Til dokument

Sammendrag

Legume-based cropping system and Brachiaria forage system could play a significant role in enhancing food and nutrition security and sustainable intensifications of African agriculture. To reveal this potential, a comprehensive review of literatures and assessment was performed using key indicators in relation to food and nutrition quality, agro-ecological services and socioeconomic benefits. The key indicators for legumes intercropping systems include: Grain yield, soil organic matter, food availability, nutritive values of legumes, maize and millets- based foods, proportion of income from crop sale and percentage of farmers aware and/or adopting intercropping. In the case of Brachiaria system, the forage biomass, milk yield, availability of milk, milk nutrition contents, income from Brachiaria grass and milk sale and people practising the Brachiaria technology were considered key indicators. Both systems showed positive impacts and contribute to a range of the United Nation’s sustainable development goals including 1, 2, 3, 12, 13 and 15 and other associated targets. Integrating legume-based cropping systems and Brachiaria forage system will enhance contributions of smallholder farmers to food and nutrition security. The necessary changes needed in technology, institutions and policies to upscale legume-based cropping systems and Brachiaria forage system were suggested. These changes include improved varieties, quality seeds, improved cultivation practices, market provision, effective extension and advisory services and support to the seed productions and distribution systems, among others. Yet, to fully tap the potentials of legume-based and Brachiaria forage systems sustainably and raise the profile of these climate smart systems, context specific research measures are necessary.

Sammendrag

This report gives a comprehensive review of current knowledge on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from mineral soils with special reference to the Norwegian agriculture and some research results from other countries. The report starts by highlighting the importance of N2O followed by descriptions of the pathways to N2O production and factors affecting N2O emissions from agricultural soils and measurement techniques and modelling N2O emissions. This is followed by reviewing and discussing research results on the effects of soil management practices including fertilizer application, soil compaction, soil tillage, effects of soil moisture and drainage conditions, effects of soil pH, freezing-thawing effects and effects of soil drying and rewetting on N2O emissions. Furthermore, some relevant mitigation measures to reduce N2O emissions are presented. The report concludes by suggesting future research needs to measure and mitigate soil N2O emissions.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Biophysical restoration or rehabilitation measures of land have demonstrated to be effective in many scientific projects and small-scale environmental experiments. However circumstances such as poverty, weak policies, or inefficient scientific knowledge transmission can hinder the effective upscaling of land restoration and the long term maintenance of proven sustainable use of soil and water. This may be especially worrisome in lands with harsh environmental conditions. This review covers recent efforts in landscape restoration and rehabilitation with a functional perspective aiming to simultaneously achieve ecosystem sustainability, economic efficiency, and social wellbeing. Water management and rehabilitation of ecosystem services in croplands, rangelands, forests, and coastlands are reviewed. The joint analysis of such diverse ecosystems provides a wide perspective to determine: (i) multifaceted impacts on biophysical and socio-economic factors; and (ii) elements influencing effective upscaling of sustainable land management practices. One conclusion can be highlighted: voluntary adoption is based on different pillars, i.e. external material and economic support, and spread of success information at the local scale to demonstrate the multidimensional benefits of sustainable land management. For the successful upscaling of land management, more attention must be paid to the social system from the first involvement stage, up to the long term maintenance.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

A total of 967 students (males and females) from four secondary schools in Vysocina region of Czechia were interviewed via 24‐question Likert‐type questionnaire to assess student’s environmental awareness and perceptions. The generalized linear models were used to test if (and to what extent) student perceptions related to environment are/ or not influenced by various factors including gender, age, place of residence, educational level, and specialization. The results showed that students’ age, place of residence, education level and their specialization did not significantly affect (p<0.05) their environmental perceptions. However, gender appeared to be statistically significant (p<0.05) influencing student environmental perceptions and also showed linkages to basic environmental education, attitudes and engagement of students in science-related activities. Our results strongly support the need for more environmental education, awareness campaigns in the schools and engaging students in outdoor environment related activities. Future research should include detail environmental surveys targeting school students across Czechia.

