Til dokument

Sammendrag

In order to predict the effects of climate change on the global carbon cycle, it is crucial to understand the environmental factors that affect soil carbon storage in grasslands. In the present study, we attempted to explain the relationships between the distribution of soil carbon storage with climate, soil types, soil properties and topographical factors across different types of grasslands with different grazing regimes. We measured soil organic carbon in 92 locations at different soil depth increments, from 0 to 100 cm in southwestern China. Among soil types, brown earth soils (Luvisols) had the highest carbon storage with 19.5 ± 2.5 kg m−2, while chernozem soils had the lowest with 6.8 ± 1.2 kg m−2. Mean annual temperature and precipitation, exerted a significant, but, contrasting effects on soil carbon storage. Soil carbon storage increased as mean annual temperature decreased and as mean annual precipitation increased. Across different grassland types, the mean carbon storage for the top 100 cm varied from 7.6 ± 1.3 kg m−2 for temperate desert to 17.3 ± 2.9 kg m−2 for alpine meadow. Grazing/cutting regimes significantly affected soil carbon storage with lowest value (7.9 ± 1.5 kg m−2) recorded for cutting grass, while seasonal (11.4 ± 1.3 kg m−2) and year-long (12.2 ± 1.9 kg m−2) grazing increased carbon storage. The highest carbon storage was found in the completely ungrazed areas (16.7 ± 2.9 kg m−2). Climatic factors, along with soil types and topographical factors, controlled soil carbon density along a soil depth in grasslands. Environmental factors alone explained about 60% of the total variation in soil carbon storage. The actual depth-wise distribution of soil carbon contents was significantly influenced by the grazing intensity and topographical factors. Overall, policy-makers should focus on reducing the grazing intensity and land conversion for the sustainable management of grasslands and C sequestration.

Sammendrag

Soil respiration is an important ecosystem process that releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. While soil respiration can be measured continuously at high temporal resolutions, gaps in the dataset are inevitable, leading to uncertainties in carbon budget estimations. Therefore, robust methods used to fill the gaps are needed. The process-based non-linear least squares (NLS) regression is the most widely used gap-filling method, which utilizes the established relationship between the soil respiration and temperature. In addition to NLS, we also implemented three other methods based on: 1) artificial neural networks (ANN), driven by temperature and moisture measurements, 2) singular spectrum analysis (SSA), relying only on the time series itself, and 3) the expectation-maximization (EM) approach, referencing to parallel flux measurements in the spatial vicinity. Six soil respiration datasets (2017–2019) from two boreal forests were used for benchmarking. Artificial gaps were randomly introduced into the datasets and then filled using the four methods. The time-series-based methods, SSA and EM, showed higher accuracies than NLS and ANN in small gaps (<1 day). In larger gaps (15 days), the performance was similar among NLS, SSA and EM; however, ANN showed large errors in gaps that coincided with precipitation events. Compared to the observations, gap-filled data by SSA showed similar degree of variances and those filled by EM were associated with similar first-order autocorrelation coefficients. In contrast, data filled by both NLS and ANN exhibited lower variance and higher autocorrelation than the observations. For estimations of the annual soil respiration budget, NLS, SSA and EM resulted in errors between −3.7% and 5.8% given the budgets ranged from 463 to 1152 g C m−2 year−1, while ANN exhibited larger errors from −11.3 to 16.0%. Our study highlights the two time-series-based methods which showed great potential in gap-filling carbon flux data, especially when environmental variables are unavailable.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The measurement network Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is dedicated to the quantification of fluxes of CO2, H2O, N2O and CH4 at the boundary between vegetation surfaces and the lower atmosphere. The implementation of observations sites follows strict protocols and a challenging labelling process to ensure standardized intercomparable observations. We report on our experiences in attempting to establish the only Norwegian ICOS Ecosystem site thus far, NO-Hur, located in an old-growth spruce forest at Hurdal in Southeast Norway. NOHur is planned as a class 2 site, with the option to an upgrade to class 1 later. The instrumentation and sensors needed, the requirements for spatial homogeneity and a detailed analysis of a digital terrain model are presented. The current status of the tower construction, the preliminary measurements obtained with the existing ICOScertified equipment at a test site, and the plans for integrating the measurements operationally into the network are shown

