Tomasz Leszek Woznicki

Post Doctor

(+47) 410 72 541
Tomasz.Woznicki@nibio.no

Place
Apelsvoll

Visiting address
Nylinna 226, 2849 Kapp

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Abstract

Introduction Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) is an excellent example of a “super fruit” with potential health benefits. Both genotype and cultivation environment are known to affect the chemical composition of blackcurrant, especially ascorbic acid and various phenolic compounds. Environmental conditions, like temperature, solar radiation and precipitation can also have significant impact on fruit chemical composition. The relevance of the study is further accentuated by the predicted and ongoing changes in global climate. Objectives The aim of the present study was to provide new knowledge and a deeper understanding of the effects of post flowering environmental conditions, namely temperature and day length, on fruit quality and chemical composition of blackcurrant using an untargeted high performance liquid chromatography–photo diode array–mass spectrometry (HPLC– PDA–MS) metabolomics approach. Methods A phytotron experiment with cultivation of single-stemmed potted plants of blackcurrant cv. Narve Viking was conducted using constant temperatures of 12, 18 or 24 °C and three different photoperiods (short day, short day with night interruption, and natural summer daylight conditions). Plants were also grown under ambient outdoor conditions. Ripe berries were analysed using an untargeted HPLC–PDA–MS metabolomics approach to detect the presence and concentration of molecules as affected by controlled climatic factors. Results The untargeted metabolomics dataset contained a total of 7274 deconvolved retention time-m/z pairs across both electrospray ionisation (ESI) positive and negative polarities, from which 549 metabolites were identified or minimally annotated based upon accurate mass MS. Conventional principal component analysis (PCA) in combination with the Friedman significance test were applied to first identify which metabolites responded to temperature in a linear fashion. Multi-block hierarchical PCA in combination with the Friedman significance test was secondly applied to identify metabolites that were responsive to different day length conditions. Temperature had significant effect on a total of 365 metabolites representing a diverse range of chemical classes. It was observed that ripening of the blackcurrant berries under ambient conditions, compared to controlled conditions, resulted in an increased accumulation of 34 annotated metabolites, mainly anthocyanins and flavonoids. 18 metabolites were found to be regulated differentially under the different daylength conditions. Moreover, based upon the most abundant anthocyanins, a comparison between targeted and untargeted analyses, revealed a close convergence of the two analytical methods. Therefore, the study not just illustrates the value of non-targeted metabolomics approaches with respect to the huge diversity and numbers of significantly changed metabolites detected (and which would be missed by conventional targeted analyses), but also shows the validity of the non-targeted approach with respect to its precision compared to targeted analyses. Conclusions Blackcurrant maturation under controlled ambient conditions revealed a number of insightful relationships between environment and chemical composition of the fruit. A prominent reduction of the most abundant anthocyanins under the highest temperature treatments indicated that blackcurrant berries in general may accumulate lower total anthocyanins in years with extreme hot summer conditions. HPLC–PDA–MS metabolomics is an excellent method for broad analysis of chemical composition of berries rich in phenolic compounds. Moreover, the experiment in controlled phytotron conditions provided additional knowledge concerning plant interactions with the environment.

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Abstract

The predicted and ongoing climate warming is expected to affect many aspects of plant development. We analysed data from a 31-year series of observations (1985–2016) on spring phenology and flowering and fruiting performance of three plum cultivars in an experimental orchard at Ås in southeast Norway (59° 40′N; 10° 50′E). Regression analyses revealed a trend of increasing March and April temperature during the study period that was highly significantly (P <  0.001) negatively correlated with the date of full bloom (FB). On average for all cultivars, blooming was advanced by 10 days over the study period. August and September temperature, which also increased significantly during the study period, was closely positively correlated with the amount of flowering in the subsequent spring and also interacted with early spring temperature in advancing blooming time. Investigation of the time of floral initiation in two of the studied plum cultivars revealed that the transition to reproductive development took place in early to mid-August. This finding strongly suggests that the close positive correlation between August-September temperature and the amount of flowering in plum observed in this and other studies, is causally linked to a specific physiological effect of elevated temperature on the flower bud formation process. Increasing March and April temperatures during the last 30 years has advanced blooming and spring phenology in plum and the resulting extension of the growing season has led to increasing fruit size at harvest. We conclude that so far, the ongoing climate warming appears to have been positive for plum production in the cool Nordic environment. However, an increasing risk of frost associated with earlier blooming will represent a potential negative effect of continued warming.

