I fytotronforsøk viste det seg at nordlige kloner startet modningen tidligere og ga større avling ved lav temperatur (12C) og lang dag enn sørlige kloner, men det var også stor variasjon mellom kloner innen region.

Sammendrag

Bioprospektering er leting etter interessante og unike organismer, gener og biomolekyler i naturen som har et kommersielt potensial. De potensielle bruksområdene for organismer og/eller forbindelser fra naturen er uendelig. Dette kan være i legemidler som eg. antibiotika, virusmedisin, kreftmedisin, betennelsesdempende medisin, bedøvelsesmidler og i medisinsk diagnostikk. Ekstrakter eller rene forbindelser kan brukes som naturlige herbicider, næring for planter, tilsetninger i dyre- /fiskefôr og som jordforbedringsmiddel. Det er også et stort potensial for produkter med helsefremmende effekt, kosmetikk og ekstrakter og/eller forbindelser som kan brukes i ulike typer industriell produksjon.   På grunn av spesielt klima, god økonomi og en god kommunikasjon mellom FoU miljøer og næringsliv er potensialet for bioprospektering og teknologisk utnyttelse av naturskattene våre stor. I genbanker rundt omkring, både ved enhetene i Bioforsk, andre steder i Norge og i verden for øvrig er det lagret store mengder organismer (frø, kloner av planter, bakterier, sopp, etc..). Disse genbankene er et meget godt utgangspunkt for bioprospektering.

Sammendrag

"Verdens beste bær dyrkes i Nord-Norge" sies det. Det nordlige klimaet med lange dager og lave temperaturer gir søtere, mer fargesterke og smakfulle bær. Dette vet forbrukerne i nord å sette pris på, spesielt når det gjelder bær til friskkonsum. I dag er landsdelen langt fra selvforsynt med hagebær. Flere og større dyrkere av arter som jordbær, solbær, stikkelsbær, bringebær og rips må til for å kunne dekke en større andel av eget marked. I de tre nordligste fylkene bor det nesten en halv million mennesker, og de fleste av disse bor i byer og større tettsteder med gode forhold for salg av lokalproduserte bær. Hva må gjøres for at den patriotiske nordlendingen kan få kjøpe lokale bær?

Sammendrag

“Verdens beste bær dyrkes i Nord-Norge” sies det. Det nordlige klimaet med lange dager og lave temperaturer gir søtere, mer fargesterke og smakfulle bær. Dette vet forbrukerne i nord å sette pris på, spesielt når det gjelder bær til friskkonsum. I dag er landsdelen langt fra selvforsynt med hagebær. Flere og større dyrkere av arter som jordbær, solbær, stikkelsbær, bringebær og rips må til for å kunne dekke en større andel av eget marked. I de tre nordligste fylkene bor det nesten en halv million mennesker, og de fleste av disse bor i byer og større tettsteder med gode forhold for salg av lokalproduserte bær. Hva må gjøres for at den patriotiske nordlendingen kan få kjøpe lokale bær?

Sammendrag

The consensus predictions for climate change in the north and west regions of Europe suggest a slow increase in basal temperature and an increase of weather extremes, consequently exacerbating abiotic stresses. These will undoubtedly impact on the traditional (organoleptic) and emergent (health beneficial) traits in soft fruit. In an attempt to model these changes we have used cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) as a model species to study the relative contributions that environment and genetics make to the content and diversity of increasing important health beneficial components, polyphenols.

Sammendrag

Den senere tids fokus på lokal mat, bærekraftig matproduksjon og helse har økt interessen og bruken av bær. Smaksmessig er den nordnorske bæra i verdenstoppen, og nordnorske forbrukere er opptatt av hvor bæra kommer fra. Dette gjelder spesielt bær til friskkonsum. I dag er Nord-Norge langt fra selvforsynt med hagebær. For å kunne dekke en større andel av eget marked trenger vi langt flere og større dyrkere av arter som jordbær, solbær, stikkelsbær, bringebær og rips. Eksport av nordnorske bær bør også være et langsiktig mål. Klimatiske forhold i nord stiller krav til kunnskaper og gir utfordringer, men også muligheter. Sykdomspresset er lite på grunn av lavere temperaturer og dette klimaet gir også søte bær med høyt innhold av ulike antioksidanter. For å kunne oppnå en lønnsom produksjon i framtida trengs klimatilpasset plantemateriale og klimaforbedrende tiltak på dyrkningssiden. Erfaringer fra ellers i landet viser at framtida ligger i tunneldrift. Dyrking i tunneler gir le og bedre klima for blomsterdannelse, blomstring og modning. Vi håper på å få i gang et nordnorsk satsningsprosjekt på hagebær i Nord-Norge. Dette prosjektet skal være forankret i næringa med dyrkere som deltagere. Fra gammelt av har det vært vanlig med rips i hagene i Nord-Norge, og man kan påstå at rips er den mest nordnorske av alle hagebær. Bioforsk Nord Holt har en samling av nordlig sortsmateriale (fra Norge, Finland og Russland) av både rips og solbær, og noen av disse er lovende for kommersialisering. Sortsmateriale vil bli oppformert og testet ute i felt hos dyrkere, i plasthus og under kontrollerte forhold i forsøksveksthus. Sortene vil bli evaluert i forhold til dannelse av blomsteranlegg, blomstring, god pollinering, produksjon, smak og egnethet for ferskvare og/eller prosessering. Prosjektet tar også sikte på å lage et strategidokument for bærproduksjonen i Nord-Norge. Arbeidsgruppa skal bestå av aktører fra FoU, rådgivningstjeneste, forvaltning, produsenter, industri og omsetningsledd. Strategien skal omfatte både kunnskapsbehov, økonomi og markedsmål.

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Rotstokkråte i jordbær ble første gang rapportert i Norge i 1992 og siden er den blitt funnet på mer enn 100 steder over hele landet. Sykdommen forårsakes av Phytophthora cactorum og karakteriseres ved at unge blader visner raskt og hele planten visner i løpet av noen dager. I løpet av en sesong kan opptil 40 % av plantene dø. P. cactorum smitter plantene gjennom rothårene ved hjelp av svermesporer (zoosporer). Sykdommen starter oftest i fuktige områder av et felt siden sporene trenger vann for å bevege seg. Når en først har fått smitten i jorda er det vanskelig å bli kvitt den siden P. cactorum danner hvilesporer som kan overleve i flere år. Ulike jordbærsorter har ulik grad av mottakelighet for sykdommen. De mest brukte kommersielle sortene er dessverre mottakelige for sykdommen. Resistensegenskaper kan styres av ett eller flere gener og man kan derfor foredle fram resistente sorter. Tradisjonell foredling er tidkrevende og overføringa av resistens til en mottakelig sort vil kreve gjentatte tilbakekrysninger slik at man ikke mister alle de positive egenskapene til denne sorten. Ved å utvikle genetiske kart med markører for resistens kan man teste planter raskere og slik komme raskere fram til en resistent sort. Kunnskap om hvor mange resistensgener som er involvert i kampen mot skadegjøreren, når disse blir slått på og hvilke proteiner disse lager er også viktig. Når en skadegjører angriper en plante lager den bl.a. proteiner som bryter ned plantecelleveggen og svekker plantens immunforsvar. Planten på sin side lager resistensproteiner som gjenkjenner proteinene laget av skadegjøreren. Denne gjenkjennelsen setter i gang en forsvarsrespons hos planten. Resistensproteinene kodes for av resistensgener (R-gener). De fleste kjente R-genene inneholder en kort bestemt nukleotidsekvens. Dette fellestrekket gjør jakten på resistensgener enklere. I jakten på resistensgener i jordbær har vi valgt å arbeide med markjordbær (Fragaria vesca) istedenfor kommersielle jordbær (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). Markjordbær er diploid og egner seg derfor godt for molekylærbiologiske studier. For å isolere R-gener og studere hvordan de ble uttrykt ble en mottakelig kultivar og en resistent kultivar smittet med zoosporer. Vevsprøver ble høstet i en tidsserie fra tid 0 (kontroll før smitting) til maksimum 8 dager etter smitting. Resultatet så langt viser at vi har isolert fragmenter fra mange ulike resistensgener og at disse blir uttrykt gjennom hele tidsrommet fra smitting til 8 dager etterpå.

