Abstract

Agroforestry can be defined as sustainable and multifunctional land-use systems where trees are managed together with agricultural crops or livestock on the same piece of land. In the northern periphery area, agroforestry has a long history with woodland grazing, reindeer husbandry and gathering of different non-wood forest resources as herbs, mushrooms and berries. Traditional agroforestry has gradually disappeared during the 20th century with the intensification of agriculture and forestry. Currently agroforestry systems are gaining new interest, not only from farmers but also from politicians, as this practice can possibly contribute to a more sustainable way of agricultural production. In the northern periphery area, the benefits of agroforestry practices can be manifold not only promoting traditional practices, but also novel systems with the use of new technology. In addition, agroforestry has environmental benefits as a method for conservation and enhancement of biodiversity, improved nutrient cycling, and water quality. Soil humus layer will also increase with several agroforestry systems leading to carbon sequestration. Here we present an overview of agroforestry practices in the Nordic countries and the use of non-wood forest resources with the emphasis on wild berries.

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Abstract

Private forests are widespread in Europe providing a range of ecosystem services of significant value to society, and there are calls for novel policies to enhance their provision and to face the challenges of environmental changes. Such policies need to acknowledge the importance of private forests, and importantly they need to be based on a deep understanding of how property rights held by private forest owners vary across Europe. We collected and analysed data on the content of property rights based on formal legal requirements existing in 31 European jurisdictions. To allow a comparison across jurisdictions, we constructed an original Property Rights Index for Forestry encompassing five rights domains (access, withdrawal, management, exclusion and alienation). We documented substantial variation of the private forest owners’ rights, and notably to i) make decisions in operational management and the formulation of management goals, ii) withdraw timber resources from their forest, and iii) exclude others from the use of forest resources. We identified broad relations between the scope for decision making of private forest owners and jurisdictions’ former socio-political background and geographical distribution. The variation in the content of property rights has implications for the implementation of international environmental policies, and stresses the need for tailored policy instruments, when addressing European society’s rural development, the bioeconomy, climate change mitigation measures and nature protection strategies.

Abstract

Tourism is acknowledged to be an important business sector in rural areas. This paper argues that second-home owners constitute an important market segment for businesses that offer nature-based tourism activities. Previous research has shown that a number of factors influence tourist behaviour. This study examined how motivation and demographic variables affect second-home owners\" intention to purchase three different types of activity products: learning, adventure, and hunting products. We found substantial variations in the purchase intentions for these products among second-home owners. These intentions were influenced by push and pull motivations, age, income and educational level. Second-home owners with a high intention of purchasing nature-based tourism activity products tend to be young, high-income, and socially oriented risk takers. Businesses offering nature-based tourism activity products should use a combination of demographic and psychographic variables when they segment the second-home market. Highlights The second-home market is important for nature-based tourism businesses. Their intention to purchase such products are influenced by leisure motives and demographic variables. Recreation experience preferences and reasons for having a second-home in an area influence their purchase intentions. Age and education level have a negative effect on the intention to purchase. Income has a positive effect on the intention to purchase.

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Abstract

Tourism is acknowledged to be an important business sector in rural areas. This paper argues that second-home owners constitute an important market segment for businesses that offer nature-based tourism activities. Previous research has shown that a number of factors influence tourist behaviour. This study examined how motivation and demographic variables affect second-home owners’ intention to purchase three different types of activity products: learning, adventure, and hunting products.We found substantial variations in the purchase intentions for these products among second-home owners. These intentions were influenced by push and pull motivations, age, income and educational level. Secondhome owners with a high intention of purchasing nature-based tourism activity products tend to be young, high-income, and socially oriented risk takers. Businesses offering nature-based tourism activity products should use a combination of demographic and psychographic variables when they segment the second-home market.

