Biografi

Jeg er en molekylærbiolog/biokjemiker som jobber med planter. Under bachelorgraden forsket jeg på lysrespons hos agurk og Arabidopsis thaliana (vårskrinneblom). Deretter tok jeg en doktorgrad ved University of Florida, der jeg arbeidet med molekyler som bidrar til smakssammensetningen til tomater. Siden har jeg hold på med et Post Doc-prosjekt ved University of British Columbia, der jeg jobbet med forsvarsmekanismer mot insekter hos gran. Ved NIBIO kommer jeg til å videreføre dette arbeidet. Jeg har fått midler til et 'unge forskertalenter'-prosjekt fra forskningrådet og jobber nå med molekylære mekanismene bak priming av granas forsvar. Fagkunnskap: planteforsvar, molekylærbiologi, plantebiokjemi, funksjonell genomikk.

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Background The order Lepidoptera has an abundance of species, including both agriculturally beneficial and detrimental insects. Molecular data has been used to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of major subdivisions in Lepidoptera, which has enhanced our understanding of the evolutionary relationships at the family and superfamily levels. However, the phylogenetic placement of many superfamilies and/or families in this order is still unknown. In this study, we determine the systematic status of the family Argyresthiidae within Lepidoptera and explore its phylogenetic affinities and implications for the evolution of the order. We describe the first mitochondrial (mt) genome from a member of Argyresthiidae, the apple fruit moth Argyresthia conjugella. The insect is an important pest on apples in Fennoscandia, as it switches hosts when the main host fails to produce crops. Results The mt genome of A. conjugella contains 16,044 bp and encodes all 37 genes commonly found in insect mt genomes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a large control region (1101 bp). The nucleotide composition was extremely AT-rich (82%). All detected PCGs (13) began with an ATN codon and terminated with a TAA stop codon, except the start codon in cox1 is ATT. All 22 tRNAs had cloverleaf secondary structures, except trnS1, where one of the dihydrouridine (DHU) arms is missing, reflecting potential differences in gene expression. When compared to the mt genomes of 507 other Lepidoptera representing 18 superfamilies and 42 families, phylogenomic analyses found that A. conjugella had the closest relationship with the Plutellidae family (Yponomeutoidea-super family). We also detected a sister relationship between Yponomeutoidea and the superfamily Tineidae. Conclusions Our results underline the potential importance of mt genomes in comparative genomic analyses of Lepidoptera species and provide valuable evolutionary insight across the tree of Lepidoptera species.

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Purpose of Review Forestry in northern temperate and boreal regions relies heavily on conifers. Rapid climate change and associated increases in adverse growing conditions predispose conifers to pathogens and pests. The much longer generation time and presumably, therefore, lower adaptive capacity of conifers relative to their native or non-native biotic stressors may have devastating consequences. We provide an updated overview of conifer defences underlying pathogen and pest resistance and discuss how defence traits can be used in tree breeding and forest management to improve resistance. Recent Findings Breeding of more resilient and stress-resistant trees will benefit from new genomic tools, such as genotyping arrays with increased genomic coverage, which will aid in genomic and relationship-based selection strategies. However, to successfully increase the resilience of conifer forests, improved genetic materials from breeding programs must be combined with more flexible and site-specific adaptive forest management. Summary Successful breeding programs to improve conifer resistance to pathogens and pests provide hope as well as valuable lessons: with a coordinated and sustained effort, increased resistance can be achieved. However, mechanisms underlying resistance against one stressor, even if involving many genes, may not provide any protection against other sympatric stressors. To maintain the adaptive capacity of conifer forests, it is important to keep high genetic diversity in the tree breeding programs. Choosing forest management options that include diversification of tree-species and forest structure and are coupled with the use of genetically improved plants and assisted migration is a proactive measure to increase forest resistance and resilience to foreseen and unanticipated biotic stressors in a changing climate.