Sammendrag

Blueberries belong to the genus Vaccinium, a widespread genus with more than 200 species of woody plants. In Northern Europe, the European blueberry (EB), also called bilberry, is one of the most important wild berries. EB (Vaccinium myrtillus) is very demanded by the processing industry, due to its delicious taste and high dietary value. However, to our knowledge there has been made no efforts of domestication of the species, and it is still harvested in forest fields without any cultivation. The successful management of the sweet lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium), which in many ways is similar to the EB, suggests that there are opportunities to increase yield and decrease the significant yearly variation in EB yield, by practices including fertilization, irrigation, cutting trees, and weed control. The fruit yield in wild stands of EB is very variable, but the potential is probably close to 2 tons per hectare. Results from literature on growth of the EB, development and ecology are discussed in relation to possibilities for domestication.

Sammendrag

Blueberries belong to the genus Vaccinium, a widespread genus with more than 200 species of woody plants. In Northern Europe, the European blueberry (EB), also called bilberry, is one of the most important wild berries. EB (Vaccinium myrtillus) is very demanded by the processing industry, due to its delicious taste and high dietary value. However, to our knowledge there has been made no efforts of domestication of the species, and it is still harvested in forest fields without any cultivation. The successful management of the sweet lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium), which in many ways is similar to the EB, suggests that there are opportunities to increase yield and decrease the significant yearly variation in EB yield, by practices including fertilization, irrigation, cutting trees, and weed control. The fruit yield in wild stands of EB is very variable, but the potential is probably close to 2 tons per hectare. Results from literature on growth of the EB, development and ecology are discussed in relation to possibilities for domestication.

Sammendrag

Blueberries belong to the genus Vaccinium, a widespread genus with more than 200 species of woody plants. In Northern Europe, the European blueberry (EB), also called bilberry, is one of the most important wild berries. EB (Vaccinium myrtillus) is very demanded by the processing industry, due to its delicious taste and high dietary value. However, to our knowledge there has been made no efforts of domestication of the species, and it is still harvested in forest fields without any cultivation. The successful management of the sweet lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium), which in many ways is similar to the EB, suggests that there are opportunities to increase yield and decrease the significant yearly variation in EB yield, by practices including fertilization, irrigation, cutting trees, and weed control. The fruit yield in wild stands of EB is very variable, but the potential is probably close to 2 tons per hectare. Results from literature on growth of the EB, development and ecology are discussed in relation to possibilities for domestication.

Sammendrag

The fruit quality of European blueberry (EB) is mainly determined by taste compounds (sugars, acids, flavour) and health-beneficial structures generally denoted as antioxidants (vitamin C, phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins). Content and compound composition is strongly affected by the growth environment regarding light, temperature, water and edaphic factors. In order to assess genotypic relationships (northern and southern clones of EB) and environmental impact (temperature, day length) on berry quality parameters, a high-throughput system for blueberry metabolite profiling of nutritional compounds was established based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Dried methanol/H2O extracts from fresh-frozen berry tissue were derivatized, and subjected to GC/MS in order to detect polar compounds such as organic acids from Krebs-cycle, amino acids, sugars, polyols, and partly secondary metabolites (phenols, flavonoids). In addition, general quality parameters such as total phenols, total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) were measured. Fructose (5 g), glucose (5 g), and sucrose (0.5 g/ 100 g f.w. at average) were the most abundant carbohydrates, together with high levels of organic acids such as citric acid (1.3 g), quinic acid (1.6 g), and malic acid (0.3 g/ 100 g f.w. at average). More than 50 metabolites per sample (identified compounds and not-annotated mass spectral tags) could be detected, and established the basis for multivariate statistics using principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, and metabolite network analysis. Genotypic differences, modulation of metabolite pools and biosynthetic relationships are being discussed in-depth

Sammendrag

The fruit quality of European blueberry (EB) is mainly determined by taste compounds (sugars, acids, flavour) and health-beneficial structures generally denoted as antioxidants (vitamin C, phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins). Content and compound composition is strongly affected by the growth environment regarding light, temperature, water and edaphic factors. In order to assess genotypic relationships (northern and southern clones of EB) and environmental impact (temperature, day length) on berry quality parameters, a high-throughput system for blueberry metabolite profiling of nutritional compounds was established based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Dried methanol/H2O extracts from fresh-frozen berry tissue were derivatized, and subjected to GC/MS in order to detect polar compounds such as organic acids from Krebs-cycle, amino acids, sugars, polyols, and partly secondary metabolites (phenols, flavonoids). In addition, general quality parameters such as total phenols, total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) were measured. Fructose (5 g), glucose (5 g), and sucrose (0.5 g/ 100 g f.w. at average) were the most abundant carbohydrates, together with high levels of organic acids such as citric acid (1.3 g), quinic acid (1.6 g), and malic acid (0.3 g/ 100 g f.w. at average). More than 50 metabolites per sample (identified compounds and not-annotated mass spectral tags) could be detected, and established the basis for multivariate statistics using principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, and metabolite network analysis. Genotypic differences, modulation of metabolite pools and biosynthetic relationships are being discussed in-depth.

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Bioprospecting covers commercial purpose research and development, building on use of natural occurring compounds, all the way from first discovery, over patenting, benchmarking, improvement, development and commercialization.

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Two female and two male cultivars have previously been released as a result of clone evaluation at Bioforsk Nord Holt. Selection criteria have been number of pistils or stamens per flower, number of flowers and number of shoots per m2. Currently a new group of clones are evaluated with the aim of finding new cultivars for release. The clones are collected from different parts of Norway, as well as from England and Spitsbergen. Preliminary results from harvesting 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 indicate good production potential for a couple of the tested clones. In addition to prior selection criteria based on berry yield, the levels of total anthocyanins and total phenols have been analyzed. This includes studies on the role of female clone, male pollinator and temperature on berry quality.

Sammendrag

Two female and two male cultivars have previously been released as a result of clone evaluation at Bioforsk Nord Holt. Selection criteria have been number of pistils or stamens per flower, number of flowers and number of shoots per m2. Currently a new group of clones are evaluated with the aim of finding new cultivars for release. The clones are collected from different parts of Norway, as well as from England and Spitsbergen. Preliminary results from harvesting 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 indicate good production potential for a couple of the tested clones. In addition to prior selection criteria based on berry yield, the levels of total anthocyanins and total phenols have been analyzed. This includes studies on the role of female clone, male pollinator and temperature on berry quality.

Sammendrag

Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) is a dioecious perennial plant of the Rosaceae family with a circumpolar distribution. cloudberry fruit consist of up to about 30 drupes, each with a single seed, covered by a hard endocarp. The ripe berry is orange or yellow, soft and high in vitamin C. both the ratio of female plants, number of pollinating insects and fruit development is much influenced by climatic factors causing large variation in annual yields. cloudberry is mainly collected from natural stands, but there is an increased interest in cultivation and commercial cultivation tecchniques. Cultivation and plant breeing on cloudberry have been carried out for several years at Bioforsk nord, and has resulted in the release of four commercial varieties, including two male (Apollen and Apollto) and two female (Fjellgull and Fjordgull) varieties. These varieties have been selected for increased productivity by using profuse flowering, berry size and shooting capacity as criterions. In addition, the female varieties have been selected for the number of pistils per flower and the male varieties by the number of stamens per flower. Currently a new group of clones are evaluated with the aim of finding new cultivars for release. The clones are collected from different parts of Norway, as well as from England and Spitsbergen. Preliminary results from harvesting 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 indicate good production potential for some of the tested clones. There are two main aproaches for cloudberry cultivation; exploitation of natural cloudberry stands and the second is based on planting of improved plant material. Both approaches require fertilization and soil cultivation. Methods for propagation of material have been developed as well as a guide for greenhouse production of cloudberries. Recently attempts to cultivate natural stands of European blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) have been initiated. The fields are both on forest soil and on cultivated soil and are situated in North- Mid- and South-Norway.

Sammendrag

In this study we investigated the interaction between temperature and genotype on fruit development and levels of total phenols and anthocyanins in cloudberry. The experiment was done in a phytotron using one female (‘Fjellgull") and one hermaphroditic (‘Nyby") cultivar. Plants were grown at 9, 12, 15 and 18°C in 24-h photoperiod. The female cultivars were pollinated with pollen from a male (‘Apollen") clone and from the hermaphrodite clone. Parthenocarpic fruit development was induced by gibberellic acid (GA3). Ripe berries were frozen individually at -80°C and stored until analyses. There was a linear, double logarithmic relationship between temperature and number of days from pollination/GA3-treatment to ripening. ‘Fjellgull" had significantly larger berries than ‘Nyby", and the largest berries were obtained at 12 and 9°C. Pollen clone did not have a significant effect on berry size. GA3 induced parthenogenesis in ‘Fjellgull" and partial parthenogenesis in ‘Nyby". In ‘Fjellgull", the parthenocarpic berries were comparable to pollinated ones at low temperatures, but at 18°C their development was restricted. The level of total anthocyanins was significantly higher in ‘Fjellgull" than in ‘Nyby", and these levels were significantly enhanced at 9 and 12°C compared to higher temperatures. Levels of total phenolic compounds were not significantly affected. In conclusion, the present results indicate that low temperature is favourable both for size and quality of cloudberries.

