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Docks (Rumex spp.) are a considerable problem in grassland production worldwide. We investigated how different cultural management techniques affected dock populations during grassland renewal: (I) renewal time, (II) companion crop, (III) false seedbed, (IV) taproot cutting (V), plough skimmer and (VI) ploughing depth. Three factorial split-split plot experiments were carried out in Norway in 2007–2008 (three locations), 2008–2009 (one location) and 2009 (one location). After grassland renewal, more dock plants emerged from seeds than from roots. Summer renewal resulted in more dock seed and root plants than spring renewal. Adding a spring barley companion crop to the grassland crop often reduced dock density and biomass. A false seedbed resulted in 71% fewer dock seed plants following summer renewal, but tended to increase the number of dock plants after spring renewal. In some instances, taproot cutting resulted in less dock biomass, but the effect was weak and inconsistent, and if ploughing was shallow (16 cm) or omitted, it instead increased dock root plant emergence. Fewer root plants emerged after deep ploughing (24 cm) compared to shallow ploughing, and a plough skimmer tended to reduce the number further. We conclude that a competitive companion crop can assist in controlling both dock seed and root plants, but it is more important that the renewal time is favourable to the main crop. Taproot cutting in conjunction with ploughing is not an effective way to reduce dock root plants, but ploughing is more effective if it is deep and a skimmer is used.

Sammendrag

Research is being poured into developing both potential products and the processes required to convert seaweed, or macroalgae, into products. So far, the results are products for high-end markets, such as restaurants, but in very modest volumes. To understand what it will take to create a large-scale seaweed industry, research is conducted into the strategic-, environmental- and economic realities such an industry would have to deal with as suppliers of fish-feed. The idea is that unless the industry has something to offer that competing products do not, in terms of cost, performance or environmental- and economic footprint, the seaweed industry will be delegated to small volumes for special needs and high value products. These topics are discussed below.

Sammendrag

This study examines the relationships between profitability, nitrogen (N) surplus, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), and energy intensity and factors influencing these relationships in dairy farming. In-depth data from 10 conventional and 8 organic dairy farms in Western Norway were analyzed. Organic farms had lower N surplus per hectare (local, onfarm) and per unit output (global, cradle-to-farm-gate), and lower estimated GHG emissions and energy intensity per unit output, whereas labor input and farm profits did not differ. Higher profitability tended to be associated with improved performance of the environmental indicators examined. Intensification through increased use of concentrates tended to improve profit and reduce N surplus, GHG emissions, and energy intensity per unit output within each farming system while N surplus per hectare could be negatively affected. To ensure a balanced representation of the environmental consequences of both organic and conventional farming systems,our results give support to extensive examination of both area and product-based environmental performance indicators.

Sammendrag

Hvert år produseres i snitt 300 liter melk per innbygger i Norge. Vi beregnet summen av all energi som brukes både direkte og indirekte for å produsere melk for 20 gårder med melkeku i Møre og Romsdal. Resultatet viser at energibehovet varierer mye og tyder på at mange kunne spare både mye energi og en del utgifter.

Sammendrag

Norske bønder med melkeku leverer i snitt 300 liter melk per innbygger og år, noe som gir en selvforsyning med meieriprodukt. Av disse 300 l konsumeres rundt 90 liter som forskjellige typer ferskmelk, resten blir hovedsakelig til ost, yoghurt, rømme, fløte, is og smør. Med utgangs-punkt i 20 melkebruk i Møre og Romsdal, beregnet vi hvor mye energi som ble brukt for å produsere melk og kjøtt. Vi tok med all energi som brukes til å framstille innsatsfaktorer som kraftfôr, kunstgjødsel og diesel, samt maskiner, traktorer og fjøs. Blant de 20 brukene varierte energibehovet for å produsere 300 l melk mye og tilsvarte energi fra 35 til 75 l diesel. I gjennomsnitt ble energi som tilsvarte 55 l diesel per 300 liter levert melk brukt på konvensjonelt drevne garder, og 45 l diesel på økologisk drevne garder.

Sammendrag

Life cycle assessment (LCA) allows systematic comparisons of environmental performance between different products. The functional unit in LCA for milk production is typically set to 1 kg energy corrected milk. This does not however suffice as definition to allow for comparing different studies. The definition of reference flow can introduce a bias between organic and conventional farming systems. We strongly encourage to include definition of reference flow calculation, choice of algorithm for energy calculation as well as choice of energy content of milk in the communication of any results.

Sammendrag

To improve environmental sustainability it is important that all sectors in a society contribute to improving the utilization of inputs as energy and nutrients. In Norway, dairy farming contributes with an important share to the added value from the agricultural sector, although there is little information available about utilization of energy and nitrogen (N). Many results on sustainability have been published on dairy farming. However, due to Norway’s Nordic climatic conditions, mountainous and rugged topography and an agricultural policy that can design its own prices and subsidies, results from other countries are hardly representative for Norwegian conditions. To bridge this gap, the objective of this study was to analyse if the utilisation of nitrogen and energy in dairy farming in Norway can be improved to strengthen its environmental sustainability. Data were collected from 2010 to 2012 on 10 conventional and 10 organic farms in a region in central Norway with dairy farming as the main enterprise. The farms varied in area, number of dairy cows and milk yield. For nitrogen, a farm gate balance was applied and supplemented with nitrogen fixation by clover and atmospheric N-deposition. The total farm area was broken down into three categories: dairy farm area utilized directly by the farm, off-farm area needed to produce imported roughages and concentrates, and free rangeland that only can be used for grazing.

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Reduced N-surpluses in dairy farming is a strategy to reduce the environmental pollution from this production. This study was designed to analyse the important variables influencing nitrogen (N) surplus per hectare and per unit of N in produce for dairy farms and dairy systems across 10 certified organic and 10 conventional commercial dairy farms in Møre og Romsdal County, Norway, between 2010 and 2012. The N-surplus per hectare was calculated as N-input (net N-purchase and inputs from biological N-fixation, atmospheric deposition and free rangeland) minus N in produce (sold milk and meat gain), and the N-surplus per unit of N-produce as net Ninput divided by N in produce. On average, the organic farms produced milk and meat with lower N-surplus per hectare (88 ± 25 kg N·ha−1) than did conventional farms (220 ± 56 kg N·ha−1). Also, the N-surplus per unit of N-produce was on average lower on organic than on conventional farms, 4.2 ± 1.2 kg N·kg N−1 and 6.3 ± 0.9 kg N·kg N−1, respectively. All farms included both fully-cultivated land and native grassland. Nsurplus was found to be higher on the fully cultivated land than on native grassland. N-fertilizers (43%) and concentrates (30%) accounted for most of the N input on conventional farms. On organic farms, biological Nfixation and concentrates contributed to 32% and 36% of the N-input (43 ± 18 N·kg N−1 and 48 ± 11 N·kg N−1), respectively. An increase in N-input per hectare increased the amount of N-produce in milk and meat per hectare, but, on average for all farms, only 11% of the N-input was utilised as N-output; however, the N-surplus per unit of N in produce (delivered milk and meat gain) was not correlated to total N-input. This surplus was calculated for the dairy system, which also included the N-surplus on the off-farm area. Only 16% and 18% of this surplus on conventional and organic farms, respectively, was attributed to surplus derived from off-farm production of purchased feed and animals. Since the dairy farm area of conventional and organic farms comprised 52% and 60% of the dairy system area, respectively, it is crucial to relate production not only to dairy farm area but also to the dairy system area. On conventional dairy farms, the N-surplus per unit of N in produce decreased with increasing milk yield per cow. Organic farms tended to have lower N-surpluses than conventional farms with no correlation between the milk yield and the N-surplus. For both dairy farm and dairy system area, N-surpluses increased with increasing use of fertilizer N per hectare, biological N-fixation, imported concentrates and roughages and decreased with higher production per area. This highlights the importance of good agronomy that well utilize available nitrogen.

