Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2007

Abstract

Boreal forests are increasing in age partly due to reduced logging and efficient wildfire control. As a result, they also stock more carbon. Whether increased forest C stock causes greater production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is uncertain. DOC in bulk precipitation, throughfall and soil water was studied in 10-, 30-, 60- and 120-year-old stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) DOC concentrations in throughfall and O horizon soil water followed the order 10<30<60 = 120 and 10 = 30<120<60, respectively. DOC fluxes followed the order 10 = 30<60 = 120 in throughfall, while no significant difference between stands was found for O horizon soil water. Above-ground tree litter varied according to 10<30<60 = 120, a pattern identical to that for DOC concentrations in throughfall and resembling but not identical to that for DOC concentrations in O horizon soil water. This indicates additional sources for DOC in soil water. Seasonality in DOC concentrations was observed at the base of the O horizon, and seasonality in DOC fluxes in both throughfall and O horizon soil water. Our results suggest differences in the polarity of DOC between the 10-year stand and the others, which we interpret as reflecting the lack of grown trees and possibly the different vegetation on the 10-year stand.

Abstract

The object of this study was to obtain Norway spruce seedlings with buds set, ready for summer planting from the 1st of July. With an early long night treatment we prevented flushing of the newly formed terminal buds, ceased height growth, but slightly reduced hardiness in buds and needles. Nevertheless, a sufficient hardiness level in the autumn was acquired at a Norwegian nursery at 59°46’ N, with plants of the local provenance given a long night treatment (14 hours) for 13 days from the 25th of June. The similar treatment at a nursery at 64°30’N did not give the same result; all treatments led to a second flush with resumed growth of the local provenance. A trial with seed lots from several provenances was therefore performed at this nursery, and a significant correlation between the critical night length of the seed lot, and their ability to produce non-flushing buds, was found; the longer the critical night length of the seed lot, the less non-flushing buds. Responses at the northern nursery are probably due to the non existing dark period after termination of the treatment, and a too short treatment period to attain bud dormancy. An early and successful long-night treatment will, in addition, produce shorter seedlings with a larger root collar diameter.

Abstract

Rock samples and the C-, B- and O-horizons of soils developed on these rocks were collected in forested areas along a 120-km south–north transect in southern Norway, passing through the city of Oslo. Forty samples (1 site/3 km) were analysed for 37 chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, W and Zn) following an aqua regia digestion; pH (water extract) and loss on ignition were also determined. The O-horizon soils were additionally analysed for Pt. Gold is the only element that shows a clear anthropogenic peak in the O-horizon soils collected from the city of Oslo. Silver, Au, Bi, Cd, Hg, Pb, S, Sb, Se and Sr all show a strong enrichment in the O-horizon when compared to the underlying C-horizon or the bedrock along the full length of the transect. Neither geology nor anthropogenic input of elements dominate the observed patterns. The most important factors for the observed element concentrations in the O-horizon are weathering, uptake (or rejection) of elements by plants and the kinetics of decay of the organic material in the O-horizon. Climate, especially temperature and precipitation, has an important influence on the formation and decay rates of the organic soil layer. Acid precipitation will delay the decomposition of the organic layer and lead to a natural enrichment of several metals in the O-horizon. Land use change, deforestation and liming can all increase the decay kinetics of organic matter and thus result in a release of the stored element pool.