Sammendrag

Examination of European blueberry (EB) populations from different latitudes in Norway revealed differences in growth, fruit yield and fruit quality. Two northern and two southern clones of EB (from between 61-69 degrees N) were grown at 12 degrees C and 18 degrees under shourt (12 h) and long (24 h) days. The northern clones were able to grow rapidly at reasonable low temperatures when given 24 hour light, while the southern clones seemed to be adapted to shorter days and were not able to use the 24 h light efficiently. In the field EB tended to grow longer shoots in 2009 at intermediate fertilization in half-cultivated forest fields fertilized in 2008 and 2009, while shoot number was not influenced by fertilization. Berry size and fruit yield in forest fields was not influenced by fertilization neither in 2008 nor in 2009. However, there were differences in yield between locations in both years and between soil conditions in 2008. Fertilized seedlings sawn in March 2008 and planted on farm land in July the same year, grew larger plants in 2009 compared with no fertilization, but developed no flowers. Content of sugar, anthocyanins, total phenols, and antioxidants was higher in Mid- and North- Norway compared to samples from the south, in 2008. Fruit quality parameters changed from early to late harvest in the ripening period (only samples from South Norway). Sugar content was highest at the early maturation stage, while anthocyanin levels were highest in the mid-harvest period and then declined. Antioxidant levels increased at later harvest dates, and data was clearly correlated with total phenol content but not with anthocyanins. Berries produced at 12 degrees had significantly higher % sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose), phenolic acids and total phenols than berries produced at 18 degrees.

Sammendrag

Two female and two male cultivars have previously been released as a result of clone evaluation at Bioforsk Nord Holt. Selection criteria have been number of pistils or stamens per flower, number of flowers and number of shoots per m2. Currently a new group of clones are evaluated with the aim of finding new cultivars for release. The clones are collected from different parts of Norway, as well as from England and Spitsbergen. Preliminary results from harvesting 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 indicate good production potential for some of the tested clones. In addition to prior selection criteria based on berry yield, the levels of total anthocyanins and total phenols have been analyzed. This includes studies on the role of female clone, male pollinator and temperature on berry quality.

Sammendrag

Phytophthora cactorum causes crown rot in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.), which is characterized by wilting and eventually collapse of the plant. An efficient control measure is the use of resistant cultivars, however most commercial cultivars are susceptible to the disease. The aim of our work is to generate basic knowledge about P. cactorum resistance as well as to develop genetic markers that can be used as tools for development of resistant cultivars. The genetic complexity of the octoploid cultivated strawberry, has led to development of the diploid wild strawberry (F. vesca) as a model system for Fragaria. We have identified suitable parents after screening accessions of diploid Fragaria sp. for resistance [1], and generated a mapping population which we are currently characterizing. In order to study the plant-pathogen interaction in detail we have identified and characterized resistance genes from diploid strawberry and effector genes from P. cactorum using different transcriptional analysis techniques; nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-profiling for resistance genes, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) as well as a designed effector-specific differential display (ESDD) for genes involved in pathogenicity.   This work is supported by The Research Council of Norway.   [1] Eikemo H, Brurberg MB, Davik J (2010). Resistance to Phytophthora cactorum in diploid Fragaria species. HortScience. 45:193-197.  

Sammendrag

Wild berries are a charcteristic part of the Northern nature and a potential speciality of Nordic countries. Wild berries are also a valuable resource that has not yet been exploited in a satisfactory level. Approximately 90-95 per cent of the wild berry crop yield is left unpicked in the Nordic forests every year. The challenges of the wild berry utilization are similar in the Nordic countries - the logistics of berry picking including traceability, fragmented sector structure as well as the high share of unprocessed raw material in export. The Nordic project focusing on biberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) "Bilberry: Towards functional food markets" (2007-2009) is part of the New Nordic Food programme funded by the Nordic Innovation Centre. The aim of the project was to promote Nordic cooperation between representatives from universities, research institutes and industry in order to improve wild berry production and utilisation on the Nordic and global market. To achieve this goal a network between the Nordic experts of the different fields of the wild berry sector has been established. The project has focused on marketing research, quality issues, biodiversity and traceability of wild berries, especially bilberry. The results of the marketing survey were first published in the Nordic Wild Berry seminar in November 2008. The aim of the survey was to generate an overall picture of the companies working with wild berries in Nordic countries and gather information on the existence and willingness of the berry companies to cooperate for instance in wild berry supply, logistics, marketing or research and development. According to the results, a general agreement for the need of increased cooperation at the Nordic level was highlighted.

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In a four year project (2008-2011) the potential will be examined for commercial production of the European blueberry (V. myrtillus ) inNorway, with most effort investigating semi-cultivation practices on forestland. However, adaption to growth on agricultural land will alsobe in focus as well as selecting superior clones adapted to Norwegian regions, and development of effective propagation methods. Also, it isgiven priority to find how the European blueberry (EB) react to climatic parameters, which will be examined under controlled experimentsand paralleled by meteorological data from forest fields.

Sammendrag

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), also called European blueberry, is one of the most significant wild berries in the Nordic countries. The berries are recognized for their bioactive properties and distinctive aroma and flavor. The effects of climate on production and the quality of bilberries have been studied in a controlled experiment in a phytotrone using clonal material. In the experiment individual plants from two Northern clones and two Southern clones of bilberry have been grown at 12◦ and 18◦ C. At each temperature 3 different light treatments have been tested; 1) 24 hour (h) natural light (long day); 2) 24 h natural light with addition of red light and 3) 12 h light (short day). All plants were kept outside during flowering to ensure pollination by insects. Berries were sampled when ripe, weighed and stored at -80◦C for later analysis of carbohydrates, acids, phenols, anthocyanins and ascorbic acid. At 12◦C the two Northern clones produced the first ripe berries 5 weeks after pollination, while the two Southern clones needed an extra two weeks to ripening. This difference was most evident at the 24 hour day length treatment. At 18◦C both the Northern and Southern clones had ripe berries from 5 weeks after pollination. The results also indicate that the Northern clones produce better at long days, with and without addition of red light, compared to the Southern clones. The levels of fructose, glucose and sucrose are higher in berries developed at 12 than 18◦ C (means of all treatments and all clones). Also the level of citric acid, quinic acid, myo-inositol, gallic acid, cathecin, epigallocatechin, catechin derivates and quercetin are higher at the lowest temperature.

Sammendrag

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), also called European blueberry, is one of the most significant wild berries in the Nordic countries. The berries are recognized for their bioactive properties and distinctive aroma and flavour. The effects of climate on production and the quality of bilberries have been studied in a controlled experiment in a phytotrone using clonal material. In the experiment individual plants from two Northern clones and two Southern clones of bilberry have been grown at 12° and 18°C. At each temperature 2 different light treatments have been tested; 1) 24 hour (h) natural light (long day) and 2) 12 h natural light (short day). All plants were kept outside during flowering to ensure pollination by insects. Berries were sampled when ripe, weighed and stored at -80°C for later analysis

Sammendrag

The effect of climate on production and the quality of bilberries have been studied in a controlled experiment using clonal material. In the experiment individual plants from two northern clones and two southern clones of bilberry have been grown on 12◦ and 18◦ C. At each temperature 3 different light treatments have been tested; 1) 24 hour (h) natural light (long day); 2) 24 h natural light with addition of red light and 3) 12 h light (short day). All plants were kept outside during flowering to ensure pollination by insects. Berries were sampled when ripe, weighed and stored at -80◦C for later analysis of pH, sugars, acids, total phenols, total anthocyanins and total antioxidant activity.

Sammendrag

Two female and two male cultivars have previously been released as a result of clone evaluation at Bioforsk Nord Holt. The selection criteria were the number of pistils or stamens per flower, the number of flowers and the number of shoots per m2. Currently a new group of clones are being evaluated with the aim of finding new cultivars for release. The preliminary results on flowering and berry production show a strong variance in these traits. Over three years of registration, the number of produced flowers varied from under 100 for the weakest clone to more than 1000 for the best clone. The number of produced berries varied from 9 for the weakest clone to 242 for the best clone. The three clones that produced the most flowers all had very low berry production and deviated from the rest of the clones by having high numbers of flowers per harvested berry. New selection criteria will be considered before selection of new cultivars for release. In addition to the production traits, new selection criteria will most likely include berry contents, such as the levels of antioxidants.