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Due to the limited resources of fossil fuels and the need to mitigate climate change, energy utilisation for all human activity has to be improved. The objective of this study was to analyse the correlation between energy intensity on dairy farms and production mode, to examine the influence of machinery and buildings on energy intensity, and to find production related solutions for conventional and organic dairy farms to reduce energy intensity. Data from ten conventional and ten organic commercial dairy farms in Norway from 2010 to 2012 were used to calculate the amount of embodied energy as the sum of primary energy used for production of inputs from cradle-to-farm gates using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Energy intensities of dairy farms were used to show the amount of embodied energy needed to produce the inputs per metabolizable energy in the output. Energy intensities allow to easily point out the contribution of different inputs. The results showed that organic farms produced milk and meat with lower energy intensities on average than the conventional ones. On conventional farms, the energy intensity on all inputs was 2.6 ± 0.4 (MJMJ?1) and on organic farms it was significantly lower at 2.1 ± 0.3 (MJ MJ?1). On conventional farms, machinery and buildings contributed 18% ± 4%, on organic farms 29% ± 4% to the overall energy use. The high relative contribution of machinery and buildings to the overall energy consumption underlines the importance of considering them when developing solutions to reduce energy consumption in dairy production. For conventional and organic dairy farms, different strategies are recommend to reduce the energy intensity on all inputs. Conventional farms can reduce energy intensity by reducing the tractor weight and on most of them, it should be possible to reduce the use of nitrogen fertilisers without reducing yields. On organic dairy farms, energy intensity can be reduced by reducing embodied energy in barns and increasing yields. The embodied energy in existing barns can be reduced by a higher milk production per cow and by a longer use of the barns than the estimated lifetime. In the long run, new barns should be built with a lower amount of embodied energy. The high variation of energy intensity on all inputs from 1.6 to 3.3 (MJ MJ?1) (corresponding to the energy use of 4.5e9.3 MJ kg-1 milk) found on the 20 farms shows a potential for producing milk and meat with lower energy intensity on many farms. Based on the results, separate recommendations were provided for conventional and organic farms for reducing energy intensity.

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Embodied energy in barns is found to contribute to about 10–30% of total energy use on dairy farms. Nevertheless, research on sustainability of dairy farming has largely excluded consideration of embodied energy. The main objectives of this study were to apply an established model from the residential and commercial building sector and estimate the amount of embodied energy in the building envelopes on 20 dairy farms in Norway. Construction techniques varied across the buildings and our results showed that the variables which contributed most significantly to levels of embodied energy were the area per cow-place, use of concrete in walls and insulation in concrete walls. Our findings are in contrast to the assumption that buildings are similar and would show no significant differences. We conclude that the methodology is sufficiently flexible to accommodate different building design and use of materials, and allows for an efficient means of estimating embodied energy reducing the work compared to a mass material calculation. Choosing a design that requires less material or materials with a low amount of embodied energy, can significantly reduce the amount of embodied energy in buildings.

Sammendrag

Graue Energie bezeichnet die Energiemenge, die nötig ist, um Produkte herzustellen und zu transportieren. Die Menge der Grauen Energie in Kuhställen trägt in Dänemark mit etwa 10 % zum gesamten Energiebedarf in der Milchviehproduktion bei (Dalgaard et al. 2000), in der Schweiz mit 32 % (Rossier und Gaillard 2004). Wir stellen hier eine Methode vor, um die Graue Energie (embodied energy) in der Gebäudehülle in landwirtschaftlichen Gebäuden vereinfacht zu berechnen. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Graue Energie pro Stallplatz in der Milchkuhhaltung sehr variiert und wesentlich von Grundfläche, Wandfläche und den verwendeten Materialien abhängt.

Sammendrag

Nitrogen og fosfor er viktige næringsstoffer for plantevekst og i fôr. Ved siden av produksjonen er det viktig å ha fokus på utnyttelsen, fordi innkjøp gjennom gjødsel eller fôr gir kostnader, og overskudd kan føre til miljøproblem. På 20 melkebruk på Vestlandet ble det beregnet mengde næringsstoff som ble kjøpt inn og næringsstoff som ble solgt. Dermed kunne utnyttelsen beregnes. Resultat viser at det både blant økologisk og konvensjonelt drevne garder var stor forskjell i nitrogen- og fosforeffektiviteten.

Sammendrag

Både avling og avdrått ble registrert over 3 år fra 20 gardsbruk i Møre og Romsdal. Både blant de 10 økologiske og 10 konvensjonelle var det stor variasjon.

Sammendrag

å produsere mat er et hovedmål med landbruksproduksjon. Når regjeringen har satt som mål å øke landbruksproduksjonen samtidig som det blir mer fokus på begrensingen av ikke fornybare energikilder, er det viktig å få mer viten om hvor effektivt tilført nitrogen og energi blir utnyttet og identifisere forbedringsmuligheter. Produksjon og bruk av innsatsfaktorer ble undersøkt på 20 melkebruk på Vestlandet. Foreløpige resultat viser at det var både blant økologisk og konvensjonelt drevne garder stor forskjell i nitrogen- og energieffektiviteten.

Sammendrag

For 20 gardsbruk i Møre og Romsdal ble det estimert hvor mye nitrogen som ble brukt og hvor mye som hva i produktene som ble solgt. For energi ble det gjort samme beregning men i tillegg beregnet hvor mye energi som hav nødvendig til å produsere alle input, inklusive bygninger og maskiner.

Sammendrag

Energy use on twenty farms were estimated for 20 Dairy farms in the county of Møre og Romsdal.

Sammendrag

Å produsere mat er et hovedmål med landbruksproduksjon. Når regjeringen har satt som mål å øke landbruksproduksjonen samtidig som det blir mer fokus på begrensingen av ikke fornybare energikilder, er det viktig å få mer viten om hvor effektivt tilført nitrogen og energi blir utnyttet og identifisere forbedringsmuligheter. Produksjon og bruk av innsatsfaktorer ble undersøkt på 20 melkebruk på Vestlandet. Foreløpige resultat viser at det var både blant økologisk og konvensjonelt drevne garder stor forskjell i nitrogen- og energieffektiviteten.

Sammendrag

I artikkelen «Bygdekommunen Bjerkreim vil ha betaling for by-drikkevatn» kan en lese at byveksten i Stavanger krever også mer drikkevann. Som en mulighet ser IVAR IKS å bruke Birkelandsvatnet/Storavatnet i bygdekommunen Bjerkreim som ny drikkevannskilde. I følge artikkelen frykter bøndene nye restriksjoner for jordbruket, som muligens fører til at det nesten ikke blir jordbruk igjen i området.

Sammendrag

Det er ikke mulig å se forskjell på økologiske og konvensjonelle egg. Likevel er det stor forskjell på hvordan hønene som har lagt eggene har hatt det. Økologisk fjørfe holdes ikke i bur og har tilgang på uteareal. De kan flakse med vingene, sandbade og vagle seg på sittepinner. "Frittgående høner" går som regel bare fritt inne, og dyretettheten er høyere enn i økologisk drift.