Abstract

The effect of controlled nutrient feeding during the period of short day (SD) induction of flowering has been studied in three SD berry crops. An experimental system with standardized plant material grown with trickle fertigation in controlled environments was used. In strawberry, flowering was advanced and increased when an additional N pulse was given 1-2 weeks after commencement of a 4-week SD induction period, while the opposite resulted when the treatment was applied 2 weeks before start of SD. In blackcurrant, the highest flowering and yield were obtained when fertilization was applied shortly after the natural photoperiod had declined to the inductive length in September. While generous nutrient supply during spring and summer reduced berry soluble solids in blackcurrant, this was not observed with autumn fertilization. Autumn fertilization did not adversely affect plant winter survival or growth vigour in spring. Withdrawal of fertilization prior to, or at various stages during floral induction, did not significantly affect flowering and yield in raspberry, but marginally advanced flowering and fruit ripening.

Abstract

We examined the influence of fertigation on vegetative and generative parameters of strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) and evaluated rapid analysing tools for N and K in leaf tissue. The experiments were undertaken in an open polytunnel on “table top” with ‘Sonata’ and ‘Korona’ grown in 2-L pots filled with a peat-based soil mixture. The experimental design was a randomized plot with three replications. Plants were fertigated with EC levels of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mS cm-1, based on two stock solutions of 7.5 kg YaraLiva™ Calcinit and 7.5 kg Kristalon™ Indigo, both dissolved in 100 L of water. Percentage N and K in leaves differed between analysing methods, cultivars, EC and date. We found interactions between the cultivar and EC level and between date and cultivar for N and K in leaf. Analysing NO3- by a photometric method (PM) in a lab, and by Laqua twin (LT), showed significant interaction with N% of leaf dry matter (DM) only for LT (r2=0.36). N% increased with higher EC level, more for ‘Korona’ than for ‘Sonata’. LT K+ did not correlate with K% (r2=0.014). The number of crowns and runners increased for both cultivars up to EC 1.5, while the number of leaves was unaffected. Petioles were the shortest at the lowest EC. Flower initiation was earlier at low EC in both cultivars. In the following spring, the time to flowering and first harvest was reduced with the decreasing EC. The number of flowers per plant increased up to EC 1.5, but dropped strongly at EC 2.0 for ‘Korona’, while ‘Sonata’ had a gradual increase of flowers with the increasing EC, but the number was only a third of ‘Korona’, except at EC 2.0, where the amount was equal for both cultivars. The conclusion can be drawn that LT correlated better than ChlDualex with N in strawberry leaves. However, r2 was only 0.36 indicating that LT NO3- is a coarse management tool. LT K+ was not a promising tool for rapid K+ test in these experiments. ‘Korona’ seemed to benefit of higher N levels for both vegetative growth and generative development than ‘Sonata’ up to EC 1.5, but ‘Sonata’ reached a higher floral primordia development stage in early October.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND Marked effects of the climatic environment on fruit chemical composition have often been demonstrated in field experiments. However, complex covariations of several climatic factors in the natural environment complicate the interpretation of such experiments and the identification of the causal factors. This can be better achieved in a phytotron where the various climatic factors can be varied systematically. Therefore, we grew four black currant cultivars of contrasting origin in a phytotron under controlled post-flowering temperature and photoperiod conditions and analysed the berries for their ascorbic acid, sugar and organic acid contents. RESULTS The analyses revealed significant effects of genotype on all investigated compounds. Particularly large cultivar differences were observed in the concentrations of l-ascorbic acid (AA) and sucrose. The concentrations of both AA and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), as well as the concentrations of all major sugars, decreased consistently with an increasing temperature over the temperature range 12–24 °C. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars with concentrations several fold higher than that for sucrose. AA was the main contributor to the total ascorbate pool in black currant berries. The AA/DHAA ratio varied from 5.6 to 10.3 among the studied cultivars. The concentration of citric acid, which was the predominant organic acid in black currant berries, increased with an increasing temperature, whereas the opposite trend was observed for malic and shikimic acid. Quninic acid was always present at relatively low concentrations. By contrast, photoperiod had no significant effect on berry content of any of the investigated compounds. CONCLUSION It is concluded that the post-flowering temperature has marked effects on the concentration of important chemical compounds responsible for taste and nutritional value of black currant berries, whereas photoperiod has no such effect in the studied cultivars. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry