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The measurement network Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is dedicated to the quantification of fluxes of CO2, H2O, N2O and CH4 at the boundary between vegetation surfaces and the lower atmosphere. The implementation of observations sites follows strict protocols and a challenging labelling process to ensure standardized intercomparable observations. We report on our experiences in attempting to establish the only Norwegian ICOS Ecosystem site thus far, NO-Hur, located in an old-growth spruce forest at Hurdal in Southeast Norway. NOHur is planned as a class 2 site, with the option to an upgrade to class 1 later. The instrumentation and sensors needed, the requirements for spatial homogeneity and a detailed analysis of a digital terrain model are presented. The current status of the tower construction, the preliminary measurements obtained with the existing ICOScertified equipment at a test site, and the plans for integrating the measurements operationally into the network are shown

Sammendrag

As the main drivers of climate change, greenhouse gas (e.g., CO2 and CH4) emissions have been monitored intensively across the globe. The static chamber is one of the most commonly used approaches for measuring greenhouse gas fluxes from ecosystems (e.g., stem/soil respiration, CH4 emission, etc.) because of its easy implementation, high accuracy and low cost (Pumpanen et al., 2004). To perform the measurements, a gas analyzer is usually used to measure the changes of greenhouse gas concentrations within a closed chamber that covers an area of interest (e.g., soil surface) over a certain period of time (usually several minutes). The flux rates (F) are then calculated from the recorded gas concentrations assuming that the changing rate is linear: F = vol/(R · T a · area) · dG/dt where vol is the volume of the chamber (l), R is the universal gas constant (l atm K-1 mol-1), Ta is the ambient temperature (K), area is the area of the chamber base (m2 ), and dG/dt is the rate of the measured gas concentration change over time t (ppm s-1) (i.e., the slope of the linear regression).

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Climate change has altered global precipitation patterns and has led to greater variation in hydrological conditions. Wetlands are important globally for their soil carbon storage. Given that wetland carbon processes are primarily driven by hydrology, a comprehensive understanding of the effect of inundation is needed. In this study, we evaluated the effect of water level (WL) and inundation duration (ID) on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes by analysing a 10‐year (2008–2017) eddy covariance dataset from a seasonally inundated freshwater marl prairie in the Everglades National Park. Both gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) rates showed declines under inundation. While GPP rates decreased almost linearly as WL and ID increased, ER rates were less responsive to WL increase beyond 30 cm and extended inundation periods. The unequal responses between GPP and ER caused a weaker net ecosystem CO2 sink strength as inundation intensity increased. Eventually, the ecosystem tended to become a net CO2 source on a daily basis when either WL exceeded 46 cm or inundation lasted longer than 7 months. Particularly, with an extended period of high‐WLs in 2016 (i.e., WL remained >40 cm for >9 months), the ecosystem became a CO2 source, as opposed to being a sink or neutral for CO2 in other years. Furthermore, the extreme inundation in 2016 was followed by a 4‐month postinundation period with lower net ecosystem CO2 uptake compared to other years. Given that inundation plays a key role in controlling ecosystem CO2 balance, we suggest that a future with more intensive inundation caused by climate change or water management activities can weaken the CO2 sink strength of the Everglades freshwater marl prairies and similar wetlands globally, creating a positive feedback to climate change.

Sammendrag

Many nonlinear methods of time series analysis require a minimal number of observations in the hundreds to thousands, which is not always easy to achieve for observations of environmental systems. Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements of the carbon exchange between the atmosphere and vegetation provide a noticeable exception. They are taken at high temporal resolution, typically at 20 Hz. This generates very long time series (many millions of data points) even for short measurement periods, rendering finite size effects unimportant. In this presentation, we investigate high-resolution raw data of 3D wind speed, CO2 concentrations, water vapor and temperature measured at a young forest plantation in Southeast Norway since July 2018. Guiding for the analysis is the gain or added value of the high resolution compared to more aggregated data, i.e. the scaling behavior of nonlinear properties of the time series. We present results of complexity analysis, Tarnopolski diagrams, q-Entropy, Hurst analysis, Empirical Mode Decomposition and Singular System Analysis. This provides detailed insights into the nature of dynamics of carbon fluxes across this system boundary at different temporal scales.