Sammendrag

The calculation of the embedded energy (EE) of twenty barns shows that there is a considerable variation of EE per cow, where the lowest values were one fourth of the highest. Use of timber instead of concrete in walls had most effect to reduce the amount of EE. Cold barns can contribute to reduce the amount of EE, while the amount of EE is higher in free-stall than in tie-stall barns. While for an existing building the amount of EE is nearly fixed, calculating the anticipated amount for a new building can help to reduce energy use in agriculture and thus contribute to a more sustainable production. Incorporating EE in planning new buildings should be of special importance for organic farming, since regulations demand more area per animal than in conventional farming. In addition to building new, renovation, extension as well as recycling of building materials should be considered. Planning new buildings should also include operational energy, as well as working conditions, animal welfare and economic considerations.

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The calculation of the embedded energy (EE) of twenty barns shows that there is a considerable variation of EE per cow, where the lowest values were one fourth of the highest. Use of timber instead of concrete in walls had most effect to reduce the amount of EE. Cold barns can contribute to reduce the amount of EE, while the amount of EE is higher in free-stall than in tie-stall barns.While for an existing building the amount of EE is nearly fixed, calculating the anticipated amount for a new building can contribute to reduce this value considerably. This progress can help to reduce energy use in organic agriculture and thus contribute to a more sustainable production. Incorporating EE in planning new buildings should be of special importance for organic farming, since regulations demand for more area per animal than in conventional farming. In addition to building new, renovation and extension as well as recycling of building materials should be considered. Planning a new building should also include other topics as operational energy, as well as working conditions, animal welfare and economic considerations.

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The calculation of the embedded energy (EE) of twenty barns shows that there is a considerable variation of EE per cow, where the lowest values were one fourth of the highest. Use of timber instead of concrete in walls had most effect to reduce the amount of EE. Cold barns can contribute to reduce the amount of EE, while the amount of EE is higher in free-stall than in tie-stall barns. While for an existing building the amount of EE is nearly fixed, calculating the anticipated amount for a new building can help to reduce energy use in agriculture and thus contribute to a more sustainable production. Incorporating EE in planning new buildings should be of special importance for organic farming, since regulations demand more area per animal than in conventional farming. In addition to building new, renovation, extension as well as recycling of building materials should be considered. Planning new buildings should also include operational energy, as well as working conditions, animal welfare and economic considerations.

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Nitrogen (N) efficiency on farm gate is studied for 2010 on ten Norwegian, organic dairy farms and ten conventional as references. Preliminary results are presented here, and the method is discussed. N-efficiency is calculated as Net N-Export (kg) / Net N-Import (kg). Nitrogen from biological N-fixation had a large impact on calculated N-efficiency. Because of large yearly variations and very uncertain estimates of amount of N from biological N-fixation caused by uncertainties in roughage yields, clover content and the amount of nitrogen fixed per kg clover harvested, the numeric values on estimated N-efficiency should not be taken as exact values. N-efficiency is estimated with and without biological N fixation. There are large variations in farm size, use of concentrates and milk yield per cow within the group of organic farms. However the variation is even larger within the conventional farms'. On average the estimated N-efficiency were higher on the organic than on the conventional farms. However, there are large variations in estimated N-efficiency within the organic as well as the conventional group. This gives us the possibility to identify on which farms actions should be taken to improve N-efficiency.

Sammendrag

Nitrogen (N) efficiency on farm gate is studied for 2010 on ten Norwegian, organic dairy farms and ten conventional as references. Preliminary results are presented here, and the method is discussed. N-efficiency is calculated as Net N-Export (kg) / Net N-Import (kg). Nitrogen from biological N-fixation had a large impact on calculated N-efficiency. Because of large yearly variations and very uncertain estimates of amount of N from biological N-fixation caused by uncertainties in roughage yields, clover content and the amount of nitrogen fixed per kg clover harvested, the numeric values on estimated N-efficiency should not be taken as exact values. N-efficiency is estimated with and without biological N fixation. There are large variations in farm size, use of concentrates and milk yield per cow within the group of organic farms. However the variation is even larger within the conventional farms'. On average the estimated N-efficiency were higher on the organic than on the conventional farms. However, there are large variations in estimated N-efficiency within the organic as well as the conventional group. This gives us the possibility to identify on which farms actions should be taken to improve N-efficiency.

Sammendrag

Docks are among the most important perennial weeds in grasslands throughout the world and the need for more effective control methods is especially crucial in organic forage production. To find more effective control methods, field trials over 2 years at 4 Norwegian locations, were carried out mainly as a full-factorial design, including factors expected to reduce docks significantly. (i) Date of grassland establishment: may be important for preventing/decreasing the flush of seedlings from seeds as well as shoots from root fragments.(ii) False seedbed preparation: to decrease soil seed bank. (iii) Use of nurse crop (cover crop) to increase competitiveness against Rumex seedlings. (iv) Cutting the taproot, using a rotary tiller before ploughing, or the "dock-plough" (a skimmer modified to cut roots in the entire furrow width at ca 7 cm depth): as new shoots mostly come from the neck and the upper 5 cm of the taproot. (v) Ploughing depth and skimming: to decrease shoots from root fragments. Weed development was assessed as the number of emerging Rumex seedlings and plants sprouting from root fragments. Results indicated that frequently more plants emerged from seeds than from root fragments. Neither renewing the grassland in summer, nor the use of the rotary tiller or the "dock plough" reduced the number of docks in the renewed grasslands. The use of the false seedbed and nurse crop, at some locations and years, reduced the number of docks in the renewed grasslands. Deep ploughing (24cm) reduced the number of Rumex plants from roots by 65% percent compared to shallow ploughing (16cm). Furthermore, the use of a skimmer reduced the number of docks sprouting from roots by 28%. Among the investigated factors, competitiveness, false seedbed and ploughing depth, as well as ploughing quality, seems to be the most promising factors for reducing the number of docks in renewed grassland.

Sammendrag

Fra 2002 til 2006 meldte seg 7 % av de garder med sertifisert økologisk produksjon ut av Debio ordningen. Gjennom en kvalitativ og kvantitativ analyse ble det undersøkt, hvor mange bønder med sertifisert økologisk produksjon som vurderer å melde seg ut av Debio, hva som er grunner til dette og hvordan de vil drive garden etter utmelding.

Sammendrag

Ved årsskiftet 2008-09 var 5,1 % av jordbruksarealet økologisk eller under omlegging. Med et offentlig mål om 15 % økologisk produksjon og forbruk i 2015 trengs det mange flere økobønder. Interessen for omlegging er lavere enn ønskelig, og veksten i økoareal bremses også av at mange økobønder slutter. Hvert år siden 2002 har ca 180 bønder meldt seg ut av kontrollordningen for økologisk produksjon, Debio, og trenden ser ikke ut til å avta. Så langt i 2009 har det vært 104 innmeldinger og 80 utmeldinger. Per 01.05.2009 var 2726 gårdsbruk tilknyttet Debio-ordningen. Bioforsk Økologisk og Norsk institutt for landbruksøkonomisk forskning (NILF) har nettopp avsluttet et forskningsprosjekt (2007-08) for å kartlegge og analysere årsakene til utmelding. I denne artikkelen oppsummerer vi de viktigste resultatene. Når vi vet hvorfor bønder går lei av ett eller flere forhold ved økologisk drift blir det lettere å planlegge tiltak som kan motivere til videre innsats, og tiltak som kan rekruttere nye økobønder.

Sammendrag

Undersøkelser viser at det finnes mange forskjellige fjøskonsept som funger godt for kyr med horn. Det finnes altså ikke en løsning som utpeker seg til å være best. Det som har vist seg å være viktigst er dimensjoneringen og utformingen av selve fjøset, i tillegg til et bra management og et godt forhold mellom mennesker og dyr.

