INAKTIV SIST OPPDATERT: 11.12.2014
Slutt: des 2014
Start: jan 2010

Hovedmål: Å analysere og evaluere miljømessig og økonomisk bærekraft på økologiske melkeproduksjonsgårder i Møre og Romsdal og bruke disse resultatene til å foreslå strategier for å forbedre miljømessig og økonomisk bærekraft på gårdsnivå.

Status Avsluttet
Start- og sluttdato 01.01.2010 - 31.12.2014
Prosjektleder Sissel Hansen

Publikasjoner i prosjektet

Sammendrag

Nitrogen (N) efficiency on farm gate is studied for 2010 on ten Norwegian, organic dairy farms and ten conventional as references. Preliminary results are presented here, and the method is discussed. N-efficiency is calculated as Net N-Export (kg) / Net N-Import (kg). Nitrogen from biological N-fixation had a large impact on calculated N-efficiency. Because of large yearly variations and very uncertain estimates of amount of N from biological N-fixation caused by uncertainties in roughage yields, clover content and the amount of nitrogen fixed per kg clover harvested, the numeric values on estimated N-efficiency should not be taken as exact values. N-efficiency is estimated with and without biological N fixation. There are large variations in farm size, use of concentrates and milk yield per cow within the group of organic farms. However the variation is even larger within the conventional farms'. On average the estimated N-efficiency were higher on the organic than on the conventional farms. However, there are large variations in estimated N-efficiency within the organic as well as the conventional group. This gives us the possibility to identify on which farms actions should be taken to improve N-efficiency.

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Sammendrag

The calculation of the embedded energy (EE) of twenty barns shows that there is a considerable variation of EE per cow, where the lowest values were one fourth of the highest. Use of timber instead of concrete in walls had most effect to reduce the amount of EE. Cold barns can contribute to reduce the amount of EE, while the amount of EE is higher in free-stall than in tie-stall barns. While for an existing building the amount of EE is nearly fixed, calculating the anticipated amount for a new building can help to reduce energy use in agriculture and thus contribute to a more sustainable production. Incorporating EE in planning new buildings should be of special importance for organic farming, since regulations demand more area per animal than in conventional farming. In addition to building new, renovation, extension as well as recycling of building materials should be considered. Planning new buildings should also include operational energy, as well as working conditions, animal welfare and economic considerations.

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Sammendrag

Nitrogen (N) efficiency on farm gate is studied for 2010 on ten Norwegian, organic dairy farms and ten conventional as references. Preliminary results are presented here, and the method is discussed. N-efficiency is calculated as Net N-Export (kg) / Net N-Import (kg). Nitrogen from biological N-fixation had a large impact on calculated N-efficiency. Because of large yearly variations and very uncertain estimates of amount of N from biological N-fixation caused by uncertainties in roughage yields, clover content and the amount of nitrogen fixed per kg clover harvested, the numeric values on estimated N-efficiency should not be taken as exact values. N-efficiency is estimated with and without biological N fixation. There are large variations in farm size, use of concentrates and milk yield per cow within the group of organic farms. However the variation is even larger within the conventional farms'. On average the estimated N-efficiency were higher on the organic than on the conventional farms. However, there are large variations in estimated N-efficiency within the organic as well as the conventional group. This gives us the possibility to identify on which farms actions should be taken to improve N-efficiency.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The calculation of the embedded energy (EE) of twenty barns shows that there is a considerable variation of EE per cow, where the lowest values were one fourth of the highest. Use of timber instead of concrete in walls had most effect to reduce the amount of EE. Cold barns can contribute to reduce the amount of EE, while the amount of EE is higher in free-stall than in tie-stall barns.While for an existing building the amount of EE is nearly fixed, calculating the anticipated amount for a new building can contribute to reduce this value considerably. This progress can help to reduce energy use in organic agriculture and thus contribute to a more sustainable production. Incorporating EE in planning new buildings should be of special importance for organic farming, since regulations demand for more area per animal than in conventional farming. In addition to building new, renovation and extension as well as recycling of building materials should be considered. Planning a new building should also include other topics as operational energy, as well as working conditions, animal welfare and economic considerations.

