Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2006

To document

Abstract

As a party to the Kyoto Protocol, Norway will be required to report its emissions by sources and removals by sinks of CO2 and other greenhouse gases resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (Article 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol) for the first commitment period (2008-2012) and receive credits or debits accordingly. Norway will, in 2006, need to make a choice on election of activities under Article 3.4 – Forest Management, Cropland Management, Revegetation and Grazing Land Management. The purpose of this report is to provide estimates of the amount of emissions and removals to be expected under Article 3.3 and initial estimates of magnitudes of emissions/removals for different choices of 3.4 activities. The estimates are preliminary and uncertain. […]

Abstract

When using chitosan as an antifungal agent in wood it is important to understand which factors contribute to a higher fixation ratio to optimize the utilization of chitosan, the active component. Small pine samples were impregnated with chitosan solutions varying in molecular weight, concentration, pH, polymerization agent, acid and degree of deacetylation. Different post-treatments such as time, temperature, moisture content and the effect of present air were applied to the samples to evaluate the effect on the relative retention. After impregnation, the samples, with a volume of 1.5 cm3, were leached in separate test-tubes according to EN-84. The samples were prepared in a paired design where both samples were impregnated, but only one was leached. Both leached and unleached samples were analysed for their chitosan content, and the relative ratio was used as a measure for the relative retention of chitosan during leaching. The results from these trials show that pH in the range of 5.1-5.9 is favourable. The molecular weight should be as high as possible yet able to penetrate the wood structure, and the use of acetic acid gives far better fixation than the use of hydrochloric acid.