Sammendrag

At present the development of a modern life-stile in the Barents region has become not only a medical, but a social and economic problem as well. To prevent organism from unfavorable factors of the North and life-stile diseases much attention is paid now to the application of adaptogenic plants. "Herbs in the Barents region - a natural resource that improves health and creates business" is a title of the joint project of Norwegian, Finnish and Russian scientists on the adaptogenic plants. The project main goal is to create job opportunities in the Barents region based on the natural resources of adaptogenic herbs. This shall be done by the development of cultivation techniques for the adaptogenic pants Rhodiola rosea, Rhaponticum carthamolides and Serratula coronata. The industry will develop new herb products that will improve health conditions in the region. In order to promote adaptogenic products made from local plant raw material we have investigated the effect of the climate and geographical location on the level of active substances. Gene banks of plant species studied are established in all countries-participants. Experiments conducted in phytotrone showed that all three plant species like long days (northern conditions) and the levels of adaptogen"s substances are highest at the low and intermediate temperatures. Cultivation techniques are developed. To ensure the best quality of the raw material the methods of harvesting, drying and storing of plants are optimized.  New methods for extraction from fresh raw material of R. rosea are developed. Fields at growers are established. The project was financing by Interreg IIIA, Norwegian Barents Secretary and agricultural offices of the counties Troms and Finnmark.

Sammendrag

Plant polyphenolics continue to be the focus of attention with regard to their putative impact on human health. An increasing and ageing human population means that the focus on nutrition and nutritional enhancement or optimization of our foodstuffs is paramount. Using raspberry as a model we have shown how modern metabolic profiling approaches can be used to identify the changes in the level of beneficial polyphenolics in fruit breeding segregating populations and how the level of these components are determined by genetic and/or environmental control. Interestingly the Vitamin C content appeared to be significantly influenced by environment (growth conditions) whilst the content of the polyphenols such as cyanidin, pelargonidin and quercetin glycosides appeared to much more tightly regulated suggesting a rigorous genetic control. Preliminary metabolic profiling showed that the fruit polyphenolic profiles divided into two gross groups segregating on the basis of relative levels of cyaniding-3-sophoroside and cyaniding-3-rutinoside, compounds implicated as conferring human health benefits.

Sammendrag

Wild berries are characteristic part of the Northern nature and a potential speciality of Nordic countries. Wild berries are also a rich and valuable resource that has not yet been exploited in a satisfactory level. Approximately 90-95 per cent of the whole wild berry crop yield is left unpicked in the Nordic forests every year. The challenges of the wild berry utilization are similar in Nordic countries - the logistics of berry picking including traceability, fragmented sector structure as well as the high share of unprocessed raw material in export. The Nordic project focusing on bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) "Bilberry: Towards functional food markets" (2007-2009) is a part of the New Nordic Food programme funded by the Nordic Innovation Centre. The programme aims to enhance cooperation and innovation among companies that utilize the natural resources in the Nordic countries. The aim of the project is to improve wild berry production and utilization in the Nordic and global market. To achieve this goal a network between the Nordic experts presenting the different fields of the wild berry sector has been established. The project has focused on marketing research, quality issues, biodiversity and traceability of wild berries, especially bilberry. The results of the marketing survey were published in November 2008. The aim of the survey was to generate an overall picture of the companies working with wild berries in Nordic countries and gather information on the existence and willingness of the berry companies to cooperate for instance in wild berry supply, logistics, marketing or research and development. According to the results, a general agreement for the need of increased cooperation at the Nordic level was highlighted

Sammendrag

Wild berries are a characteristic part of Northern nature and a particular speciality of Nordic countries. Wild berries are also a rich and valuable resource that has not yet been exploited in a satisfactory level. Approximately 90 – 95 % of the whole wild berry crop yield is left unpicked in the Nordic forests every year. The challenges of wild berry utilization are similar in Nordic countries - the logistics of berry picking including traceability, fragmented sector structure as well as the high share of unprocessed raw material in export. The Nordic project focusing on bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) “Bilberry: Towards functional food markets” (2007 – 2009) is a part of the New Nordic Food programme funded by the Nordic Innovation Centre. The programme aims to enhance cooperation and innovation among companies that utilize the natural resources of the Nordic countries. The aim of the project is to improve wild berry production and utilization in the Nordic and global market. To achieve this goal a network between the Nordic experts presenting the different fields of the wild berry sector has been established. The project has focused on marketing research, quality issues, biodiversity and the traceability of wild berries; especially the bilberry. The results of the marketing survey were published in November 2008. The aim of the survey was to generate an overall picture of the companies working with wild berries in Nordic countries and to gather information on the existence and willingness of the berry companies to cooperate in wild berry supply, logistics, marketing and research and development. According to the results, a general agreement for the need of increased cooperation at the Nordic level was highlighted.

Sammendrag

Cloudberries (Rubus chamaemorus L.) contain several phenolic compounds, but ellagitannins and ellagic acid derivatives dominate and are primarily responsible for the antioxidative effects of cloudberry. Generally, antioxidative activities and chemical composition of berries are affected both by the genotype and the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of temperature and the genotypes used in the crossings on fruit quality. Since different genotypes might respond differently to different temperatures, possible interactions between genotype and temperature were also investigated. Plants were grown under controlled temperature treatments (9, 12, 15, 18°C; variation ±0.5C) in 24-h photoperiod. Ripe berries were harvested daily, frozen individually at -100°C and stored at this temperature until chemical analyses. There was a significant effect of female parent on both total phenols and total anthocyanins in the berries. Temperature affected the level of total anthocyanins, while there was no significant effect on the level of total phenols. High through-put MS-based analyses suggested subtle differences in phenolic composition in response to temperature and genotype. The results indicate that there is a need for breeding material with a special adaptation to different climatic conditions.

Sammendrag

Two female and two male cultivars have previously been released as a result of clone evaluation at Bioforsk Nord Holt. Selection criteria have been number of pistils or stamens per flower, number of flowers and number of shoots per m2. Currently a new group of clones are evaluated with the aim of finding new cultivars for release. Preliminary results on flowering and berry production show strong variance in these traits. Over three years of registration, number of produced flowers varied from under 100 for the weakest clone to more than 1000 for the best clone. Number of produced berries varied from 9 for the weakest clone to 242 for the best clone. The three clones that produced most flowers all had very low berry production and deviated from the rest of the clones by having high numbers of flowers per harvested berry. New selection criteria will be considered before selection of new cultivars for release.

Sammendrag

Wild berries are characteristic part of the Northern nature and a potential speciality of Nordic countries. Wild berries are also a rich and valuable resource that has not yet been exploited in a satisfactory level. Approximately 90-95 per cent of the whole wild berry crop yield is left unpicked in the Nordic forests every year. The challenges of the wild berry utilization are similar in Nordic countries - the logistics of berry picking including traceability, fragmented sector structure as well as the high share of unprocessed raw material in export. The Nordic project focusing on bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) "Bilberry: Towards functional food markets" (2007-2009) is a part of the New Nordic Food programme funded by the Nordic Innovation Centre. The programme aims to enhance cooperation and innovation among companies that utilize the natural resources in the Nordic countries. The aim of the project is to improve wild berry production and utilization in the Nordic and global market. To achieve this goal a network between the Nordic experts presenting the different fields of the wild berry sector has been established. The project has focused on marketing research, quality issues, biodiversity and traceability of wild berries, especially bilberry. The results of the marketing survey were published in November 2008. The aim of the survey was to generate an overall picture of the companies working with wild berries in Nordic countries and gather information on the existence and willingness of the berry companies to cooperate for instance in wild berry supply, logistics, marketing or research and development

Sammendrag

Bær er fargesterke, de er vakre og de smaker godt. I tillegg inneholder bær en rekke forbindelser som har dokumenterte positive effekter på helsen vår. Planter inneholder tusenvis av kjemiske forbindelser. Noen av disse forbindelsene er bare til nytte for planten selv, men mange er også til nytte for oss mennesker. Molte ble for eksempel tidligere brukt som middel mot skjørbruk, lenge før en visste betydningen av C-vitamin. Bær inneholder karbohydrater, syrer, mineraler, aromastoffer og mange ulike forbindelser som vi kaller antioksidanter. Antioksidantene hindrer ødeleggelse av celler og arvestoff i kroppen vår. Det er mange typer antioksidanter i bær; vitamin C, karotenoider, xanthophyll og polyfenoler. Karotenoider og xanthophyll er orange og gule fargestoffer. Polyfenoler er igjen en stor gruppe forbindelser som anthocyaniner (røde fargestoffer), ellagitanniner og ellagin syre. Denne komplekse miksen av ulike antioksidanter gir bærene vakre farger, og for oss som spiser dem en rekke positive effekter på helsen.