Abstract

Roundwood timber is raw material for numerous products. Wood based products are generally recognised as favourable regarding energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Several studies have shown that the net CO2 emissions can be reduced by using biofuels harvested from forests to substitute fossil fuels, and by using wood for building materials. Energy use and GHG emissions associated with producing roundwood can be influenced by a broad range of factors, such as silvicultural practice, topography, applied technology, forestland ownership, industrial structure, etc. This emphasizes the importance of using representative data for energy use and GHG emissions when calculating environmental impacts. The aim of this study was to investigate the embodied energy and life cycle GHG emissions of industrial softwood sawlogs in Norway, covering the production chain from tree seed to log yard. Analyses were based on activity data for the Norwegian forest sector for the year 2007. The results showed that the embodied energy and GHG emissions were low compared with the energy and CO2-equivalents stored in the roundwood (about 2%). The findings from this study can be used to inform future decisions on processes in forestry that should be focused on when planning actions to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions. Additionally, as roundwood timber is raw material for numerous products the results can be useful when preparing documentation of environmental impacts, such as environmental product declarations, which are increasingly demanded by the market.

Abstract

Rural communities in Norway have been under great economic stress in recent years. There has been an increasing debate about how to utilize the large potential in a growing tourism industry to promote rural employment and income. This study is based on the institutional view of innovation with a focus on institutions that are important for stimulating innovations. The objectives are: 1) to determine if networking is positively related to innovativeness and if innovativeness is positively related to performance in the nature-based tourism industry in Norway and 2) to develop an in-depth understanding of how different actors trigger a member of the industry to change, create, or otherwise innovate. An e-mail survey was conducted of companies across the country followed by a qualitative study in one Norwegian municipality. Results indicate that there is a positive connection between networking and innovativeness, and between innovativeness and performance. A qualitative case example illustrates the interaction among actors and the resulting impacts on the innovation process.

Abstract

Rural communities in Norway have been under great economic stress in recent years. There has been an increasing debate about how to utilize the large potential in a growing tourism industry to promote rural employment and income. This study is based on the institutional view of innovation with a focus on institutions that are important for stimulating innovations. The objectives are: 1) to determine if networking is positively related to innovativeness and if innovativeness is positively related to performance in the nature-based tourism industry in Norway and 2) to develop an in-depth understanding of how different actors trigger a member of the industry to change, create, or otherwise innovate. An email survey was conducted of companies across the country followed by a qualitative study in one Norwegian municipality. Results indicate that there is a positive connection between networking and innovativeness, and between innovativeness and performance. A qualitative case example illustrates the interaction among actors and the resulting impacts on the innovation process.

Abstract

This article examines innovation processes in forest recreational services on the basis of case studies in five European countries with differing institutional backgrounds of forest ownership and access rights. The analysis reveals that forest-related recreation services are developed under varying institutional conditions and on public as well as private land. Ideas for innovations in recreational services may come from within but often outside the forestry sector. Financing is provided from public and private sources. Both public and private spheres have important roles in providing natural, human and financial resources and usually a network of public and private actors are involved in innovation processes. Of particular importance are cross-sectoral interactions between forestry and tourism. Greater institutional support is needed for the development of forest-related recreation services because the field is at an early stage of development. It is concluded that support should focus on providing ideas and financial resources for product development and on facilitating cross-sectoral interaction between forestry and tourism actors. A particular need is seen for development of models for durable interaction between land owners and tourism operators on a regional scale.

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Abstract

Agricultural policy has in the last 50 years taken much of the risk and the initiative away from Norwegian farm forest owners. Subsidies in agriculture have guaranteed an acceptable income and there has been neither need nor incentives for starting up new activities at the farms. This situation is now gradually changing. The income both from agriculture and forestry is decreasing and farm forest owners have either to move, to find job opportunities outside the farm or to start up new activity at the farm using the farm's resources. Entrepreneurship theory is used to study the question why some farm forest owners choose to start up some new activity based on the forest resources they have. We identify two main elements of entrepreneurship; the ability to recognise business opportunities and the ability to take calculated risk. In a survey to 500 forest owners in southern Norway (response rate 45%), we included questions about opportunity recognition and risk aversion. From the answers, we were able to split the forest owners in two groups, those with entrepreneurial attitudes and those without. Using logistic regression we found a significantly higher probability for start-up of new activities in the group with entrepreneurial attitudes. This result has very interesting policy implications. Many studies show that entrepreneurial attitudes to a large degree can be learnt. The first way of learning about entrepreneurship is through the education system and through courses and training of forest owners. The other way is 'learning by doing', which is most probably the most efficient way to learn about entrepreneurship. Public policy should stimulate more owners to 'do', by that they will 'learn' and that will again lead to more entrepreneurial activities at the holdings. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Abstract