Sammendrag

In Norway, water quality of small streams draining agricultural catchments has been monitored since 1993 by the Agricultural and Environmental Monitoring Program. This article attempted to examine the concentration levels, temporal dynamics and long-term trends (1993–2009 and 1996–2009) of Al, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn in streams draining the catchment areas of Skuterud (4.5 km2) and Mørdre (6.8 km2), located in south-east Norway. In the Mørdre stream, Al, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn all showed statistically significant downward trends (p<0.05), whilst in the Skuterud stream only Al and Fe showed statistically downward significance (p<0.05). The general declining trends of metal concentrations are most likely associated with reduction of acid rain deposition in southern Norway. In spite of this declining trends, over the 14–17 years of monitoring mean monthly concentrations of total Al (2.0–3.2 mg L−1), Fe (1.3–2.5 mg L−1) and Cu (8.9–26.1 µg L−1) in Skuterud and Mørdre streams, respectively exceeded the limits of the Norwegian Water Framework Directives, whereas the concentrations of Mn (22.3–40.8 µg L−1) and Zn (13.1–99.4 µg L−1) fell within the range of desired limits. Of the total water samples analysed from Skuterud (n=370) and Mørdre streams (n=255), nearly 80–84%, 70–87% and 79–96% were above the desired limits for Al (0.2 mg L−1), Fe (0.3 mg L−1) and Cu (3 µg L−1), respectively. In 2011, water analysis from drainage of forest soils (in Skuterud catchment) measured total Al: 0.42–0.79 mg L−1 and total Fe: 0.84–1.0 mg L−1 which were two to three folds greater than the desired limits. In general, weak correlations between runoff and concentrations of the metals in the streams were noted. Future research should focus on identifying the sources of Al, Fe and Cu and management interventions of elevated metal inputs to Skuterud and Mørdre streams.

Sammendrag

I Norge har avrenning fra jordbruket vært viktig for vannkvaliteten i lang tid. Program for jord- og vannovervåking i landbruket ble satt i gang i 1992 og omfatter overvåking av jord- og næringsstofftap i 10 jordbruksdominerte nedbørfelt. Denne artikkelen tar sikte på å beskrive vannkvaliteten i to av de overvåkede bekkene (Skuterud- og Mørdre bekken). Vannføringsproporsjonale bland prøver fra bekkene ble tatt ut hver 14. dag i overvåkingsperioden. Prøvene ble analysert for 23 utvalgte vannkvalitetsparametere (pH, EC, SS, gløderest, DRP, TP, TN, NO3-N, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, B, Mo, Si, Cl, HCO3, SO4). For noen nedbørfelt blir også pesticidavrenning overvåket resultatene fra disse analyser er ikke tatt med her. Resultatene fra de 23 vannkvalitetsparametere viser at avrenning fra nedbørfeltene til Skuterud- og Mørdre bekken inneholder betydelige konsentrasjoner av flere stoffer. Konsentrasjonen av jordpartikler og næringsstoffer er høyere om våren og høsten sammenlignet med vinter og sommer på grunn av jordbruksdriften og været. I følge klassegrenser definert under EUs RDV betyr konsentrasjonene av totalfosfor og totalnitrogen at bekkene har dårlig vannkvalitet. Konsentrasjonene for øvrig var stort sett under WHO/EU’s grenser for drikkevann, unntatt Fe (0,75-2,8 mg L-1) og Al (1,1-3,9 mg L-1). Det er behov for nærmere undersøkelse av de høye konsentrasjonene av Fe og Al.

20161112-RVPX3509.jpg
Healthy Food Africa


Improving access to nutritious food is a systemic challenge. In order to foster healthier diets, it is necessary to go beyond expanding the diversity of products on the supply side, or raising awareness on the demand side. HealthyFoodAfrica aims to increase the resilience of food systems, and to link food production to nutrition performance, thereby increasing the range and quality of food products for a healthy diet. To achieve this, it engages with farmers, food processors, retailers, civil society organisations (CSOs), policymakers and local experts, and helps them create, and test, innovative technologies, practices and governance arrangements that contribute to a more sustainable, resilient and healthy food system for all.

Active Updated: 17.06.2020
End: des 2025
Start: juni 2020
IMG_1570

Divisjon for miljø og naturressurser

FARMS4Biodiversity: Farmer-led Agroecological Research in Malawi using Scenarios for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services


Farms4Biodiversity is an ambitious, interdisciplinary, multi-scalar project designed to address biodiversity conservation, support ecosystem services and improve food security under scenarios of land-use change in the Global South. The project is being implemented in the Northern part of Malawi.

Active Updated: 13.11.2020
End: nov 2022
Start: des 2018
IMG_10011

Divisjon for miljø og naturressurser

RESILIENCE: Building Climate Resilience of Indian Smallholders through Sustainable Intensification and Agroecological Farming Systems to Strengthen Food and Nutrition Security


The overall goal of the project is to improve agricultural productivity, adaptive capacity and livelihoods of smallholders to climate and economic changes. This will be done by building resilience and strengthening the agri-product market value chains.

Active Updated: 13.11.2020
End: sep 2022
Start: okt 2018