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The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident in 1986 resulted in extremely high levels of acute ionising radiation, that killed or damaged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees in the surrounding areas. Dead trees were cleared and buried, and new plantations established a few years later. Today, more than three decades later, gamma and beta-radiation near the ChNPP is still elevated compared with ambient levels but have decreased by a factor of 300 and 100, respectively. In the present work, Scots pine-trees growing at High (220 μGy h-1), Medium (11 μGy h-1), and Low (0.2 μGy h-1) total (internal + external) dose rates of chronically elevated ionising radiation in the Chernobyl Exclusion zone were investigated with respect to possible damage to DNA, cells and organelles, as well as potentially increased levels of phenolic and terpenoid antioxidants. Scots pine from the High and Medium radiation sites had elevated levels of DNA damage in shoot tips and needles as shown by the COMET assay, as well as increased numbers of resin ducts and subcellular abnormalities in needles. Needles from the High radiation site showed elevated levels of monoterpenes and condensed tannins compared with those from the other sites. In conclusion, more than three decades after the ChNPP accident substantial DNA damage and (sub)cellular effects, but also mobilisation of stress-protective substances possessing antioxidant activity were observed in Scots pine trees growing at elevated levels of ionising radiation. This demonstrates that the radiation levels in the Red Forest still significantly impact the plant community.

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The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident in 1986 resulted in extremely high levels of acute ionising radiation, that killed or damaged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees in the surrounding areas. Dead trees were cleared and buried, and new plantations established a few years later. Today, more than three decades later, gamma and beta-radiation near the ChNPP is still elevated compared with ambient levels but have decreased by a factor of 300 and 100, respectively. In the present work, Scots pine-trees growing at High (220 μGy h−1), Medium (11 μGy h−1), and Low (0.2 μGy h−1) total (internal + external) dose rates of chronically elevated ionising radiation in the Chernobyl Exclusion zone were investigated with respect to possible damage to DNA, cells and organelles, as well as potentially increased levels of phenolic and terpenoid antioxidants. Scots pine from the High and Medium radiation sites had elevated levels of DNA damage in shoot tips and needles as shown by the COMET assay, as well as increased numbers of resin ducts and subcellular abnormalities in needles. Needles from the High radiation site showed elevated levels of monoterpenes and condensed tannins compared with those from the other sites. In conclusion, more than three decades after the ChNPP accident substantial DNA damage and (sub)cellular effects, but also mobilisation of stress-protective substances possessing antioxidant activity were observed in Scots pine trees growing at elevated levels of ionising radiation. This demonstrates that the radiation levels in the Red Forest still significantly impact the plant community.

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Stress can have long-lasting impacts on plants. Here we report the long-term effects of the stress hormone jasmonic acid (JA) on the defence phenotype, transcriptome and DNA methylome of Arabidopsis. Three weeks after transient JA signalling, 5-week-old plants retained induced resistance (IR) against herbivory but showed increased susceptibility to pathogens. Transcriptome analysis revealed long-term priming and/or upregulation of JA-dependent defence genes but repression of ethylene- and salicylic acid-dependent genes. Long-term JA-IR was associated with shifts in glucosinolate composition and required MYC2/3/4 transcription factors, RNA-directed DNA methylation, the DNA demethylase ROS1 and the small RNA (sRNA)-binding protein AGO1. Although methylome analysis did not reveal consistent changes in DNA methylation near MYC2/3/4-controlled genes, JA-treated plants were specifically enriched with hypomethylated ATREP2 transposable elements (TEs). Epigenomic characterization of mutants and transgenic lines revealed that ATREP2 TEs are regulated by RdDM and ROS1 and produce 21 nt sRNAs that bind to nuclear AGO1. Since ATREP2 TEs are enriched with sequences from IR-related defence genes, our results suggest that AGO1-associated sRNAs from hypomethylated ATREP2 TEs trans-regulate long-lasting memory of JA-dependent immunity.