The article investigates innovation processes in the field of recreational services of forests. It takes a close look on innovation cases from five European countries with different institutional backgrounds in terms of forest ownership and access rights to forest land. The analysis first of all shows that forest related recreation services are developed in different institutional conditions and on public as well as private land. Financing is provided from public and private sources. Ideas may come from within and outside the forestry sector, however, impulses from outside seems to be of primary importance. In sum it can be said that both public and private spheres have important roles in providing natural, financial and human resources and usually a network of public and private actors are involved in innovation processes. Of particular importance are cross-sectoral interactions between forestry and tourism. A greater institutional support is needed for the development of forest related recreation services as the field is at the beginning of its development. Support should focus on providing ideas and financial resources for product development and on facilitating cross-sectoral interaction between forestry and tourism actors. A particular need is seen to develop models for durable interaction between land-owners and tourism operators on a regional scale.

Abstract

During the 1980s and the 1990s the tourism development in general increased rapidly. The term innovation has been used to describe this development. But how well can we adapt the traditional industrial understanding of innovation in the service sector? Especially it seems as we have to extend our understanding of innovation when comes to the development of nature based tourism. There is a need to discuss various definitions of innovation and look at a framework of understanding that distinguishes between various definitions of innovation in the service sector.

Abstract

Up to ca. 1960, the forest sector was the largest export sector in Norway. Since then its importance has decreased, until in 2003 the export value totalled only 2,5 % of the export sector. The import of forest products constituted a relatively higher share of the total import value than the export (about 3,3%). Pulp and paper, mainly newsprint, is the most important export product. The annual cut has declined 30 per cent over the last decade and in 2003 totalled about 7.5 million cubic metres. The reasons for this decline are not fully understood, but changes in ownership structure, low unemployment rates and good job opportunities outside of the forest sector and the abolition of cost-share programs are certainly some of the explanation. Private non industrial owners own 78,5 % of the forest area and the average size of a forest property is 57 hectares. Almost all fellings are certified, and there is an intensive ongoing debate on the need for protection of a larger forest area. There is a large potential for developing non-wood products and services, and the forest owners association have companies and organisations dealing with this. There is a demand from both domestic and foreign customers for non-wood products and services but the cooperation with the domestic tourist industry still has to be improved to coordinate this effectively. There is a weak entrepreneurship culture in the forest products industry, with a few regional exceptions. The culture is mainly production oriented and market competence and international orientation is needed. Compared with other industries in Norway the level of education is low in the forest products industry. A large public program was started in 2002 to stimulate innovation and competence building activities in the forest products sector.

Abstract

During the 1980s Norway was troubled with overcapacity in the agricultural sector. The rural development support scheme (RDSS) was introduced. Farmers were encouraged to invest in forestry-related projects and rural business. More than 15 evaluations of the RDSS are undertaken, all of them having severe methodological weakness. The following study introduces a new tool, when analyzing a public support scheme like the RDSS in Norway. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a multi-input, multi-output optimization model used to measure relative efficiency of the best practice counties. The analysis is a two-stage study. In step one, it is found that 13 of the 18 (72%) counties in Norway are generating less output in the form of employment from a given level of the RDSS-budget than technically possible. In step two, a reallocation of the budget is shown for the purpose of maximizing the output of job establishments in rural Norway. The DEA is seen as a useful tool in measuring the efficiency of the RDSS at regional level in Norway.

Abstract

The connection between rural economic development policy and forest policy in Norway during the past decades is discussed. Because of this connection it is debatable whether it is reasonable to maintain a strong focus on timber supply in Norwegian forest policy in the future. By analyzing studies related to forestry in the context of rural development, the lack of combined rural development research and forestry research is shown. It is argued that rural policy/research and forest policy/research should be combined in the future regarding topics related to forestry in the field of rural development.