Sammendrag

As part of a project on cultivation and industrial exploitation of European Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus ) started in 2008, berries from different wild populations from South, Mid and North Norway were investigated. One aspect of fruit quality analyses was to identify and describe blueberry aroma profiles. Volatiles were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) (Rohloff, 2004). More than 100 compounds could be identified based on MS database search and retention indices, also comprising aroma impact compounds not being described in blueberries earlier (Sydow & Anjou, 1969). Detected aliphatic and aromatic structures belonged to chemical groups such as alkanes, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones and mono- and sesquiterpenes. Ten major compounds (mostly C4-, C6- and C9-structures) accounted for averagely 65-75 % relative amount of all detected peaks. However, HS-SPME analyses revealed complex volatile profiles including terpenes (>20 compounds, e.g. p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, linalool) and aromatic structures (>10 compounds, e.g. benzaldehyde, ethyl benzoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, benzyl benzoate), which contribute to the characteristic and flavourful blueberry aroma.

Sammendrag

As part of a project on cultivation and industrial exploitation of European Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus ) started in 2008, berries from different wild populations from South, Mid and North Norway were investigated. One aspect of fruit quality analyses was to identify and describe blueberry aroma profiles. Volatiles were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) (Rohloff, 2004). More than 100 compounds could be identified based on MS database search and retention indices, also comprising aroma impact compounds not being described in blueberries earlier (Sydow & Anjou, 1969). Detected aliphatic and aromatic structures belonged to chemical groups such as alkanes, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones and mono- and sesquiterpenes. Ten major compounds (mostly C4-, C6- and C9-structures) accounted for averagely 65-75 % relative amount of all detected peaks. However, HS-SPME analyses revealed complex volatile profiles including terpenes (>20 compounds, e.g. p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, linalool) and aromatic structures (>10 compounds, e.g. benzaldehyde, ethyl benzoate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, benzyl benzoate), which contribute to the characteristic and flavourful blueberry aroma.

Sammendrag

Rotstokkråte i jordbær og rød rotråte i bringebær kan gi store avlingstap. En effektiv måte å kontrollere sykdommene på er bruk av resistente sorter. Sortsforedling er både tids- og arbeidskrevende, men ved bruk av bioteknologiske verktøy kan prosessen rasjonaliseres. Bioteknologiske verktøy er også meget godt egnet for å få detaljert kunnskap om samspillet mellom en plante og en skadegjører, hvilket på sikt kan gi nye metoder for bekjempelse.

Sammendrag

Clonal plants of Leuzea charthamoides and Rhodiola rosea, and plants from a seed population of Serratula coronata, were grown in a phytotrone under controlled conditions at 9"C, 15"C, 21"C day/9"C night and 21"C. All these treatments had 24 hours of light (long day). In addition there was one treatment at 21"C with only 12 hours light (short day). Each treatment had 28, 36 and 40 individuals of Rhodiola, Leuzea and Serratula respectively. Plants were harvested after 4 months and plant height and number of leaves were recorded. Leaves of Serratula and roots of Leuzea and Rhodiola were dried and analyzed for adaptogenic compounds. Number of shoots and dry weight of roots of Rhodiola increased from 9"C to 15"C. Differentiated day and night temperature with a temperature sum of 15"C further increased the growth. The highest temperature, 21"C, produced the lowest number of shoots and the lowest dry weight of roots. The results indicate that the concentration of most of the analyzed adaptogenic compounds was not effected by temperature, while the levels of total rosavins were highest at 9"C. The temperature effect of plant height and dry weight of roots of Leuzea was comparable to the results of Rhodiola, but with a slightly better growth at 21"C. On the contrary, Serratula seems to prefer warmer temperatures and produced most leaves at 21"C. At 21"C, all three species preferred long days (24 h light) compared to short days (12 h light). The results of this experiment indicate that it might be an advantage to grow Rhodiola and Leuzea at low average temperatures, while Serratula should be grown at slightly warmer places, however, it must be remembered that the experiment is limited to certain clones of each species.

Sammendrag

Clonal plants of Leuzea charthamoides and Rhodiola rosea and plants from one seedpopulation of Serratula coronata were grown at 5 different temperature treatments in a phytotrone. The treatments were 9, 15, 21 day/9 night and 21 degrees. All these treatments had 24 hours of light. In addition there was one treatment at 21 degrees with only 12 hours day. At 21 degrees the growth was reduced by short days for all species. Rhodiola grow best at low temperatures (9 degrees) and results indicate that it prefers differentiated day/night temperatures. On the contrary Serratula grows best at 21 degrees, and had a very slow growth at 9 degrees. The analysis of the level of adaptogens is not available yet.

Sammendrag

Effects of temperature on the development and chemical composition of two cloudberries (Rubus chamaemorus L.) cultivars ("Fjellgull", "Nyby") were studied in a phytotron experiment. "Fjellgull" is a female cultivar while "Nyby" is bisexual (hermaphrodite). Pollen from a male cultivar "Apollen" or from "Nyby" was used to pollinate "Fjellgull". Selfpollination in "Nyby" was assisted by striking open flowers gently with a small brush. In addition, part of the flowers of both cultivars were treated with gibberellic acid (GA3, 10 µg dissolved in 10 µl ethanol). Plants were grown in 24-h photoperiod at constant temperatures of 18, 15, 12 and 9°C. Time from pollination to ripening increased in both cultivars with decreasing temperature from about 35 days at 18°C to about 60-65 days at 9°C. Time for fruit development was not significantly affected by GA3. Berries of "Fjellgull" were significantly larger than those of "Nyby". In both cultivars, the largest berries were found at the treatments 12 or 9°C. On the other hand, seed size was smallest at 9°C and the proportion of seed weight of total fresh weight of berry decreased with decreasing temperature. Treatment with GA3 significantly reduced the average seed size in both cultivars. Pollen type had no significant effect on the rate of development or size of berries in "Fjellgull". Ripe berries were frozen at harvest at -100°C, and tannin enriched extracts were analyzed for metabolites using liquid chromatograpy " mass spectrometric (LC-MS) techniques. In addition total phenols and total anthocyanins were analysed as described by Deighton et al. (2000). Statistical analysis and data mining were performed using a principal component analysis approach. Preliminary results indicate differences in the metabolic profiles between berries grown at low temperatures compared to berries grown at high temperatures.

Sammendrag

Plant polyphenolics continue to be the focus of attention with regard to their putative impact on human health. An increasing and ageing human population means that the focus on nutrition and nutritional enhancement, or optimization of our foodstuffs, is paramount. Using raspberry as a model we have shown how modern metabolic profiling approaches can be used to identify the changes in the level of beneficial polyphenolics in fruit breeding segregating populations and how the level of these components are to what degree these are determined by genetic and/or environmental control. Interestingly, the Vitamin C content appeared to be significantly influenced by environment (growth conditions) whilst the content of the polyphenols such as cyanidin, pelargonidin and quercetin glycosides appeared to much more tightly regulated suggesting a rigorous genetic control. Preliminary metabolic profiling showed that the fruit polyphenolic profiles divided into two gross groups segregating on the basis of relative levels of cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyaniding-3-rutinoside, compounds implicated as conferring human health benefits.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Hovedmålet i prosjektet har vært å etablere dyrkingsfelt med molte for lønnsom produksjon. Det har vært med dyrkere fra Finnmark, Troms, Nordland og Nord-Trøndelag. Fiberduk har vært prøvd for å gi raskere etablering. Måling av grunnvannstanden viser at det er viktig å følge med denne etter som molte er avhengig av stabil vanntilgang for å gi god avling. Ut fra registreringer i pro-sjektet ser det ut til at småplanter gir sikrest etablering, men er dyrere enn rhizomer. Utlegging av ruter med foredlingsmateriale (kloner) hos dyrkerne med tanke på nye sorter av molte har gitt nyttig bidrag for vurdering av hvilke kloner det bør satses videre på. Utfordringene innen molte-dyrking er først og fremst at det tar 3-4 år før feltet begynner å gi avling og dermed mulighet for inntekt. Dessuten kan oppblomstring av uønska vegetasjon i bedene og tilfredsstillende overleving av småplanter og rhizomer være utfordringer.