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The large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) is a major regeneration pest in commercial forestry. Pesticide application has historically been the preferred control method, but pesticides are now being phased out in several countries for environmental reasons. There is, thus, a need for alternative plant protection strategies. We applied methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA) or oxalic acid (OxA) on the stem of 2-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) plants to determine effects on inducible defenses and plant growth. Anatomical examination of stem cross-sections 9 weeks after application of 100 mM MeJA revealed massive formation of traumatic resin ducts and greatly reduced sapwood growth. Application of high concentrations of SA or OxA (500 and 200 mM, respectively) induced much weaker physiological responses than 100 mM MeJA. All three treatments reduced plant height growth significantly, but the reduction was larger for MeJA (~55%) than for SA and OxA (34-35%). Lower MeJA concentrations (5-50 mM) induced comparable traumatic resin duct formation as the high MeJA concentration but caused moderate (and non-significant) reductions in plant growth. Two-year-old spruce plants treated with 100 mM MeJA showed reduced mortality after exposure to pine weevils in the field, and this enhanced resistance-effect was statistically significant for three years after treatment.

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Epigenetic modification is an important mechanism that allows plants to rapidly adapt to changes in environment. This modification can provide long-term increased tolerance and resistance to abiotic and biotic stress and may even be transmittable to progeny. Knowledge on how epigenetic memory is established, maintained, triggered, and transmitted in plants with different evolutionary and life histories is important for understanding and utilizing epigenetic adaptation in plant protection. In this symposium, we welcome talks from those that provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying epigenetic memory to those that present the practical aspects of implementing epigenetic adaptation in the field.

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Defense priming, the sensitization of inducible defenses, has been extensively studied in annual angiosperms. However, we are just beginning to explore defense priming in woody, long-lived plants. The natural compound methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been used for over 20 years to study spruce inducible defenses. Recently, it was discovered that MeJA not only directly induces defense, but also primes defense responses in spruce. Metabolite and transcriptional analyses of mature trees treated with MeJA and subsequently wounded showed that while terpenes accumulate at the wound site in a primed manner, terpene biosynthesis genes are directly induced by MeJA. Pathogen resistance (PR) genes, on the other hand, are primed. Sequencing of miRNAs suggests that miRNAs have a regulatory role in MeJA-induced defenses in spruce. Additionally, a detailed transcriptional time course of 2- year-old spruce treated with MeJA indicated that the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway is involved in the establishment and maintenance of primed defenses. When comparing mechanisms of defense priming in spruce to those in Arabidopsis, it seems that many mechanisms are conserved. However, some aspects, such as jasmonic acid-salicylic acid crosstalk, may be different. Identifying these differences and how they affect forest species is important for practical application of defense priming in forest management.

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Norway spruce (Picea abies) is an economically and ecologically important tree species that grows across northern and central Europe. Treating Norway spruce with jasmonate has long-lasting beneficial effects on tree resistance to damaging pests, such as the European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus and its fungal associates. The (epi)genetic mechanisms involved in such long-lasting jasmonate induced resistance (IR) have gained much recent interest but remain largely unknown. In this study, we treated 2-year-old spruce seedlings with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and challenged them with the I. typographus vectored necrotrophic fungus Grosmannia penicillata. MeJA treatment reduced the extent of necrotic lesions in the bark 8 weeks after infection and thus elicited long-term IR against the fungus. The transcriptional response of spruce bark to MeJA treatment was analysed over a 4-week time course using mRNA-seq. This analysis provided evidence that MeJA treatment induced a transient upregulation of jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and ethylene biosynthesis genes and downstream signalling genes. Our data also suggests that defence-related genes are induced while genes related to growth are repressed by methyl jasmonate treatment. These results provide new clues about the potential underpinning mechanisms and costs associated with long-term MeJA-IR in Norway spruce.