Sammendrag

Nitrogen i kunstgjødsel har bidratt til stor avlingsøkning de siste 50 år. På den ene siden har økt produktivitet i jordbruket sørget for at en gjennomsnittsfamilie må bruke en langt mindre del av inntekten til innkjøp av mat. På den andre siden blir bruk nitrogen fra kunstgjødsel vurdert som kritisk med hensyn til avrenning og høy energibruk under fremstilling.

Sammendrag

Siden 2002 har mellom 150 og 200 produsenter årlig meldt seg ut av Debio. Den viktigste årsaken til utmelding var for mye byråkrati med kontroll og sertifisering. For dem som driver økologisk er det viktigste problemet uforutsigbare politiske rammevilkår. Økonomiske forhold var viktige årsaker eller problemer for alle.

Sammendrag

Siden 2002 har mellom 150 og 200 produsenter årlig meldt seg ut av Debio. Den viktigste årsaken var for mye byråkrati med kontroll og sertifisering. De som fortsetter med økologisk drift nevner uforutsigbare politiske rammevilkår som viktig utfordring. Økonomiske forhold var viktige årsaker eller problemer for begge gruppene.

Sammendrag

While the number of organic farms was rising rapidly in almost all European Countries since the beginning of the 1990s, some organic farmers were opting out of certified organic farming the later years. For farmers in Estonia and Denmark, unsatisfactory economic results were named as dominating reason for opting out. In Denmark these problems were mainly due to marketing problems. Other important reasons in Estonia were too much bureaucracy, difficulties to fit animal production to the regulations and difficulties in weed control. Difficult and changing regulations, getting stricter over time, were mentioned most frequently by Norwegian and Austrian farmers and also important for those in Denmark.

Sammendrag

Denne rapporten belyser faktorer som bidrar til redusert N-effektivitet i husdyrproduksjon og øker faren for utslipp av lystgass. Hovedvekt er lagt på handtering av husdyrgjødsel. For å få en bedre utnytting av husdyrgjødsel er en avhenging av å se hele gardsdrifta i sammenheng. Bedre lagerkapasitet vil kunne bety mye lokalt for å sikre vårspredning av husdyrgjødsel. Bedre bevissthet på optimale spredetidspunkt og spredemengder for gjødsel, og bedre spredeutstyr vil kunne redusere ammoniakktap betydelig. Det totale N-tapet og risikoen for lystgassutslipp vil imidlertid bli like stort dersom det ikke tas hensyn til N i husdyrgjødsel i gjødslingsplanlegginga. Fordi de fleste melkeproduksjonsgårder i Norge i dag har en stor fôrimport og samtidig et betydelig innkjøp av nitrogen i form av kunstgjødsel, har de fleste et netto overskudd av nitrogen. Både plantenes mulighet til å utnytte tilført nitrogen og forutsetningene for lystgassutslipp er påvirket av forholdene i jorda. I våt og pakket jord synker nitrogeneffektiviteten og faren for forurensing øker. Vi har vurdert en del tiltak og forhold som kan bidra til økt N-effektivitet og reduserte N-utslipp. Innenfor dette prosjektets ramme er det ikke mulig å tallfeste hvor mye de ulike tiltakene vil bety i reduserte utslipp av lystgass. I rapport 2 til SFT (Øygarden m.fl. 2009) estimeres effekt av tiltak basert på IPCC sine emisjonskoeffisienter og utenlandske undersøkelser. Det finnes imidlertid svært få målinger av lystgassutslipp som er gjort under norske forhold. I et samarbeidsprosjekt mellom Bioforsk og UMB gjøres det nå helårsregistreringer av lystgassutslipp i utvalgte produksjonssystem, og det vil beregnes emisjonskoeffisienter for lystgass tilpasset norske forhold. Når disse er på plass, er det lettere å lage mer realistiske estimat av effekten av ulike tiltak på reduserte lystgassutslipp.  Vi vet imidlertid at jo mer effektivt tilført nitrogen blir utnyttet, jo mindre blir utslippene av lystgass. Derfor foreslår vi i å utrede disse tiltakene nærmere:Evaluering av N-effektiviteten i ulike produksjoner i Norsk jordbruk og identifisering av flaskehalser som forhindrer bedre utnytting av tilført nitrogen. Tiltak for å redusere tilført mengde N i forhold til forventet og oppnådd avling, både tilpassing til norm og konsekvenser av reduserte normer for N-gjødsling. Mye er undersøkt på effekt av ulik husdyrgjødselhandtering på redusert ammoniakktap, men vi har få data på lystgasstap ved ulikt handtert husdyrgjødsel under norske forhold, og vi har få data på utvasking av nitrogen. Her er det ikke nok med utredning. Det må gjøres en del målinger i felt. Utrede hvor mye jord som trenger bedret drenering og oppdaterte kostnader og gevinst for gardbrukeren/ samfunnet av å utbedre dreneringen. Lage et grovt estimat på hvor mye bedret drenering kan redusere lystgassutslipp.Agronomiske og miljømessige evalueringer må suppleres med konsekvensanalyser som belyser virkningen for bondens og samfunnets økonomi

Sammendrag

Siden begrepet økologisk landbruk ble lovbeskyttet gjennom EØS-avtalen i 1994 har antall økologiske gårder i Norge økt fra 561 til 2838 (november 2009). Et problem med begreper er at de ikke alltid gjenspeiler forestillingene våre. Si ordet «økologisk gård», og vi ser for oss frodige kløverenger, frittgående hønseflokker, kuer som vasser i hvit snø i januar og gulrøtter som vokser i kompostgjødslet, feit jord der meitemarken yngler og solsikkene blomstrer i grøftekanten. Det er imidlertid ingen krav om at hele gården skal legges om, så i praksis har en god del av disse gårdene en ganske begrenset økologisk produksjon. Hvert år siden 2002 har 150-200 bønder meldt seg ut av Debio, og dermed bidratt til inntrykket av at økologisk landbruk ikke er liv laga - i hvert fall ikke for bønder. Noen av gårdene som meldte seg ut, kom imidlertid aldri så langt som til å legge om noe som helst. Andre testet kanskje ut økodrift på litt av jorda, og fant ut at omlegging ikke var noe for dem. Andre igjen er ærlige på at de la om for å få kloa i ekstra tilskudd. Over tid kan en slik strategi koste mer enn den smaker. «Øko»-bonden vender tilbake til konvensjonell drift en erfaring rikere, men har bidratt til å gi økologien et dårlig rykte. Tilskuddsryttere er ikke noe man ønsker å bli identifisert med, og for eksempel ensidig økologisk korndyrking i Trøndelag har fått et dårlig ord på seg i denne sammenhengen. Selv med liten innsats og elendige avlinger kan økonomien bli bedre ved økologisk drift, på grunn av det ekstra arealtilskuddet. At noen slutter med økodrift er altså ikke nødvendigvis negativt for økologisk landbruk.

Sammendrag

Utmeldinger begrenser veksten i økologisk produksjon i Norge. Siden 2005 har det vært et offentlig mål å ha 15 % økologisk matproduksjon og forbruk innen 2015 i Norge (LMD, 2009). Antall bønder som legger om er imidlertid lavere enn ønskelig. Siden 2002 har det bare vært en netto økning på 562 primærprodusenter. Mellom 2002 og 2009 var det årlig ca 180 utmeldinger, og denne trenden ser ikke ut til å avta. I starten av 2009 var 2702 produsenter med i Debio-ordningen (Debio, 2009), og inkludert areal i karens var bare 5,1 % av jordbruksarealet økologisk. For å kartlegge årsakene til utmelding har Bioforsk Økologisk og Norsk institutt for landbruksøkonomisk forskning gjennomført et forskningsprosjekt i samarbeid med Danmarks tekniske universitet i årene 2007-08. I denne artikkelen omtaler vi de viktigste resultatene.