Sammendrag

Tannin-enriched extracts from raspberry, cloudberry and strawberry were analysed by liquid chromatography"mass spectrometric (LC"MS) techniques. The raspberry and cloudberry extracts contained a similar mixture of identifiable ellagitannin components and ellagic acid. However, the strawberry extract contained a complex mixture of ellagitannin and proanthocyanidin components that could not be adequately resolved to allow identification of individual peaks. Nevertheless, the negative ESI-MS spectra obtained by direct infusion mass spectrometric (DIMS) analysis described the diversity of these samples. For example, the predominance of signals associated with Lambertianin C in cloudberry and Sanguiin H6 in raspberry tannin extracts could be discerned and the diversity of signals from procyanidin and propelargonidin oligomers could be identified in the strawberry extract. The dose response for the main ellagitannin-derived signals in the raspberry tannin sample revealed a saturation effect probably due to ion suppression effects in the ion trap spectrometer. Nevertheless, DIMS spectra of whole berry extracts described qualitative differences in ellagitannin-derived peaks in raspberry, cloudberry and strawberry samples. In addition, positive mode DIMS spectra illustrated qualitative differences in the anthocyanin composition of berries of progeny from a raspberry breeding population that had been previously analysed by LC"MS. This suggests that DIMS could be applied to rapidly assess differences in polyphenol content, especially in large sample sets such as the progeny from breeding programmes.

Sammendrag

Vi har gjennom prosjektet fått inntrykk av at en 4H- gård på Holt er sterkt ønsket, både fra skoler/ barnehager og fra administrativt hold i Tromsø kommune. Vi anser det som formålstjenelig å jobbe videre i to retninger:1. Så snart som mulig å utvikle et pedagogisk tilbud til skoler og barnehager på bakgrunn av de ressursene som allerede er på Holt. 2. Utbygging til en fullverdig 4H- gård i løpet av 2 " 3 år.

Sammendrag

Foredraget ga en gjennomgang av forskning og utvikling på molte ved Bioforsk Nord Holt. Gjennomgangen la vekt på kommersialisering og nytteverdien av kunnskapen. I tillegg ble prosjektet BARENTSHERBS presentert. Hovedmålet med dette prosjektet er å studere effekt av miljø og arv på kvantitativt og kvalitativt innhold av adaptogene stoffer i artene reinrot (Leuzea chartamoides), rosenrot (Rhodiola rosea) og Serratula coronata. Genbanker og dyrkingsfelt er også etablert i alle deltagerlandene; Finland, Russland og Norge. BARENTSHERBS prosjektet er finansiert av Barentssekretariatet og Interreg IIIA.

Sammendrag

Bær er stappfulle av antioksidanter. Mange bærslag innholder antibakterielle stoffer og har betennelsesdempende effekt. Dyre kremer lages av frøolje fra moltebær. Det er altså mange kommersielt interessante stoffer i bær.

Sammendrag

Bær er stappfulle av antioksidanter. Mange bærslag innholder antibakterielle stoffer og har betennelsesdempende effekt. Dyre kremer lages av frøolje fra moltebær. Det er altså mange kommersielt interessante stoffer i bær.

Sammendrag

Bær inneholder en rekke verdifulle stoffer og flere har påvist at ekstrakter av bær har en helsefremmende effekt. Samtidig er det studier som viser at de aktive stoffene i bærekstraktene er vanskelig for kroppen å ta opp gjennom fordøyelsessystemet. Det gjenstår derfor mye forskning for å forstå hvordan bær i dietten påvirker helsa vår. I tillegg til antioksidanter innholder bær en mengde ukjente molekyler som kan ha kommersiell betydning for framstilling av blant annet medisiner og kosmetikk.

Sammendrag

Plant polyphenolics continue to be the focus of attention with regard to their putative impact on human health. An increasing and ageing human population means that the focus on nutrition and nutritional enhancement or optimization of our foodstuffs is paramount. Using raspberry as a model we have shown how modern metabolic profiling approaches can be used to identify the changes in the level of beneficial polyphenolics in fruit breeding segregating populations and how the level of these components are determined by genetic and/or environmental control. Interestingly the Vitamin C content appeared to be significantly influenced by environment (growth conditions) whilst the content of the polyphenols such as cyanidin, pelargonidin and quercetin glycosides appeared to much more tightly regulated suggesting a rigorous genetic control. Preliminary metabolic profiling showed that the fruit polyphenolic profiles divided into two gross groups segregating on the basis of relative levels of cyaniding-3-sophoroside and cyaniding-3-rutinoside, compounds implicated as conferring human health benefits.

Sammendrag

Plant polyphenolics continue to be the focus of attention with regard to their putative impact on human health. An increasing and ageing human population means that the focus on nutrition and nutritional enhancement or optimisation of our foodstuffs is paramount. Using the raspberry as a model, we have shown how modern metabolic profiling approaches can be used to identify the changes in the level of beneficial polyphenolics in fruit breeding segregating populations and how the level of these components is determined by genetic and/or environmental control. Interestingly, the vitamin C content appeared to be significantly influenced by environment (growth conditions) whilst the content of the polyphenols such as cyanidin, pelargonidin and quercetin glycosides appeared much more tightly regulated, suggesting a rigorous genetic control. Preliminary metabolic profiling showed that the fruit polyphenolic profiles divided into two gross groups segregating on the basis of relative levels of cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside, compounds implicated as conferring human health benefits.

Sammendrag

Bringebær (Rubus idaeus) og molte (R. chamaemorus) er nære slektninger i Rubus familien. Rød bringebær er et økonomisk viktig bærslag, og det finnes mange ulike sorter. Av molte finnes det derimot bare fire kommersielt tilgjengelige sorter. Disse sortene er kloner selektert fra frøpopulasjoner. Det er en økende interesse for bær i dagens marked. Bær inneholder store mengder antioksidanter og anbefales som en del av den daglige dietten. Sorter av bær foredlet med hensyn på økt kvalitet er derfor av stor interesse.

Sammendrag

Bringebær (Rubus idaeus) og molte (R. chamaemorus) er nære slektninger i Rubus familien. Rød bringebær er et økonomisk viktig bærslag, og det finnes mange ulike sorter. Av molte finnes det derimot bare fire kommersielt tilgjengelige sorter. Disse sortene er kloner selektert fra frøpopulasjoner. Det er en økende interesse for bær i dagens marked. Bær inneholder store mengder antioksidanter og anbefales som en del av den daglige dietten. Sorter av bær foredlet med hensyn på økt kvalitet er derfor av stor interesse.

Sammendrag

Foredraget ga en oversikt over arbeidet med foredling og kultivering av molte i Norge. Nåværende prosjekt på blåbær, molte og bringebær ble også presentert.

Sammendrag

Supporting for the beneficial health effects of fruit is accruing apace. A subdivision of fruit, the berries, are increasingly becoming the focus of studies regarding their proposed ability to prevent or ameliorate the problems of degenerative diseases(McDougall et al, 2005; McDougall and Stewart, 2005) With respect to berries there has, over the last decade, been a groundswell of reports attributing beneficial biological activity to the fruit phenolics. The predominant approach in these studies is that of well defined in vitro systems employing mammalian cell models systems, such as Hela, Caco2 , HT29, Hep G2, etc to study absorption, anticancer, metabolism effects etc (Coates et al 2007; Ross et al, 2007). However, the direct translation of the benefits reported in these in vitro studies to in vivo results have lagged behind and are only now gathering pace. For example there are several intervention studies published highlighting or attributing their beneficial effects (albeit sometimes marginal) with regard to markers of colon and oesophageal cancer, cardiovascular disease, etc to the polyphenolic components in fruit. In addition, there are several major intervention trials either ongoing or planned and their focus is on fruit such as strawberry (cholesterol lowering), pomegranate (prostate cancer), blueberry (inflammation) and blackcurrant (CVD). This positive evidence with respect to the efficacy of fruit in the diet as a potential strategy to prevent, or at least retard, chronic and/or degenerative disease is leading to enhanced nutritive value now becoming a major target for plant breeders. However the lack of clarity as to the actual target means that breeding is not straight forward. Due to the chemical diversity of fruit, and specifically in berries, newer screening approaches have been adopted; metabolomics - LC-MSn, GC-ToF-MSn NMR etc. (Stewart et al 2007). We will discus how these approaches are being used in fruit breeding to study the inheritance of multiple silent phenotypes (chemotypes) in concert with map-based genetic approaches with a view to nutritional enhancement.

Sammendrag

Markedet for ville bær er økende. Ulike videreforedlingsbedrifter fra inn- og utland ønsker store volum, og mange av disse har også fokus på kvalitet og opprinnelse. Hvordan kan vi utnytte ressursene vi har, og hvordan kan høsting og videreforedling av ville bær bli lønnsom?

Sammendrag

Markedet for ville bær er økende. Ulike videreforedlingsbedrifter fra inn- og utland ønsker store volum. Mange av disse har også fokus på kvalitet og opprinnelse. Hvordan kan vi utnytte ressurs - ene vi har, og hvordan kan høsting og videreforedling av ville bær bli lønnsom?