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Abstract

The effect of fertility status and temperature conditions during floral induction on flowering, berry yield,and weight and drupelet numbers of individual berries were studied in ‘Glen Ample’ raspberries grownunder controlled conditions. Withdrawal of normal fertilization prior to and at various stages duringfloral induction did not affect yield and berry size, but marginally advanced flowering and fruit ripening.The successive stages of floral initiation and differentiation were studied and identified by scanning elec-tron microscopy of the uppermost lateral buds of plants grown for six weeks under naturally decreasingautumn photoperiods at temperatures of 9, 15 and 21◦C. Low temperature advanced floral initiation, andadvanced and enhanced flowering and berry yield in the following season. However, at variance fromearlier studies, the plants eventually initiated flower primordia even at 21◦C. Marginal low temperatureand short day conditions during the last days before the temperature treatments were started on 17September might possibly have reduced the subsequent induction requirements enough to explain thisunexpected result. Correlation analyses revealed an over-all positive correlation between fruit weightand drupelet numbers (r = 0.568, P = 0.01). In berries from the early harvests, the number of drupelets perberry increased with decreasing temperature, while the numbers converged to the same level regardlessof temperature in the later harvests. Based on the progress of the floral initiation process at the vari-ous temperatures, we interpret this to mean that only the early initiated flowers, that gave rise to theearly maturing berries, were differentiated during the actual period of controlled temperature exposure,whereas the remaining flowers were differentiated afterwards when all plants were exposed to identicallow temperature conditions. Increased femaleness under optimal floral induction conditions is in agree-ment with results in both monoecious and dioecious plants and circumstantial evidence suggest that,in the raspberry, this might be mediated by changes in gibberellin activity which acts as a male sexualhormone in plants and is known to inhibit growth cessation and floral initiation in raspberry.

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Abstract

Berry yield and chemical composition of four commercial black currant cultivars were recorded in a field experiment in Norway over an 8-year period and related by linear regression analysis to temperature and precipitation conditions prevailing during the May-July preharvest period. Highly significant differences between cultivars and among years were found for all measured parameters. Fruit dry matter, soluble solids and pH were positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with precipitation during May-July, while yield, berry weight, and the concentration of total phenols and ascorbic acid showed the opposite relationship, being highly negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with precipitation. Similar black currant experiments elsewhere in Europe have often given deviating results, varying from opposite to no effects of the same weather variables, suggesting that fruit composition is influenced by several interacting genetic and environmental parameters. We conclude that differences in local weather and soil conditions and the use of different cultivars complicate direct comparison of such field experiments. Nevertheless, the observed strong and opposite correlations with precipitation and temperature suggest an inherently low drought tolerance of black currant plants.

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Abstract

The effects of postflowering temperature and daylength on the concentration of individual phenolic compounds were studied in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) berries under controlled phytotron conditions. The four cultivars studied varied greatly in their concentrations of individual phenolic compounds and temperature stability for accumulation. The concentrations of a wide range of identified phenolic compounds were strongly influenced by temperature over the 12–24 °C range, often with opposite temperature gradient patterns for compounds within the same subclass. Accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonols increased under natural long day conditions, which provided an increased daily light integral, while under identical light energy conditions, photoperiod had little or no effect on the concentration of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, with the exception of members of the hydroxycinnamic acid subclass, the concentration of most phenolic compounds was higher in berries ripened outdoors than in the phytotron, apparently due to screening of UV-B radiation by the glass cover.