Sammendrag

Økologisk gulrot er etterspurt og kan dyrkes over store deler av landet. Kulturen kan by på faglige utfordringer, siden den er sårbar for ugras og en del skadedyr. Gulrot vokser langsomt i starten og det er avgjørende å legge til rette for en god start og god oppfølging gjennom hele sesongen. Pris for vasket og pakket gulrot er god. Artikkelen gir en oversikt over viktige faktorer for dyrking.

Sammendrag

Det er for tida sterkt fokus på dyrking av økologisk korn, både til mat og fôr. Og mens noen husker at det var umulig til å selge økologisk korn til merpris for noen år tilbake, anslås behovet for 2009 til 25 - 30.000 dekar mer økologisk fôrkorn og 6.000 dekar mer økologisk matkorn for å unngå import. Økonomien for økologisk korn ser bra ut. Men er det nok til å vurdere omlegging til økologisk korndyrking bare på grunnlag av dette? Hva er viktige faktorer når en vurderer økologisk korndyrking ved husdyrløs drift?

Sammendrag

For å øke forbruket av økologisk mat på lengre sikt, er det viktig å nå unge konsumenter. Bioforsk leder et europeisk forskningsprosjekt om mattilbud i skolen. Deltakerlandene har svært ulike ordninger, og andelen økomat varierer mye. Hva kan vi lære av hverandre for å finne innovative strategier til økt bruk av økologiske matvarer, i skolen og på andre arenaer?

Sammendrag

Antall Debio-registrerte gårder er i vekst. Etter en periode fra 2002 til 2006 der nesten like mange meldte seg ut av som inn i Debio-ordningen, har det vært en betydelig vekst i antall Debio-registrerte gårder fra 2006 til 2007. Jordbruksarealet på Debio-gårdene er nå er større enn gjennomsnittet for alle norske gårdsbruk.

Sammendrag

From 2002 to 06, the annual dropout rate of certified organic farmers averaged 7.3%. A project was started in 2007 to explore farmer"s reasons for opting out of certified organic production. Important factors seem to be public regulations including standards for organic farming, agronomy, economy, and farm exit. While many organic farmers with relatively small holdings have opted out, farmers with more land and larger herds tend to convert to organic agriculture. The trend towards larger-scale farms in organic than in conventional agriculture, encouraged by the design of the organic farming payments, challenges the organic principles of diversity and fairness. Means should be considered to ensure that small organic enterprises are also economically viable.

Sammendrag

Det er ikke noe nytt at norske gårder i gjennomsnitt blir større og færre over tid. Strukturrasjonaliseringa ser imidlertid ut til å gå enda raskere innen økologisk landbruk fordi relativt mindre gårder melder seg ut av Debio-ordningen, mens relativt større blir meldt inn. Helt siden 2002 har det gjennomsnittlige jordbruksarealet på Debio-sertifiserte gårder vært større enn gjennomsnittet for norske gårder. For 2007 er forskjellen i areal 255 vs 213 dekar, og trenden ser ut til å holde seg.

Sammendrag

Med et offentlig mål om at 15 % av matproduksjonen og -forbruket skal være økologisk i 2015, må norsk økologisk landbruk vokse raskt og mye. Da er det problematisk at mange økobønder slutter. Fra 2004 til 2007 meldte 646 bønder seg ut av Debios kontrollordning for økologisk produksjon. Nettotilveksten i samme periode var bare 177 bruk, slik at det i 2007 var 2611 økogårder i Norge. Andel økologisk jordbruksareal økte fra 3,4 til 3,9 %, noe som er for sakte i forhold til målsetningen.

Sammendrag

Over 6 % av alle økobønder meldte seg ut av Debio årlig mellom 2004 og 2007. Mange av de utmeldte er fortsatt bønder. De fleste driver nå konvensjonelt, mens en av fem driver etter økologiske prinsipp, men uten Debio-godkjenning. Hver fjerde økobonde vurderer å melde seg ut av Debio-ordningen innen 5-10 år.

Sammendrag

Det ble gjennomført dybdeintervju for å belyse hvilke faktorer som spiller sammen når bønder melder seg ut av sertifisert økologisk produksjon. Det ble valgt ut fire brukere som har meldt seg ut mellom 2002 til 2007. Det ble valgt ut brukere med sauehold, kumelk, grønnsaker, poteter og urter og korn.  I tillegg ble det intervjuet to økologiske ringledere og gått gjennom skriftlige tilbakemeldinger fra spørreundersøkelsen.

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Sammendrag

In Norway, public procurement of food to youth is not well developed in comparison to many other European and Scandinavian countries. School meals are only offered in very few primary schools, and the common school meal is a packed lunch (sandwiches) brought from home, consumed in the class room. Subscription schemes for milk were introduced around 1970, and for fruit around 1995. Organic milk and fruit is offered only in some regions. Since 2007, fruit is served without payment in all schools with a lower secondary level (class 8-10 or 1-10). This effort was introduced as a first step to develop a free school meal in all public schools, which is a goal of one of the political parties in the current government. As in many other European countries, free school meals were offered (especially to poor children) in schools in the larger Norwegian cities around 1900. However, these meals were criticised for being unhealthy, and replaced by whole grain bread, milk and vegetables around 1930. Increasing private wealth, and increased demand for investments in school buildings, books etc changed the public priority and free school meals disappeared in Oslo around 1960. Today, there is not a general agreement about the optimal school meal composition, and whether or not the meals should be funded by the public. However, the increasing length of the school day and unsatisfactory scores of Norwegian pupils in international comparison tests (e.g. PISA) makes the school meal sector highly relevant in the public debate. Three cases that will be studied in a research project about public organic food procurement for youth are briefly described: The municipality of Trondheim, Øya music festival in Oslo and the Air Force Academy. (Increased) serving of organic food is an important aim in all these cases, and young people are an important target group. The report is produced within the project “innovative Public Organic food Procurement for Youth”, iPOPY, and will be updated and revised during the project period (2007-2010).

Sammendrag

We present the number of farmers entering and opting out of organic farming in recent years; the farmers" reasons for opting out; and some of the farm characteristics. The work is a part of the research project "Reasons for opting out of certified organic production in Norway" (2007-08), funded by the Research Council of Norway and the Agricultural Agreement Fund.

Sammendrag

From 2002 to 2006, the annual dropout rate of certified organic farmers averaged 7.3 %. A project was started in 2007 to explore farmer"s reasons for opting out of certified organic production. Important factors were public regulations including standards for organic farming, agronomy, economy, and farm exit. While many organic farmers with relatively small holdings have opted out, farmers with more land and larger herds tend to convert to organic agriculture. The trend towards larger-scale farms in organic than in conventional agriculture, encouraged by the design of the organic farming payments, challenges the organic principles of diversity and fairness. Means should be considered to ensure that small organic enterprises are also economically viable.

Sammendrag

From 2002 to 2007, the number of organic farms in Norway has increased slightly, from 2303 to 2611. The area of organically certified and in conversion farmland has increased much more, from 32,499 to 49,563 ha. Hence, the average size of organic farms has increased considerably, from 19.7 to 25.5 ha agricultural area per farm. This is 20 % above the Norwegian average farm size. As parallel production is permitted, many farms have both organic and conventional production. The average organically managed agricultural area has increased from 11 to 15.4 ha per farm, and the number of milking cows on organic dairy farms from 15 to 20. Many small farms have opted out of certified organic agriculture, whereas farmers with more land are converting to organic. While most of the public financial support in Norwegian agriculture is differentiated in relation to farm size and region, support for organic agriculture is little differentiated. This encourages the conversion of larger operations. However, the diversity of the organic sector is reduced when smaller farms do not convert or opt out, and it should be considered how organic farming can be an interesting option for farmers independent of farm size.