Sammendrag

Kultivering av ville blåbær, som canadierne kaller "lowbush blueberry", foregår i det østlige Canada i provinsene New Foundland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island og Quebeck. Den største produksjonen er i Nova Scotia, som produserte 18000 tonn til industrien i 2005, etter å ha startet i det små for mer enn 50 år siden. Vi var tre forskere fra Bioforsk som var så heldige å få midler fra Norges forskningsråd, for å knytte kontakter i Canada og lære om det de har fått til innen forskning og utvikling på ville bær. Vi besøkte i nevnte rekkefølge provinsene New Foundland, Nova Scotia og Quebec, og ble svært godt mottatt.

Sammendrag

En rekke gamle lokalsorter av potet i Troms er samlet inn og delvis identifisert. Flere varianter har spesiell farge, smak, konsistens, utseende og/eller historie som gjør at de kan ha potensial som nisjeprodukt i markedet. En presentasjon av noen varianter for sentrale kjøkkensjefer i Tromsøs restaurantmiljø bekreftet dette. Samtidig ble det avdekket relativt stor og entydig misnøye med dagens potetkvalitet, spesielt i forhold til størrelsessortering og lagringskvalitet på ettervinteren. En videre satsing betinger sikker identifikasjon, rensing og oppformering av aktuelle sorter. Arbeidet har avdekket at det fortsatt mangler enkle og rimelige identifikasjonsmetoder som kan erstatte mer omfattende morfologiske studier. Kostnader og rutiner ved rensing og oppformering er beskrevet. I noen tilfeller er slik oppformering allerede igangsatt. Restaurantene signaliserte relativt stor betalingsvillighet i forhold til ønskede kvaliteter. Sett i sammenheng med restaurantenes ønske om eksklusivitet i forhold til geografisk marked og distribusjonskanaler, kan det åpne for et tettere og mer gjensidig forpliktende samarbeid mellom produsent og restaurantledd om produktutvikling. Flere aktuelle dyrkingsmiljøer er identifisert.

Sammendrag

In a preliminary experiment terminal stem cuttings (4 " 5 cm) were collected in the spring (May) from a wild population of lingonberry near Holt Research Center, Tromsø, Norway. The cuttings were rooted in peat mixed with 30% perlite with and without auxin treatment (Seradix 1 or Seradix 2: 3-indol-butyric-acid). The effect of dipping in a fungicide (Rovral) was also tested. With the best treatment, control without auxin and fungicide, as much as 66% of the cuttings rooted. Both dipping in Seradix and in the fungicide reduced rooting of the cuttings. To test the seasonal variations in rooting of lingonberry cuttings, terminal cuttings were harvested regularly every month in more than one year. The results indicate that a relatively short cold period is needed to induce bud break and shoot growth. Cuttings harvested during spring and summer rooted poorly compared to cuttings harvested in late autumn and during winter. The best rooting was obtained using cuttings harvested in September and November.

Sammendrag

In a preliminary experiment terminal stem cuttings (4 – 5 cm) were collected in the spring (May) from a wild population of lingonberry near Holt Research Center, Tromsø, Norway. The cuttings were rooted in peat mixed with 30% perlite with and without auxin treatment (Seradix 1 or Seradix 2: 3-indol-butyric-acid). The effect of dipping in a fungicide (Rovral) was also tested. With the best treatment, control without auxin and fungicide, as much as 66% of the cuttings rooted. Both dipping in Seradix and in the fungicide reduced rooting of the cuttings. To test the seasonal variations in rooting of lingonberry cuttings, terminal cuttings were harvested regularly every month in more than one year. The results indicate that a relatively short cold period is needed to induce bud break and shoot growth. Cuttings harvested during spring and summer rooted poorly compared to cuttings harvested in late autumn and during winter. The best rooting was obtained using cuttings harvested in September and November.

Sammendrag

Det finst fleire arter blåbær som kan dyrkast, men i Noreg er Vaccinium myrtillus dominerande. I Kanada har dei utvikla dyrkingsteknikken for blåbær dei siste 50 åra, og i dag er det ein stor blåbærproduksjon der. Bæra vert husta både mekanisk og med enklare utstyr, men både ugras og utttørking er betydelege utfordringar.

Sammendrag

Arktisk kvalitet kan defineres som positive utslag av nordlig klima og opprinnelse på egenskaper og/eller forventninger til et produkt. Artikkelen gir en oversikt over ulike kvaliteter, eksempler på dokumenterte nordlige kvaliteter og det pekes på aktuelle forskningsområder/dokumentasjonsbehov for framtida.

Sammendrag

Arktisk kvalitet kan defineres som positive utslag av nordlig klima og opprinnelse på egenskaper og/eller forventninger til et produkt. Artikkelen gir en oversikt over ulike kvaliteter, eksempler på dokumenterte nordlige kvaliteter og det pekes på aktuelle forskningsområder/dokumentasjonsbehov for framtida.

Sammendrag

Ved hjelp av ulike fingerprint metoder beskrives innvandringshistorien og den genetiske diversiteten til de norske populasjonene av seiersløk. I tillegg skal innholdet av antioksidanter (total aktivitet og ulike metabolitter) analyseres senere i prosjektet.· Hensikten med dette er å fiinne ut om antioksidantinnhold og sammensetningen av metabolitter av antioksidanter er genetisk bestemt

Sammendrag

Mat og matvaner er i fokus. Forbrukerne ønsker kvalitet, mangfold og opplevelser i tillegg til å bli mette. Nordnorsk landskap og klima byr på store utfordringer for landbruket og nordnorske bønder må utnytte mulige fortrinn og tilby produkter med spesielle kvaliteter for å konkurrere i markedet. Fokusering på arktiske kvaliteter kan være en god strategi for markedsføring. Arktisk kvalitet skal bære med seg en ekstra dimensjon til både produktkvalitet og matopplevelse basert på nordlig opprinnelse, natur og kultur. Markedsføring av arktisk produktkvalitet vil kreve dokumentasjon.

Sammendrag

Det kvantitative og kvalitative innholdet av flavonoider (myricetin, quercetin og kaempferol) i bær av krekling (E. nigrum L. og E. hermaphroditum Hagerup) har blitt analysert. Bærene var hentet fra 6 ulike habitat i Norge. Resultatene indikerer at nivået av quercetin er lavere i E. nigrum enn i E. hermaphroditum mens innholdet av kaempferol var høyere i E. nigrum enn i E. hermaphroditum. Nivået av de tre flavonoidene varierer med modningsgrad av bærene, modne bær inneholder mer flavonoider enn umodne bær. Vi har også analysert innholdet av flavonoider i ulike produkt av krekling (vin, aperitiff, juice, gele, sirup og sukkertøy). Resultatene viser at innholdet av flavonoider er lavere i produktene enn i råmaterialet. Høyest innhold av flavonoider er det i bærskallet.

Sammendrag

I den sirkumpolare regionen er landbruket basert på planteproduksjon ved lave temperaturer, korte sesonger og lange dager. Dette gir både lavere og mer variable avlinger sammenlignet med avlingene i sørlige områder. Istedenfor å fokusere på volum i ønsker vi å fokusere på de positive effektene av det nordlige miljøet slik som produktkvalitet, plantenes vitalitet og at det trengs mindre av plantevernmidler.

Sammendrag

Molte er en staude, med lange jordstengler under bakken.  Hver sommer vokser jordstenglene.  Knopper dannes langs- og ved enden av jordstenglene.  Inne i hver knopp ligger grunnlaget til ett nytt skudd.  Artikkelen beskriver forskning på kommersialisering av moltedyrking.

Sammendrag

Planteforsk Holt og Biologisk klimalaboratorium har i flere år hatt forsøk med molte under kontrollerte klimaforhold i veksthus. Det er gjort forsøk med ulike temperaturer, lysforhold, torvtyper, N - gjødslingskonsentrasjoner og jordfuktighet. Planen var å finne mest mulig optimale vekstbetingelser for å utnytte hele året i forbindelse med FoU i molte.

Sammendrag

Normalt er det ca. 40 % hunnblomster og 60 % hannblomster i bestand av molte. Dette begrenser avlinga. En kan derfor øke avlinga med å plante ut ekstra hunnplanter. I tillegg begrenses avlinga av antall insekter og klima under pollinering og fruktmodning. To hunnsorter (Fjellgull og Fjordgull) og to hannsorter (Apollen og Apollto) er sortsgodkjent. Hunnsortene er selektert for antall fruktemner, bær størrelse, god blomstring og skudd dannelse mens hannsortene er selektert for antall støvbærere og god skudd dannelse. Utplanting av disse kommersielle sortene øker avlinga. Man kan bruke genetiske markører for å lette foredlingsarbeidet. For å kunne selge småplanter av molte må man ha en effektiv oppformeringsmetode som er økonomisk lønnsom. Til nå er molte oppformert vegetativt ved hjelp av rhizomer. Vi håper at vevskultur kan gi en mer effektiv og økonomisk oppformeringsmetode.