Sammendrag

Å produsere mat er et hovedmål med landbruksproduksjon. Når regjeringen har satt som mål å øke landbruksproduksjonen samtidig som det blir mer fokus på begrensingen av ikke fornybare energikilder, er det viktig å få mer viten om hvor effektivt tilført nitrogen og energi blir utnyttet og identifisere forbedringsmuligheter. Produksjon og bruk av innsatsfaktorer ble undersøkt på 20 melkebruk på Vestlandet. Foreløpige resultat viser at det var både blant økologisk og konvensjonelt drevne garder stor forskjell i nitrogen- og energieffektiviteten.

Sammendrag

Både avling og avdrått ble registrert over 3 år fra 20 gardsbruk i Møre og Romsdal. Både blant de 10 økologiske og 10 konvensjonelle var det stor variasjon.

Sammendrag

For 20 gardsbruk i Møre og Romsdal ble det estimert hvor mye nitrogen som ble brukt og hvor mye som hva i produktene som ble solgt. For energi ble det gjort samme beregning men i tillegg beregnet hvor mye energi som hav nødvendig til å produsere alle input, inklusive bygninger og maskiner.

Sammendrag

Energy use on twenty farms were estimated for 20 Dairy farms in the county of Møre og Romsdal.

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Sammendrag

Prosjektet MILJØMELK har sammenlignet nitrogen-, fosfor-, kalium- og energibalanse, klimagasser og økonomi i økologisk og konvensjonell melkeproduksjon. Ikke overraskende ble det funnet lavere overskudd av nitrogen og fosfor på bruk som driver økologisk enn bruk som driver konvensjonelt.

Sammendrag

Nitrogen og fosfor er viktige næringsstoffer for plantevekst og i fôr. Ved siden av produksjonen er det viktig å ha fokus på utnyttelsen, fordi innkjøp gjennom gjødsel eller fôr gir kostnader, og overskudd kan føre til miljøproblem. På 20 melkebruk på Vestlandet ble det beregnet mengde næringsstoff som ble kjøpt inn og næringsstoff som ble solgt. Dermed kunne utnyttelsen beregnes. Resultat viser at det både blant økologisk og konvensjonelt drevne garder var stor forskjell i nitrogen- og fosforeffektiviteten.

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Sammendrag

I norsk landbruk er det stor variasjon når det gjelder hvordan de ulike gardsbruka drives. Dette fører til ulike miljøpåvirkninger. Det konstaterer forskerne etter en studie av ti konvensjonelle og ti økologiske bruk med melkekyr i Møre og Romsdal

Sammendrag

Graue Energie bezeichnet die Energiemenge, die nötig ist, um Produkte herzustellen und zu transportieren. Die Menge der Grauen Energie in Kuhställen trägt in Dänemark mit etwa 10 % zum gesamten Energiebedarf in der Milchviehproduktion bei (Dalgaard et al. 2000), in der Schweiz mit 32 % (Rossier und Gaillard 2004). Wir stellen hier eine Methode vor, um die Graue Energie (embodied energy) in der Gebäudehülle in landwirtschaftlichen Gebäuden vereinfacht zu berechnen. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Graue Energie pro Stallplatz in der Milchkuhhaltung sehr variiert und wesentlich von Grundfläche, Wandfläche und den verwendeten Materialien abhängt.

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Sammendrag

Embodied energy in barns is found to contribute to about 10–30% of total energy use on dairy farms. Nevertheless, research on sustainability of dairy farming has largely excluded consideration of embodied energy. The main objectives of this study were to apply an established model from the residential and commercial building sector and estimate the amount of embodied energy in the building envelopes on 20 dairy farms in Norway. Construction techniques varied across the buildings and our results showed that the variables which contributed most significantly to levels of embodied energy were the area per cow-place, use of concrete in walls and insulation in concrete walls. Our findings are in contrast to the assumption that buildings are similar and would show no significant differences. We conclude that the methodology is sufficiently flexible to accommodate different building design and use of materials, and allows for an efficient means of estimating embodied energy reducing the work compared to a mass material calculation. Choosing a design that requires less material or materials with a low amount of embodied energy, can significantly reduce the amount of embodied energy in buildings.