Ingunn M. Vågen

Forsker

(+47) 406 22 904
ingunn.vaagen@nibio.no

Sted
Landvik

Besøksadresse
Reddalsveien 215, 4886 Grimstad

Sammendrag

Vi blir gradvis mer bevisste på å spise grønt og bærekraftig. Hvor går veien videre? Hvor mye av ny og grønnere mat kommer egentlig fra Norge? Litt om FoU på proteinrike vekster, og litt om nye muligheter og hva som kan produseres lokalt på Agder.

Sammendrag

The “Arctic peas” project Climate changes expected in the near future will result in higher temperatures and longer growing season at high latitudes. This might open up for possibilities for pea production in Arctic and northern areas, and the need for cultivars more adapted to northern conditions is likely to increase. At NordGen - a common genebank for all the Nordic countries - a large number of Nordic pea accessions are conserved, including both cultivars, landraces and breeding material. Does this material hold keys to the future? The ongoing Nordic cooperation research project «Arctic peas» aims to identify germplasm of peas well adapted either for breeding or immediate cultivation in the Arctic/Nordic regions. The project evaluates important traits in 50 selected accessions from NordGen in field trials at four contrasting Nordic locations, at latitudes ranging from 55° to 69° N (see map). Among the evaluated traits are flowering time, maturation time and yield, as well as protein content. Will the genetic material show different expressions at locations with clear distinction in daylength, temperature and climate? The project also aims to increase the knowledge and use of the Nordic pea accessions conserved at NordGen, and strengthen the collaboration between companies, organizations and researchers in the Nordic countries.

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Sammendrag

Faba beans are highly nutritious because of their high protein content: they are a good source of mineral nutrients, vitamins, and numerous bioactive compounds. Equally important is the contribution of faba bean in maintaining the sustainability of agricultural systems, as it is highly efficient in the symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. This article provides an overview of factors influencing faba bean yield and quality, and addresses the main biotic and abiotic constraints. It also reviews the factors relating to the availability of genetic material and the agronomic features of faba bean production that contribute to high yield and the improvement of European cropping systems. Emphasis is to the importance of using new high-yielding cultivars that are characterized by a high protein content, low antinutritional compound content, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. New cultivars should combine several of these characteristics if an increased and more stable production of faba bean in specific agroecological zones is to be achieved. Considering that climate change is also gradually affecting many European regions, it is imperative to breed elite cultivars that feature a higher abiotic–biotic stress resistance and nutritional value than currently used cultivars. Improved agronomical practices for faba bean crops, such as crop establishment and plant density, fertilization and irrigation regime, weed, pest and disease management, harvesting time, and harvesting practices are also addressed, since they play a crucial role in both the production and quality of faba bean.

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Sammendrag

The project “Sustainable food production through quality optimized raw-material production and processing technologies for premium quality vegetable products and generated by-products” [SUNNIVA] aimed at the development of a sustainable food system from production to consumption, addressing the entire food supply chain for the vegetables tomato and Brassicae. The goal was better utilisation of the vegetable raw materials, reduced energy and water consumption, higher profitability and healthier food. This was achieved by providing various valorisation strategies to reduce waste and limiting environmental impact. Preservation of the intrinsic health-beneficial phytochemicals present in the raw material in order to improve the nutritional properties of vegetable food products was central in the project. The project contained optimization of harvest time and pre-processing storage conditions, development of novel mild processing design based on modelling, and a two-track valorisation strategy. SUNNIVA has demonstrated how the various residual raw materials can be exploited to the full: Either directly for sustainable production of healthy food (as a refined product or an ingredient), or indirectly by bringing it back into the food chain (as organic fertilizers and soil amendment products) in order to generate renewed primary production with minimal environmental impact.

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Sammendrag

European pulse production faces a continued loss of cultivated area along with decreasing or stagnant yields. Vicia faba is a traditional legume with high genetic diversity cultivated in a wide range of European climates. Therefore V. faba is promising to identify stable and high yielding genotypes for specific target environments. The Nordic-Baltic region is challenging for legume growing due to short vegetation period and heat/drought stress in continental climates. Within the pan-European Eurolegume project a set of 18 V. faba accessions containing var. minor and major local landraces and modern cultivars of different geographical origin was evaluated in multi-environmental trials. The aim of this study was to identify ideotypes for Northern Europe and reveal key phenotypic traits conferring high yield potential and stability. Four target environmental clusters represented the range of Nordic growing conditions with yield levels from 128 gm−2 to 380 gm−2. Multivariate classification differentiated distinctive groups of var. minor and var. major accessions with few overlapping genotypes, the former having higher average yield, taller structure, more pods per node and longer flowering duration. Late sowing under long-day conditions above 55°N latitudes resulted in early flowering due to short vegetative development (650 °Cd). Extended flowering duration and tall stature were the most important traits conferring high yields. A negative trade-off between yield potential and yield stability was detected, with yield advantages of stress resistant genotypes only in a limited range of low yielding target environments (< 180 gm−2). The highest yielding accessions (Latvian var. minor landrace Bauska and var. major landrace Cēres) represented a favourable combination of yield potential and stability. High temperatures at flowering, within a range of average maximum July temperatures between 20.5–24.5 °C, were identified as most critical environmental variable depressing yield levels between 38.5 (var. major) and 56.2 (var. minor) gm−2 °C−1. It was concluded that Baltic landraces are promising ideotypes, with adapted flowering phenology and morphological structure, for increased V. faba yields in Nordic target environments.

