Sammendrag

Agroforestry can be defined as sustainable and multifunctional land-use systems where trees are managed together with agricultural crops or livestock on the same piece of land. In the northern periphery area, agroforestry has a long history with woodland grazing, reindeer husbandry and gathering of different non-wood forest resources as herbs, mushrooms and berries. Traditional agroforestry has gradually disappeared during the 20th century with the intensification of agriculture and forestry. Currently agroforestry systems are gaining new interest, not only from farmers but also from politicians, as this practice can possibly contribute to a more sustainable way of agricultural production. In the northern periphery area, the benefits of agroforestry practices can be manifold not only promoting traditional practices, but also novel systems with the use of new technology. In addition, agroforestry has environmental benefits as a method for conservation and enhancement of biodiversity, improved nutrient cycling, and water quality. Soil humus layer will also increase with several agroforestry systems leading to carbon sequestration. Here we present an overview of agroforestry practices in the Nordic countries and the use of non-wood forest resources with the emphasis on wild berries.

Sammendrag

Unike nordlige klimaforhold med lange dager og lave temperaturer, kan påvirke egenskaper hos mat, fôr og beitevekster. En gjennomgang av vitenskapelige studier av slik Arktisk kvalitet viser effekter for både sensorisk kvalitet og ulike innholdsstoffer for flere produkter. Innen kålvekster påvirker klimaet utseende (brokkoli) og reduserer glukosinolatinnhold og bittersmak (brokkoli og kålrot). Gulrot og kålrot får tydeligere søtsmak på grunn av lavere innhold av bitterstoffer, selv om sukkerinnholdet er uendret. På den annen side får gulrot i nord lavere innhold av karoten og lysere farge enn i varmere klima. Resultatene for kålrot, brokkoli og gulrot tyder også på mer sprø og saftig konsistens, og friskere smak, ved lave dyrkingstemperaturer. Ville bær i nordlig klima har litt høyere innhold av enkelte antioksidanter enn i sørligere områder, men lokale forskjeller i vekstforhold (fjell, kyst) kan ha like stor betydning. Hagebær i nordlig klima kan smake søtere (jordbær) eller mindre søte (solbær) på grunn av forskjellige klimaresponser. Jordbær og bringebær får noe svekket rødfarge ved lave dyrkingstemperaturer. Klimatiske og geografiske effekter på kvalitet i potet, urter til mat og krydder, fôrvekster og kjøtt- og melkeprodukter er per idag for lite undersøkt til å gi entydige konklusjoner.....

Sammendrag

Rhodiola rosea is a perennial flowering plant with a long history as a medicine plant. The plant contain a range of bioactive compounds including salidroside, rosavin, rosarian and rosin. Some of the compounds are characterized as adaptogens, meaning they can increase the body’s resistance to various stressors. An increased demand for better pharmaceuticals has stimulated the development of new methods for agricultural as well as in vitro cultivation of medicinal plants. A new technology, called rhizosecretion of biologically active chemicals, can provide a continuous supply of biologically active compounds over the lifetime of plants. The plants will then be grown under controlled conditions. In order to increase the production of bioactive compounds in Rhodiola rosea under these conditions it is therefore hypothesized that the biosynthesis can be upregulated by growing it under specific temperature and light quality treatments. An experiment with different light and temperature regimes was established for optimal accumulation of biologically active compounds. Four different clones of Rhodiola rosea were grown under three different light conditions (red, blue and white) combined with two different temperatures (9 and 18 °C) for three weeks. The gene expression of Tyrosine decarboxylase (TyrDC), found to have a key role in the biosynthesis of salidroside, were investigated. In addition, the content of various bioactive compounds were quantified before and after treatment. The results indicate that use if high producing clones is most important for high production and that there is a short-term upregulation during blue light treatment. During the three-week treatment, there was no significant effect of the temperature treatments.

Sammendrag

Numerous species of wild berries are abundant in the Nordic forests, mountains and peat lands. They ripen throughout the early summer until late autumn. Both lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), that are among the most picked wild berries, are characteristic field layer species in boreal forests. Other species that have potential of being better exploited are cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), crowberry (Empeterum nigrum), bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum), arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus), wild strawberries/woodland strawberries (Fragaria vesca) and wild raspberries (Rubus idaeus). Wild berries have always been an important part of the Nordic cuisine. However, only about 5–10 per cent of the annual wild berry crop of approximately a billion kilograms are currently picked for private or commercial consumption. There are several challenges towards an increased utilization as year-to-year variation in crop, topography, logistics of berry picking including traceability, fragmented sector structure and the high share of unprocessed raw material in export. The scientific interest for these berries have in the recent years focused on their value concerning human health benefits. Nevertheless, commercialization and innovation of wild berries should focus on multiple use of the whole raw material into many different products. The Nordic wild berries are perfectly adapted to their environment and are well suited to studies of environmental effects on growth, development and quality. Additionally, they represent a valuable genepool for future breeding.

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Sammendrag

Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) is a wild perennial shrub growing on peatland with a circumpolar distribution. The combined berries have a high polyphenol content comprised primarily of ellagitannins. A few commercial cultivars are available, and pre-breeding trials on clonal material from different geographical origins are in progress. The objective of this study was to investigate how the content of polyphenols of four different cloudberry cultivars were affected by harvesting time and climatic variations during a 3-year-period. Plants were grown outside in plots and berries were harvested when mature. Berries were analyzed for total polyphenols and total anthocyanins by spectrophotometer. Total ellagic acid was identified and quantified using HPLC-MS after hydrolysis of the extracts. Results showed that all measured parameters; total anthocyanins, total polyphenols and ellagic acid are strongly influenced by the genetic background. Although low anthocyanin contents were present in all genotypes, they were highly affected by climatic conditions, being highest at low temperatures. However, the content of ellagic acid was less affected by environmental conditions and showed little response to changing temperatures. In conclusion, ellagitannin content was the most dominating polyphenol group observed in this study and was affected by genetics and is therefore a good breeding criterion for increased health benefit of cloudberry.