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Sammendrag

I Norge er det i enkelte utredninger sett på hvorfor bønder har sluttet med økologisk produksjon (for eksempel Thomlevold et al., 2007). Det er så langt ikke gjort noen vitenskapelige studier på området. Vi vet f.eks. ikke om de som har sluttet har vendt tilbake til konvensjonell drift, om de har avviklet gardsdrifta, eller om de fortsatt driver tilnærmet økologisk, men ønsker å stå utenfor Debio-ordningen. Mer kunnskap om emnet vil gjøre det lettere å utarbeide strategier, virkemidler og tiltak for å motivere flere bønder til å fortsette med økologisk drift. Hovedmålet i prosjektet er å undersøke årsaker til at noen bønder slutter med Debio-godkjent økologisk produksjon mens andre fortsetter. I dette notatet vil vi gjennomgå alle resultater fra spørreundersøkelsen om utfordringer ved økologisk gardsdrift. Skjemaet ble sendt både til gardbrukere som har sluttet med Debio-godkjent økologisk drift, og til et utvalg av de som fortsatt driver økologisk. Vi beskriver først datainnsamlingen, bruksutvalget, gruppeinndelinger og statistiske analysemetoder. Deretter presenteres resultater fra spørreundersøkelsen, i hovedsak spørsmål for spørsmål. Til slutt presenteres opplysninger om arealer og dyretall på brukene på grunnlag av produksjonstilskuddsdatabasen til SLF (Statens landbruksforvaltning).

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Sammendrag

Mattilsynet analyserer matvarer for rester av kjemisk-syntetiske sprøytemidler, og finner årlig flere prøver med rester over og under grenseverdiene. I tillegg til ønsket effekt av midlene på ulike skadegjørere kan også uønska og skadelige bieffekter på mennesker og dyr oppstå. I økologisk landbruk brukes ikke slike midler.

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Sammendrag

Det er ikke mulig å se forskjell på økologiske og konvensjonelle egg. Likevel er det stor forskjell på hvordan hønene som har lagt eggene har hatt det. Økologisk fjørfe holdes ikke i bur og har tilgang på uteareal. De kan flakse med vingene, sandbade og vagle seg på sittepinner. Betegnelsen ”frittgående høner” brukes om høns som går fritt inne, men ikke kan gå ute.

Sammendrag

Økt interesse fra konsumentene og grossistene, høyere salgspriser og økt tilskudd til økologisk grønnsaksproduksjon har gjort det mer interessant å dyrke økologiske grønnsaker. Viktige forskjeller ligger i avlingsmengde, salgspris, reduserte kostnader til sprøyting og økt arbeidsforbruk. Tiltak som gjøres ved økologisk drift ett år påvirker resultatene i påfølgende år i større grad enn ved konvensjonelt drift; dårlig jordstruktur på grunn av kjøreskader, eller oppformering av ugras reduserer avlingene, og dermed økonomien sterkere.

Sammendrag

Hvordan skal man beregne økonomien i grønnsaksdyrking på en gard? Tiltak som gjøres ett år påvirker resultatene i påfølgende år. Dårlig jordstruktur på grunn av kjøreskader, eller oppformering av ugras påvirker avlingene, og dermed økonomien.

Sammendrag

In December 2005 a questionnaire survey was conducted at the university hospital in Trondheim, Norway. Patients and personnel expressed that food is important for their health and well-being. Good taste, appearance and right nutrition were mentioned to be important factors for food quality. About 80 % of the respondents were positive or really positive to use organic food at the hospital, even though only around half of them agreed that it is worth the price. Furthermore the absence of pesticides, artificial fertilizers and preservatives in food was ranked to be more important than organic production of food. All respondents seemed to be critical towards the use of pesticides and preservatives in food production and processing.

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Sammendrag

I konvensjonelt landbruk brukes kjemisk-syntetiske sprøytemidler mot ugras, sopp og insekter og for å regulere veksten. I økologisk drift er forebyggende tiltak viktig og kjemisk-syntetiske sprøytemidler brukes ikke.

Sammendrag

A project focusing on the introduction of organic and local produced food was initiated at the University Hospital in Trondheim in 2003. By the end of 2006 the aim of serving 30 % organic food has been reached on average for the kitchen. The hospital kitchen produces about 1200 meals every day for 60 divisions at the hospital. The objective of this study is to gain empirical insight into the patients" and nurses" perception of the food served at the hospital, their views concerning food production methods, as well as differences between the groups regarding the two aforementioned issues.

Sammendrag

A project focusing on the introduction of organic and local produced food was initiated at the University Hospital in Trondheim in 2003. By the end of 2006 the aim of serving 30 % organic food has been reached on average for the kitchen. The hospital kitchen produces about 1200 meals every day for 60 divisions at the hospital. The objective of this study is to gain empirical insight into the patients" and nurses" perception of the food served at the hospital, their views concerning food production methods, as well as differences between the groups regarding the two aforementioned issues.

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Sammendrag

Ønsker en å unngå faren for rester av stråforkortere og kjemisk-syntetiske sprøytemidler i korn, brød og andre kornprodukt er bruk av økologiske produkter den beste garantien siden slike midler ikke brukes i økologisk drift. Dessuten synes mange at økologisk brød smaker bedre.

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Sammendrag

Nesten en femdel av verdens befolkning er konstant underernærte. De viktigste begrensningene for matsikkerhet skyldes sosiale, politiske og økonomiske forhold. Økologisk landbruk kan øke matsikkerheten i utviklingsland gjennom større og mer stabile avlinger, reduserte kostnader og økte inntekter på grunn av økt jordfruktbarhet og større biologisk mangfold.

Sammendrag

Conventional farmers converting to organics have contributed to most of the rapid expansion of organic farming in recent years. The new organic farmers may differ from their more established colleagues, which may have implications for the development of the organic farming sector and its distinctiveness vis-a-vis conventional production and marketing practices. The aim of this study was to explore Norwegian organic dairy farmers' personal and farm production characteristics, farming goals, conversion motives, and attitudes to organic farming, grouped by year of conversion (three groups). A postal survey was undertaken among organic dairy farmers (n=161). The results show that the newcomers (converted in 2000 or later) were less educated than the early entrants (the so-called 'old guard') who converted in 1995 or earlier. The frequency of activities like vegetable growing and poultry farming among the old guard was high. The late-entry organic herds were fed with more concentrates and had a higher milk production intensity, showed a higher incidence of veterinary treatments and less frequent use of alternative medicine than the herds of the two earlier converting groups. For all groups of farmers, the highest ranked farming goals were sustainable and environment-friendly farming and the production of high-quality food. Late entrants more often mentioned goals related to profit and leisure time. On average, the most frequently mentioned motives for conversion were food quality and professional challenges. The old guard was more strongly motivated by food quality and soil fertility/pollution issues than the others, whereas financial reasons (organic payments included) were relatively more important among the newcomers. All groups held very favorable views about the environmental qualities of organic farming methods, albeit with different strengths of beliefs. Even though trends towards more pragmatic and business-oriented farming were found, the majority of the newcomers were fairly committed.