Sammendrag

A study of early flower development of male, female and hermaphroditic cloudberry plants using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy are presented.  By examination of flower buds, it is possible to identify the sex of an individual the summer before flowering.  In order to understand the interactions between (the) floral homeotic genes in this system we also wanted to identify the gene homologue to SUPERMAN which is involved in the maintenance of the stamen/carpel boundary in Arabidopsis.

Sammendrag

Mengde endogent gibberellin (GA1, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44 og GA53) og IAA ble målt i frukt av molte fra 0 til 21 dager etter pollinering. Nivået av aktive gibberelliner øker like etter pollinering, mens det totale innholdet minker. Mengden IAA øker gjennom hele perioden på 21 dager. De ulike nivåene av plantehormoner relateres til ulike utviklingstrinn i fruktutviklinga.

Sammendrag

Plantehormonene gibberellin og auxin ble applisert på hun-blomster av molte. Resultatene viser at applisert GA3 gir fruktdannelse. Småfruktene har ikke frø, bare rester av perikarp er synlig. En kan også få fruktdannelse in vitro ved å dyrke upollinerte småfrukt på MS medium med kombinasjoner av plantehormonene BAP, NAA og GA3. Kombinasjonen GA3 og NAA ga best fruktutvikling.

Sammendrag

The purpose of this study was to test the activity of gibberellins and auxins for induction of parthenocarpic fruit development in cloudberry, Rubus chamaemorus L., a dioecious, northern wild berry with potential for cultivation.  Plant hormones were applied directly to open flowers, either dissolved in ethanol or as an aqueous spray.  Of the tested gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA4, dimethyl-GA4, GA5, GA9, GA19, GA20 and GA24) only GA1, GA3, GA4 and dimethyl-GA4 were active and induced fruit development comparable to development of pollinated fruits.  Lack of activity of GA20 and GA9, the immediate precursors of GA1 and GA4, respectively, suggests that 3 b-hydroxylation of gibberellins can be inhibited in unpollinated flowers of cloudberry.  Auxin treatments induced an initial fruit development, but did not result in ripe berries.  Based on these results, use of transgenic methods to regulate gibberellin or/and auxin biosynthesis in carpels of cloudberry could be used to develop a parthenocarpic cloudberry.

Sammendrag

Wild-growing populations of cloudberry was used as basis for breeding. In cloned genotypes, the characters berry size (flower size of males), number of flowers, and growth speed were observed, and broad sense heritability (h²) was estimated. Based of index scores, the best females (An 276 - "Fjordgull" and If 542 - "Fjellgull") and males (An 30 - "Apollen" and An 248 - "Apolto") were selected for commercial use.

Sammendrag

Forsøkene er utført med midler fra det brukerstyrte prosjekt "Kommersialisering av moltedyrkingen". Denne artikkelen omhandler resultater fra forsøkene med planting av molte i jordkultiverte felt. Potteplanter ble tillaget i mai. Det ble brukt ca. 15 cm lange rhizomer i 6 cm jiffypotter med ugjødslet, finhakket Sphagnumtorv (kvitmose) av omdanningsgrad H2-H4. Barrotsplanter ble også tillaget av ca. 15 lange rhizombiter. Beste plantedybde ved planting av molte på jordkultiverte felt i kvitmosemyr synes å ligge mellom 5 cm og 10 cm, en tanke dypere ved bruk av jiffypotte-planter enn ved direkteplanting av barrotsplanter av rhizomer. Det er godt mulig å bruke direkteplanting av barrotsplanter av rhizomer i stedet for jiffypotte-planter. Da vil en spare penger i forbindelse med anlegg av dyrkingsfeltene, men etablerringen av det nye bestandet i feltet vil bli 1-2 år forsinket.

Sammendrag

Resultatene viser at det er en signifikant effekt av havre PHYA genet på kulde tilpasning hos Populus.  Dette indikerer at det kan være et kvantitativ forhold mellom konsentrasjonen på fytokrom genet og tilpasning til fotoperiode.

Sammendrag

Photoperiodic effects on woody plants were reported already by Gardner and Allard in 1923 and comprehensive studies during the ’50s confirmed the role of photoperiod as an important environmental regulator of growth and growth cessation in many northern tree species (Nitsch, 1957; Wareing, 1956). In woody plants cessation of apical growth is a prerequisite for cold acclimation (Weiser, 1970) and photoperiod, as a factor controlling growth cessation, is therefore an important environmental signal for initiation of cold acclimation. In many cases a proper timing of acclimation and deacclimation, in respect to annual variation of temperature conditions, is more critical for winter survival than the maximum level of frost hardiness. Also in such coniferous species where cessation of apical growth is not controlled by photoperiod, short photoperiod is necessary for good cold acclimation, low temperature causes no or only a limited level of hardiness if combined with long day conditions (Schwarz, 1970; Aronsson, 1975; Christersson, 1978; Jonsson et al., 1981). Thus, photoperiod may have both an indirect, through induction of growth cessation, and a more direct influence on cold acclimation in woody plants.

Sammendrag

Artikkelen beskriver analyse av gen regulering i voksende pollenslager av både angiosperme og gymnosperme arter. Resultatene antyder at både taxa-spesifikke og konserverte regulatoriske mekanismer er involvert i å kontrollere uttrykket av gener under pollen spiring og vekst.

Sammendrag

Nitrogen er det begrensende grunnstoffet for vekst i de fleste arktiske plantesamfunn. Effekten av temperatur og nitrat konsentrasjon på maksimal nitrat reduktase (NR) aktivitet er registrert hos fire arter som vokser i fuglefjell; Cochlearia groenlandica, Oxyria digyna, Chrysosplenium tetrandrum og Saxifraga hieracifolia. Resultatet viser at artenes maksimale NR - aktivitet gir en indikasjon på evnen til å ta opp og utnytte nitrat. Fjellsyre og skjørbuksurt hadde signifikant høyere NR-aktivitet enn stivsildre og dvergmaigull ved alle behandlingene. Dette kan indikere at stivsildre og dvergmaigull utkonkurreres høyt oppe i fuglefjellet der nitratkonsentrasjonen er stor fordi fjellsyre og skjørbuksurt kan utnytte gjødslingen bedre.

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Innovative løsninger for økt lønnsomhet i grøntnæringa - TEKNOBÆR


De to største utfordringene norsk grøntnæring står ovenfor, er høye arbeidskostnader og stabilt høye avlinger av god kvalitet. Det skjer en rask teknologisk utvikling i og rundt landbruket. Bruk av avansert teknologi, inkludert robotisering til for eksempel behovsprøvd gjødsling, vanning og plantevern og ved innhøsting er ikke lengre framtiden, det er på full fart inn i internasjonalt landbruk. Hagebruksnæringen har arbeidsintensive produksjoner som har sterkt behov for å finne innovative løsninger på de høye arbeidskostnadene. Mer ekstremvær og utfordringer med resistens hos plantepatogene sopper og skadedyr mot kjemiske plantevernmidler gjør at norsk grøntproduksjon i framtida vil foregå med vær-vern, ved dyrking under et dekke av plast. I land som England, Frankrike, Nederland og Spania foregår i dag mer enn 90% av bærproduksjonen i plasttunneler. Bruk av plasttunneler gir bedre plantevekst, høyere avlinger og mindre problemer med viktige skadegjørere. Avlingen per arealenhet kan økes med 50 til 100%. Men det er mange utfordringer som må løses: næringsforsyningen må bli mer presis, plantevernstrategiene må tilpasses, kvaliteten på plantematerialet må forbedres, etc. I plasttunneler kan planter dyrkes i bakken eller på opphøyde renner, i jord eller i substrat. Plantene kan ‘designes’ til produksjonssystemet og overvintres på kjølelager, slik at produksjonen kan programmeres og sesongen utvides. En slik semi-kontrollert produksjon vil gi flere muligheter til å effektivisere arbeidsoperasjoner og gjøre produksjonen mer miljøvennlig. Satsingen vil gi økt kunnskap/kompetanse i NIBIO og bidra til å gjøre instituttet nasjonalt ledende innen forskning på tekniske løsninger i landbruket.

Aktiv Sist oppdatert: 21.11.2017
Slutt: des 2020
Start: jan 2017