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Nursery-grown Norway spruce Picea abies seedlings are often heavily attacked by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis on clear-cuts the first years after planting. Because the seedlings are not resource-limited during the growing phase in the nursery they are expected to invest less in defence than naturally regenerated seedlings already present on the clear-cuts. The latter have had to cope with various environmental stressors that could make them invest more in defence. We tested if naturally regenerated plants have stronger chemical defences than nursery-grown plants. Nursery-grown plants were planted in-between naturally regenerated plants on fresh clear cuts, and phenolic and terpene compounds in the stem bark were measured after one growing season. To test both constitutive and inducible defences, plants were either wounded, painted with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce defences, or given a combination of both treatments. Growth and pine weevil attacks of the plants were registered. Nursery-grown plants had higher total concentrations of phenolic compounds and lower concentrations of terpenes than naturally regenerated plants. These opposite responses were reflected in very different compound profiles in the two plant types. We suggest the differences between plant types to be results of differences in plant age, stress level, genetic origin or possibly a combination of these factors. Most compounds showed no response to wounding, MeJA-treatment or wounding and MeJA-treatment combined, but the terpenes 3-carene, eucalyptol, limonene and para-cymene had higher concentrations in MeJA-treated nursery-grown plants than in control plants. These compounds are known to be effective in conifer resistance against weevils and bark beetles. Overall, 27% of our 400 study plants had signs of pine weevil damage after 3 ½ months in the field. However, treatment or plant type had no significant effect on whether plants were attacked or not and this might have been a result of the relatively low overall level of attacks in this study. Further studies are needed to disentangle the importance of plant age, stress level, genetic origin and resource availability for chemical defence mechanisms of young Norway spruce plants, as strengthening the natural resistance of nursery plants may be increasingly important in a future with less pesticide use.

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Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment elicits induced resistance (IR) against pests and diseases in Norway spruce (Picea abies). We recently demonstrated using mRNA-seq that this MeJA-IR is associated with both a prolonged upregulation of inducible defenses and defense priming. Gene expression can be regulated at both a transcrip-tional and post-transcriptional level by small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs). Here we explore the effects of MeJA treatment and subsequent challenge by wounding on the Norway spruce miRNA transcriptome. We found clusters of prolonged down- or upregulated miRNAs as well as miRNAs whose expression was primed after MeJA treatment and subsequent wounding challenge. Differentially expressed miRNAs included miR160, miR167, miR172, miR319, and the miR482/2118 superfamily. The most prominent mRNA targets predicted to be differentially expressed by miRNA activity belonged to the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS- LRR) family. Among other predicted miRNA targets were genes regulating jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Our re-sults indicate that miRNAs have an important role in the regulation of MeJA-IR in Norway spruce.

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We review a recently discovered white spruce (Picea glauca) chemical defense against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) involving hydroxyacetophenones. These defense metabolites detected in the foliage accumulate variably as the aglycons, piceol and pungenol, or the corresponding glucosides, picein and pungenin. We summarize current knowledge of the genetic, genomic, molecular, and biochemical underpinnings of this defense and its effects on C. fumiferana. We present an update with new results on the ontogenic variation and the phenological window of this defense, including analysis of transcript responses in P. glauca to C. fumiferana herbivory. We also discuss this chemical defense from an evolutionary and a breeding context.

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In response to various stimuli, plants acquire resistance against pests and/or pathogens. Such acquired or induced resistance allows plants to rapidly adapt to their environment. Spraying the bark of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees with the phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) enhances resistance to tree‐killing bark beetles and their associated phytopathogenic fungi. Analysis of spruce chemical defenses and beetle colonization success suggests that MeJA treatment both directly induces immune responses and primes inducible defenses for a faster and stronger response to subsequent beetle attack. We used metabolite and transcriptome profiling to explore the mechanisms underlying MeJA‐induced resistance in Norway spruce. We demonstrated that MeJA treatment caused substantial changes in the bark transcriptional response to a triggering stress (mechanical wounding). Profiling of mRNA expression showed a suite of spruce inducible defenses are primed following MeJA treatment. Although monoterpenes and diterpene resin acids increased more rapidly after wounding in MeJA‐treated than control bark, expression of their biosynthesis genes did not. We suggest that priming of inducible defenses is part of a complex mixture of defense responses that underpins the increased resistance against bark beetle colonization observed in Norway spruce. This study provides the most detailed insights yet into the mechanisms underlying induced resistance in a long‐lived gymnosperm.