Sammendrag

I Norge har det lenge vært et mål å øke andelen økologisk dyrket areal til 10% innen 2010, og nå har myndighetene også som mål at 15% av matproduksjonen og matforbruket i 2015 skal være økologisk. Økologisk jordbruk har utviklet seg rakst siden først på 1990-tallet. Fra 1991 til 2005 har økologisk jordbruksareal økt fra 24 430 til 430 330 daa, og utgjør nå 3,5% av det samlede jordbruksarealet. Bare for å nå 10%-målet er det behov for at minst 4000 flere bønder legger om til økologisk landbruk, og enda flere må legge om for å nå 15%-målet. Siden 2002 har omlag 200 bønder sluttet med Debio-godkjent økologisk produksjon hvert år. Vi vet ikke om disse har vendt tilbake til konvensjonell drift, om de har avviklet gardsdrifta, eller om de fortsatt driver tilnærmet økologisk, men ønsker å stå utenfor Debio-ordningen. I andre europeiske land er det utført flere studier for å finne årsaker til at økobønder slutter, men i Norge er det så langt ikke gjort noen vitenskapelige undersøkelser av dette. Dette prosjektet vil undersøke hvorfor bøndene har sluttet med økologisk produksjon. Kunnskap om dette emnet er viktig for å kunne utarbeide landbrukspolitiske virkemidler og andre tiltak som kan sikre fortsatt vekst i økologisk matproduksjon i Norge. Vi vil finne kjennetegn ved brukene og brukerne, og analysere faktorer som påvirker beslutningen om å slutte med økologisk drift. Norske resultater og rammebetingelser vil bli sammenliknet med utenlandske. Vi vil også diskutere virkemidler og tiltak for å avgrense frafallet fra økologisk gardsdrift. Først vil vi sende ut et spørreskjema til alle brukerne som har sluttet med økologisk drift i 2003 eller senere. Spørreundersøkelsen vil behandles med statistiske analyser. Deretter vil vi gjennomføre personlige dybdeintervju med noen av de tidligere øko-bøndene samt med andre viktige meningsberettigede. Disse intervjuene vil gi ytterligere innsikt og utfylle spørreundersøkelsen. Den valgte kombinasjonen av metoder vil gjøre at vi får bedre forståelse av årsakene til at gardbrukere slutter med økologisk drift. Prosjektets kostnadsramme er i underkant av 1,6 mill. kroner totalt over to år. Det er et samarbeid mellom Bioforsk Økologisk, Tingvoll og Norsk institutt for landbruksøkonomisk forskning (NILF). Vi vil ha et internasjonalt samarbeid med Danmarks tekniske universitet og BOKU, universitet for naturressurser og anvendt naturvitenskap i Wien, Østerrike.

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Sammendrag

This study was conducted to explore organic and conventional dairy farmers' perceptions of risk and risk management, and to examine relationships between farm and farmer characteristics, risk perceptions, and strategies. The data originate from a survey of conventional (n=363) and organic (n=162) dairy farmers in Norway. Organic farmers had the least risk averse perceptions. Institutional and production risks were perceived as primary sources of risk, with farm support payments at the top. Compared to their conventional colleagues, organic farmers gave more weight to institutional factors related to their production systems. Conventional farmers were more concerned about costs of purchased inputs and animal welfare policy. Organic and conventional farmers' management responses were more similar than their risk perceptions. Financial measures such as liquidity and costs of production, disease prevention, and insurance were perceived as important ways to handle risk. Even though perceptions were highly farmer-specific, a number of socio-economic variables were found to be related to risk and risk management. The primary role of institutional risks implies that policy makers should be cautious about changing policy capriciously and they should consider the scope for strategic policy initiatives that give farmers some greater confidence about the longer term. Further, researchers should pay more attention to institutional risks. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sammendrag

About eighteen percent of the conventional dairy and cash crop farmers in Norway are considering to, and four percent are planning to convert to organic farming during the next five years. These two farmer groups can be considered as the potential for conversion to organic farming in Norway. In a questionnaire survey, this group rated attitudes on organic and conventional farming more similar to organic farmers than other conventional farmers did. For farmers considering or planning to convert, additional organic farming payments, organic farming laws and regulations and price premiums for organic products were more important sources of risk than for other conventional farmers. Most of these mentioned factors are influenced by agricultural policies, which thus represent an important factor for farmers? decision regarding the conversion to organic farming.

Sammendrag

About eighteen percent of the conventional dairy and cash crop farmers in Norway are considering to, and four percent are planning to convert to organic farming during the next five years. These two farmer groups can be considered as the potential for conversion to organic farming in Norway. In a questionnaire survey, this group rated attitudes on organic and conventional farming more similar to organic farmers than other conventional farmers did. For farmers considering or planning to convert ...

Sammendrag

In many European countries there has been a substantial increase in the use of nitrogen fertiliser from 1950 to the 80?s. For most of the countries studied, lower prices for wheat in the late 80"s, as an indicator for agricultural plant product prices, leaded to less application of nitrogen fertiliser, presumable because the application was less profitable.

Sammendrag

Animal health and health handling were studied in organic dairy farms separated into three groups according to time of conversion. The study showed differences in both health and health handling between the groups and especially so for the earliest converters.

Sammendrag

Animal health and health handling were studied in organic dairy farms separated into three groups according to time of conversion. The study showed differences in both health and health handling between the groups and especially so for the earliest converters.

Sammendrag

Hvis 15 prosent av matproduksjon og matforbruket i 2015 skal være økologisk, så må omleggingsfarten øke. En spørreundersøkelse viser at der er 4 % som vil legge om, mens 18 % er potensielle nykommere. Ingen av dem svarer at "størst mulig inntekt er motivet".

Sammendrag

About 18% of the conventional dairy and cash crop farmers in Norway are considering to, and 4% are planning to convert to organic farming during the next five years. ...

Sammendrag

About 22 % of the conventional dairy and cash crop farmers in Norway were considering or were planninAbout 22 % of the conventional dairy and cash crop farmers in Norway were considering or were planning to convert to organic farming during the next four years. For these farmers, here called potential converters, higher soil fertility, professional challenges, profitability, and organic farming payments were important motives for considering to convert.

Sammendrag

About 22 % of the conventional dairy and cash crop farmers in Norway were considering or were planning to convert to organic farming during the next four years. For these farmers, here called potential converters, higher soil fertility, professional challenges, profitability, and organic farming payments were important motives for considering to convert.

Sammendrag

About 22 % of the conventional dairy and cash crop farmers in Norway were considering or were planning to convert to organic farming during the next four years. For these farmers, here called potential converters, higher soil fertility, professional challenges, profitability, and organic farming payments were important motives for considering to convert.

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Sammendrag

Ofte får gardbrukere erfare at produksjon og inntekt ikke blir som en hadde tenkt seg på forhånd. En gardbruker har aldri full kontroll over de tallrike faktorene som påvirker drifta, og usikre framtidige konsekvenser innebærer risiko. Mange tenker mest på de ugunstige situasjonene en kan bli utsatt for, og som blant anna skyldes avlingssvikt, naturkatastrofer, prisfall og uheldige politikkendringer. I verste fall kan slike forhold rasere inntekter og formuesverdier til gardbrukere. Få driftsøkonomiske studier innen økologisk jordbruk har tatt hensyn til risiko. Dette gjelder nasjonalt så vel som internasjonalt. Hovedmålet med prosjektet har vært å øke kunnskapen om risiko og risikohandtering innenfor økologisk jordbruksproduksjon i Norge. Med utgangspunkt i hovedmålet ble følgende delmål opprinnelig formulert for prosjektet: 1. Belyse omfang av risiko, spesielt avlings-, avdråtts-, dyrehelse-, pris- og inntektsrisiko knyttet til økologisk gardsdrift. 2. Belyse hvilke strategier økologiske produsenter nytter for å handtere risiko. 3. Utvikle gardsmodeller for å analysere økonomisk optimal tilpassing ved usikkerhet i økologisk jordbruk. […]

Sammendrag

This study was conducted to explore organic and conventional dairy farmers? perceptions of risk and risk management, and to examine relationships between farm and farmer characteristics, risk perceptions, and strategies.