Sammendrag

Planter på ulike breddegrader har ulike vekstvilkår relatert til blant annet lysintensitet, daglengde og temperatur. Dette påvirker plantene og innholdsstoffene i dem. Nå er forskerne på jakt etter den dokumenterbare kvalitetsforskjellen mellom mat produsert i nord eller sør.

Sammendrag

Forbruket av økologisk mat har økt jevnt i Norge fra 2011 til 2016, mens det økologiske arealet har blitt redusert i samme periode. NIBIO som er en viktig leverandør for kunnskap om økologisk landbruk fikk i Statsbudsjettet for 2016 tildelt kunnskapsutviklingsmidler fra Landbruks- og matdepartementet som var øremerka til å "videreutvikle forskningsbasert kunnskap om økologisk landbruk". Arbeidet med å kartlegge status, flaskehalser og kunnskapsbehovet i de ulike produksjonene er basert på en gjennomgang av relevante prosjekter, rapporter og intervjuer med fagpersoner. De foreslåtte temaene for FoU-aktiviteter må anses som veiledende, og er ment som inspirasjon ved utvikling av nye prosjekter innen økologisk landbruk......

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BACKGROUND Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009–2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply under natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42–70° N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture. RESULTS Average results over three summer seasons in Germany, southern Norway and northern Norway showed that the northernmost location with low temperatures and long days had highest scores for bud coarseness and uniform colour, while broccoli from the German location, with high temperatures and shorter days, had highest intensity of colour hue, whiteness, bitter taste, cabbage flavour, stale flavour and watery flavour. Results from two autumn seasons at the fourth location (42° N, Spain), with low temperatures and short days, tended toward results from the two northernmost locations, with an exception for most texture attributes. CONCLUSION Results clearly demonstrate that temperature and light conditions related to latitude and season affect the sensory quality of broccoli florets. Results may be used in marketing special quality regional or seasonal products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry

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BACKGROUND Plants grown at different latitudes experience differences in light spectral composition. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica) plants were grown in climate-controlled chambers under supplemental wavelengths (red, far-red, red + far-red or blue) from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The light treatments were combined with two cold climate temperatures (12 and 15 °C) during broccoli head formation to investigate the effects on morphology and content of health- and sensory-related compounds: glucosinolates, flavonols, ascorbic acid and soluble sugars. RESULTS Supplemental far-red and red + far-red light led to elongated plants and the lowest total glucosinolate content in broccoli florets. The content of quercetin was highest with supplemental red light. Vitamin C was not significantly affected by the light treatments, but 12 °C gave a higher content than 15 °C. CONCLUSION The effects of supplemental red and far-red light suggest an involvement of phytochromes in the regulation of glucosinolates and flavonols. A shift in red:far-red ratio could cause changes in their content besides altering the morphology. The sugar and vitamin C content appears to be unaffected by these light conditions. Supplemental blue light had little effect on plant morphology and content of the health- and sensory related compounds.

Sammendrag

Smak og ulike kvalitetsdimensjoner hos grønnsaker påvirkes av flere abiotiske vekstfaktorer som lys og temperatur. Disse vekstbetingelsene er særegne i nord på grunn av forholdsvis lave dyrkningstemperaturer og lange dager. I dette prosjektet sees det nærmere på ulike helsegode innholdsstoffer i tillegg til smak i brokkoli for å dokumentere den nordlige kvaliteten.

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Innovative løsninger for økt lønnsomhet i grøntnæringa - TEKNOBÆR


De to største utfordringene norsk grøntnæring står ovenfor, er høye arbeidskostnader og stabilt høye avlinger av god kvalitet. Det skjer en rask teknologisk utvikling i og rundt landbruket. Bruk av avansert teknologi, inkludert robotisering til for eksempel behovsprøvd gjødsling, vanning og plantevern og ved innhøsting er ikke lengre framtiden, det er på full fart inn i internasjonalt landbruk. Hagebruksnæringen har arbeidsintensive produksjoner som har sterkt behov for å finne innovative løsninger på de høye arbeidskostnadene. Mer ekstremvær og utfordringer med resistens hos plantepatogene sopper og skadedyr mot kjemiske plantevernmidler gjør at norsk grøntproduksjon i framtida vil foregå med vær-vern, ved dyrking under et dekke av plast. I land som England, Frankrike, Nederland og Spania foregår i dag mer enn 90% av bærproduksjonen i plasttunneler. Bruk av plasttunneler gir bedre plantevekst, høyere avlinger og mindre problemer med viktige skadegjørere. Avlingen per arealenhet kan økes med 50 til 100%. Men det er mange utfordringer som må løses: næringsforsyningen må bli mer presis, plantevernstrategiene må tilpasses, kvaliteten på plantematerialet må forbedres, etc. I plasttunneler kan planter dyrkes i bakken eller på opphøyde renner, i jord eller i substrat. Plantene kan ‘designes’ til produksjonssystemet og overvintres på kjølelager, slik at produksjonen kan programmeres og sesongen utvides. En slik semi-kontrollert produksjon vil gi flere muligheter til å effektivisere arbeidsoperasjoner og gjøre produksjonen mer miljøvennlig. Satsingen vil gi økt kunnskap/kompetanse i NIBIO og bidra til å gjøre instituttet nasjonalt ledende innen forskning på tekniske løsninger i landbruket.

Active Updated: 21.11.2017
End: des 2020
Start: jan 2017