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Plants can form an immunological memory known as defense priming, whereby exposure to a priming stimulus enables quicker or stronger response to subsequent attack by pests and pathogens. Such priming of inducible defenses provides increased protection and reduces allocation costs of defense. Defense priming has been widely studied for short‐lived model plants such as Arabidopsis, but little is known about this phenomenon in long‐lived plants like spruce. We compared the effects of pretreatment with sublethal fungal inoculations or application of the phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on the resistance of 48‐year‐old Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees to mass attack by a tree‐killing bark beetle beginning 35 days later. Bark beetles heavily infested and killed untreated trees but largely avoided fungus‐inoculated trees and MeJA‐treated trees. Quantification of defensive terpenes at the time of bark beetle attack showed fungal inoculation induced 91‐fold higher terpene concentrations compared with untreated trees, whereas application of MeJA did not significantly increase terpenes. These results indicate that resistance in fungus‐inoculated trees is a result of direct induction of defenses, whereas resistance in MeJA‐treated trees is due to defense priming. This work extends our knowledge of defense priming from model plants to an ecologically important tree species.

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As primary producers, plants are under constant pressure to defend themselves against potentially deadly pathogens and herbivores. In this review, we describe short- and long-term strategies that enable plants to cope with these stresses. Apart from internal immunological strategies that involve physiological and (epi)genetic modifications at the cellular level, plants also employ external strategies that rely on recruitment of beneficial organisms. We discuss these strategies along a gradient of increasing timescales, ranging from rapid immune responses that are initiated within seconds to (epi)genetic adaptations that occur over multiple plant generations. We cover the latest insights into the mechanistic and evolutionary underpinnings of these strategies and present explanatory models. Finally, we discuss how knowledge from short-lived model species can be translated to economically and ecologically important perennials to exploit adaptive plant strategies and mitigate future impacts of pests and diseases in an increasingly interconnected and changing world.

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Bark beetles and their symbiotic bluestain fungi kill more trees than all other natural factors and cause great economic losses in Norway spruce and other conifers. The tree's natural defenses are the most important factor maintaining bark beetle-fungus complexes at low, endemic levels. Spraying Norway spruce trees with the plant hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) primes tree defenses without eliciting notable induced defenses, but enables the trees to respond much more quickly and strongly when challenged by bark beetles or fungi several weeks after treatment. This phenomenon, known as defense priming, is a form of acquired resistance that enables cost-effective and vigorous defense responses. In field experiments with 50-year-old clonal spruce trees terpene concentrations in the bark increased 60-fold within 24 h after mechanical wounding of MeJA primed trees, compared with a 13-fold increase in unprimed control trees. We also observed altered transcriptional patterns in primed trees using Illumina deep transcriptome sequencing. When wounded, primed trees launched vigorous induced defenses with significant differential regulation of gene transcripts, such as those involved in phenylpropanoid synthesis leading to lignification. Resistance-like genes, such as the NB-LRR coding genes, are also more rapidly induced in primed than in unprimed trees. Transcriptome results from primed but unwounded trees indicate an alteration in the state of the chromatin, resembling changes associated with the activity of the epigenetic machinery creating long-lasting epigenetic marks. We do not know yet how long the primed state is activated in Norway spruce, but our data so far indicate that it may last for at least 3 years.

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Acetophenones are phenolic metabolites of plant species. A metabolic route for the biosynthesis and release of 2 defence‐related hydroxyacetophenones in white spruce (Picea glauca) was recently proposed to involve 3 phases: (a) biosynthesis of the acetophenone aglycons catalysed by a currently unknown set of enzymes, (b) formation and accumulation of the corresponding glycosides catalysed by a glucosyltransferase, and (c) release of the aglycons catalysed by a glucosylhydrolase (PgβGLU‐1). We tested if this biosynthetic model is conserved across Pinaceae and land plant species. We assayed and surveyed the literature and sequence databases for possible patterns of the presence of the acetophenone aglycons piceol and pungenol and their glucosides, as well as sequences and expression of Pgβglu‐1 orthologues. In the Pinaceae, the 3 phases of the biosynthetic model are present and differences in expression of Pgβglu‐1 gene orthologues explain some of the interspecific variation in hydroxyacetophenones. The phylogenetic signal in the metabolite phenotypes was low across species of 6 plant divisions. Putative orthologues of PgβGLU‐1 do not form a monophyletic group in species producing hydroxyacetophenones. The biosynthetic model for acetophenones appears to be conserved across Pinaceae, whereas convergent evolution has led to the production of acetophenone glucosides across land plants.