Sammendrag

This study was conducted to explore organic and conventional dairy farmers? perceptions of risk and risk management, and to examine relationships between farm and farmer characteristics, risk perceptions, and strategies.

Sammendrag

About eighteen percent of the conventional dairy and cash crop farmers in Norway are considering to, and four percent are planning to convert to organic farming during the next five years. These two farmer groups can be considered as the potential for conversion to organic farming in Norway. In a questionnaire survey, this group rated attitudes on organic and conventional farming more similar to organic farmers than other conventional farmers did. For farmers considering or planning to convert, additional organic farming payments, organic farming laws and regulations and price premiums for organic products were more important sources of risk than for other conventional farmers. Most of these mentioned factors are influenced by agricultural policies, which thus represent an important factor for farmers? decision regarding the conversion to organic farming.

Sammendrag

About eighteen percent of the conventional dairy and cash crop farmers in Norway are considering to, and four percent are planning to convert to organic farming during the next five years. These two farmer groups can be considered as the potential for conversion to organic farming in Norway. In a questionnaire survey, this group rated attitudes on organic and conventional farming more similar to organic farmers than other conven¬tional farmers did. For farmers considering or planning to convert, additional organic farming payments, organic farming laws and regulations and price premiums for organic products were more important sources of risk than for other conven¬tional farmers. Most of these mentioned factors are influenced by agricultural policies, which thus represent an important factor for farmers` decision regarding the conversion to organic farming.

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Sammendrag

This study was conducted to explore organic and conventional dairy farmers perceptions of risk and risk management, and to examine relationships between farm and farmer characteristics, risk perceptions, and strategies. The data originate from a survey of conventional (n = 363) and organic (n = 162) dairy farmers in Norway. Organic farmers had the least risk averse perceptions. Institutional and production risks were perceived as primary sources of risk, with farm support payments at the top. Compared to their conventional colleagues, organic farmers gave more weight to institutional factors related to their production systems. Conventional farmers were more concerned about costs of purchased inputs and animal welfare policy. Organic and conventional farmers management responses were more similar than their risk perceptions. Financial measures such as liquidity and costs of production, disease prevention, and insurance were perceived as important ways to handle risk. Even though perceptions were highly farmer-specific, a number of socio-economic variables were found to be related to risk and risk management. The primary role of institutional risks implies that policy makers should be cautious about changing policy capriciously and they should consider the scope for strategic policy initiatives that give farmers some greater confidence about the longer term. Further, researchers should pay more attention to institutional risks.

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Sammendrag

This study presents empirical insight into organic and conventional cash crop farmers' perceptions of risk and risk management strategies, and identifies socio-economic variables linked to these perceptions. The data originate from a questionnaire survey of farmers in Norway. The results indicate that organic farmers perceived themselves to be less risk aversethan conventional farmers. For both groups, crop prices and yield variability were the two top rated sources of risk, followed by institutional risks. The two groups evaluated risk management strategies quite similarly; favoured strategies weregood liquidity and to prevent and reduce crop diseases and pests. The farmers' evaluation of sources of risk and choice of risk strategies depended onvarious socio-economic variables. The importance of institutional risks implies that policy makers should be cautious about changing policy capriciously and they should consider strategic policy initiatives that give farmers more long-term reliability.

Sammendrag

This study presents empirical insight into organic and conventional cash crop farmers" perceptions of risk and risk management strategies, and identifies socio-economic variables linked to these perceptions. The data originate from a questionnaire survey of farmers in Norway. The results indicate that organic farmers perceived themselves to be less risk averse than conventional farmers. For both groups, crop prices and yield variability were the two top rated sources of risk, followed by institutional risks. The two groups evaluated risk management strategies quite similarly; favoured strategies were good liquidity and to prevent and reduce crop diseases and pests. The farmers" evaluation of sources of risk and choice of risk strategies depended on various socio-economic variables. The importance of institutional risks implies that policy makers should be cautious about changing policy capriciously and they should consider strategic policy initiatives that give farmers more long-term reliability.

Sammendrag

The objective of this study was to provide empirical insight into dairy farmers goals, relative risk attitude, sources of risk and risk management responses. The study also examines whether organic dairy farming, leads to important risk sources not experienced in conventional farming and, if so, howthose extra risks are managed. The data originate from a questionnaire survey of conventional (n=373) and organic (n = 162) dairy farmers in Norway. The results show that organic farmers have somewhat different goals than conventional farmers,and that the average organic farmer is less risk averse. Institutional risk was perceived as the most important source ofrisk, independently of conventional or organic production system. Keeping cash on hand wasthe most important strategy to manage risk for all dairy farmers.

Sammendrag

As more data have been amassed and interest in working with the ensuing data sets have grown, methods for organizing and examining the data have evolved. The need to work with these larger amounts of data has led to the development of ‘data mining’ methods and software. Data mining has a somewhat skewed reputation, and has often been characterised as ‘data dredging’ or ‘fishing expeditions’ . However, most of us must admit that such ‘expeditions’ or what one also could call hypothesis-generating approaches where we look for both likely and less likely associations, has occurred within our own research. In principal, generating promising associations is what data mining is all about. In this paper we have applied one of many commercial software available (Enterprise Miner, SAS) on a small dataset merged from a questionnaire data set and the national dairy cattle health and production records. We investigated for patterns separating organic dairy farmers from the conventional ones. The main framework of the data mining approach, some of the core modelling methods and the data mining results are briefly described and assessed.

Sammendrag

The objective of this study was to provide empirical insight into dairy farmers’ goals, relative risk attitude, sources of risk and risk management responses. The study also examines whether organic dairy farming, leads to important risk sources not experienced in conventional farming and, if so, how those extra risks is managed. The data originate from a questionnaire survey of conventional (n=370) and organic (n = 160) dairy farmers in Norway. The results show that organic farmers have somewhat different goals than conventional farmers, and that the average organic farmer is less risk averse. Institutional risk was perceived as the most important source of risk, independently of conventional or organic production system, while organic farmers indicated greater concern about forage yield risk. Keeping cash on hand was the most important strategy to manage risk for all dairy farmers. Diversification and different kinds of flexibility was regarded as a more important risk management strategies among organic than conventional farmers.

Sammendrag

The Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture (1999) has announced its goal of converting 10% of the total agricultural area to organic farming methods by the year 2009. Considerations of profitability and risk will be especially important, when the conversion of a farm is planned. Studies of risk and risk management in organic farming have been lacking in Norway. Only very few such studies have been carried out internationally, thus showing that there is a definite need for more risk and risk management research in organic farming. The project aims to increase knowledge about risks and risk management in organic farming systems. It is a co-operation between NILF, NORSK, and NVH. Both biological and economic aspects of risk will be taken into consideration. We wish to test and apply acknowledged statistical and risk analysis theories and methods on issues related to organic farming. The project will deal with the extent of risk in organic farming, strategies used by organic farmers to handle risk and whole-farm models to analyse optimal economic solutions under uncertainty in organic farming. The project will cover farms that are still in conversion and completely converted farms. Results from the project will directly benefit farmers and farm advisers. Politicians and public administrators will receive access to significant information for the design of future policies.