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Acetophenones are phenolic compounds involved in the resistance of white spruce (Picea glauca) against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferiana), a major forest pest in North America. The acetophenones pungenol and piceol commonly accumulate in spruce foliage in the form of the corresponding glycosides, pungenin and picein. These glycosides appear to be inactive against the insect but can be cleaved by a spruce b-glucosidase, PgbGLU-1, which releases the active aglycons. The reverse glycosylation reaction was hypothesized to involve a family 1 UDP-sugar dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) to facilitate acetophenone accumulation in the plant. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling over a developmental time course of white spruce bud burst and shoot growth revealed two UGTs, PgUGT5 and PgUGT5b, that glycosylate pungenol. Recombinant PgUGT5b enzyme produced mostly pungenin, while PgUGT5 produced mostly isopungenin. Both UGTs also were active in vitro on select flavonoids. However, the context of transcript and metabolite accumulation did not support a biological role in flavonoid metabolism but correlated with the formation of pungenin in growing shoots. Transcript levels of PgUGT5b were higher than those of PgUGT5 in needles across different genotypes of white spruce. These results support a role of PgUGT5b in the biosynthesis of the glycosylated acetophenone pungenin in white spruce.

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Plants are sessile organisms that lack a specialized immune system to cope with biotic and abiotic stress. Instead, plants have complex regulatory networks that determine the appropriate distribution of resources between the developmental and the defense programs. In the last years, epigenetic regulation of repeats and gene expression has evolved as an important player in the transcriptional regulation of stress‐related genes. Here, we review the current knowledge about how different stresses interact with different levels of epigenetic control of the genome. Moreover, we analyze the different examples of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance and connect them with the known features of genome epigenetic regulation. Although yet to be explored, the interplay between epigenetics and stress resistance seems to be a relevant and dynamic player of the interaction of plants with their environments.

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Divisjon for bioteknologi og plantehelse

PROTECT: Effects of defense priming on Norway spruce needle microbiome and pest resistance


In correlation with our Research Council of Norway funded project on the effects of Norway spruce defense priming on the root microbiome and resistance, we will also analyse the effects of spruce defense priming and soil microbiota on the spruce needle microbiome and resistance. This project is funded by SNS - Nordic Forest Research.

Active Updated: 13.01.2022
End: des 2024
Start: mars 2022
Gråskimmel_rundt_liten_granplante

Divisjon for bioteknologi og plantehelse

Kan behandling av granplanter med plantehormonet metyl-jasmonat og «snille» bakterier bidra til redusert bruk av plantevernmidler i skogplanteskoler?


Gråskimmel er en vanlig sopp som kan skade mange ulike planter. I norsk skogplante­produksjon er gråskimmel en av de mest problematiske skadegjørerne. I dag bruker skogplanteskolene kjemiske plantevernmidler for å bekjempe gråskimmel, men stadig flere preparater mister godkjenning. Dette gir mer hyppig bruk av de gjenværende preparatene og økt risko for soppmiddelresistens. Metyl-jasmonat (MeJA) er et naturlig plantestoff som kan brukes til å «vaksinere» granplanter mot skadegjørere. Nyttige bakterier som finnes naturlig sammen med gran kan også bidra til å beskytte plantene mot patogener. I dette prosjektet vil vi teste om behandling med MeJA og «snille» bakterier kan beskytte granplanter mot gråskimmelsmitte. Dersom det lykkes, kan denne strategien brukes i en integrert plantevernstrategi og redusere bruken av kjemiske plantevernmidler i norske skogplante­skoler.

Active Updated: 14.02.2024
End: des 2025
Start: mars 2024