Sammendrag

Matching high performing varieties of legumes with effective symbiotic N-fixing bacteria can potentially enhance production volumes and economic returns when cultivating grain legumes. We investigated whether field inoculation with local or introduced Rhizobia to six different varieties of faba bean improved growth, nitrogen (N) fixation and protein content in a field experiment in Southern Norway. In 2016, a full factorial experiment featuring three inoculation treatments (a mixture of four morphotypes of Rhizobia isolated from locally grown faba bean, a mix of two efficient and well documented Rhizobium strains from Latvia, and a non-inoculated control treatment) and six faba bean (Vicia faba) genotypes (Agua Dulce, Bauska, Jõgeva, Gloria, Julia, Lielplatones) was set up in an experimental field with sandy loam soil with no recent legume culture history (>10 years). At late flowering/early pod formation stage we quantified N fixation of the crop using the N-15 natural abundance method, using weeds from the same plots as reference plants. We also assessed morphological and phenological characters, seed yields and protein levels at plant maturity. Clear differences were observed, and detailed results from this study will be presented at the conference (analyses are still pending). This research is a part of the EU FP7 project Eurolegume.

Sammendrag

Genetic resources of pea (Pisum sativum) may represent valuable traits for inclusion in breeding programs, but may also be valuable directly due to good adaptation to local agro-climatic conditions, or have market potential as heirloom foods. Grain legume production in Norway is limited compared to many other European countries, but increased acreage is desired and expected for several reasons. A short growing season and the specific agro-climatic conditions makes choice of genotypes important for reliable grain and protein yields. During three years, several evaluation field trials with pea genetic resources were carried out in Southern Norway, assessing morphological and phenological traits, seed yields and protein levels. The trials included pea accessions from Norway(1), Sweden(6), Finland(1), Latvia(8), Estonia(9) and Portugal(1), as well as commercial cultivars(6). The genotypes differed widely in grain yield, time and duration of flowering, maturity, plant height, and resistance to lodging. Seed protein levels ranged from 24.0 to 32.7%. Protein levels for these pea genotypes under Norwegian field conditions appear to be higher than in comparable trials in countries at lower latitudes. The research was supported by the EU FP7 project Eurolegume and NordGen (Nordic Genetic Resource Center).

Sammendrag

It is widely accepted that legume crops yield and basic chemical composition of pulses regarding crude proteins content are closely dependent on agro-environmental conditions and cropping system. Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where the same crop is cultivated on the same land for a 12-month period. In an organic and integrated growing approach more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions, and as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, green manure, alternatives are being implemented. Thus, trials aimed at increasing the current knowledge on sustainable agriculture constitute an essential part of EUROLEGUME, which envisages the comparison of organic vs conventional cropping systems for faba bean and pea production in northern Europe. Thus, field experiments were set up in two different locations (AREI - Latvia and NIBIO -Norway). Results obtained showed significant differences in yield between tested genotypes of faba bean and pea. For pea most yielding cultivars (‘Klara’ and ‘Kirke’) slightly differed between trial locations, being the most promising in both locations. On the other hand, on faba bean accessions ‘Julia’ and ‘Lielplatones’ exhibited the highest yield in Norway, and ‘Bauska’ and ‘Lielpaltones’ in Latvia. Apart from the evaluation of the impact of crop rotation on legumes yield, the influence of legumes as intercrop with horticultural crops was also evaluated on a two years’ study, on vegetables and strawberry crops in Latvia. This work showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean and carrot/faba bean, whilst onion and faba bean intercrop are not recommended.

Sammendrag

Quality aspects of food crops have been gaining increased attention at important regarding economic and health levels. Grain legumes have high potential for the nutritional improvement of foods, although to date, existing gaps of information on the compositional characteristics of legumes as feedstuffs and foodstuffs, as well as concerning technologies enabling the development of new food and feed products entail a reduced consumption. Recognizing this challenge, EUROLEGUME has addressed this topic by selecting the best legume varieties regarding their content in protein, amino acids, dry matter, ash, and total fats in a panel of underexplored varieties of faba bean (n = 10), pea (n = 16), and cowpea (n = 28). The results obtained on the proximate composition have identified nutritionally enhanced and genetically diverse germplasms. In this work it was identified the most promising genotypes of faba bean (‘Gloria’, ‘Džūkstes’, ‘Kučānes’, and ‘Aqua Dolce’), pea (‘Looming’, ‘k4171’, ‘k4831’,‘Eesti kollane söödahernes’, and ‘Bruno’), and cowpea (‘Vg50’, ‘Vg51’, ‘Vg56’, ‘Vg57’, ‘Vg58’, and ‘Vg59’) for the development of new attractive, convenient ready-to-eat, and tasty legume-based food formulations that will contribute to the diversification of healthier diets. In addition, in this work, significant differences were stated regarding the content in protein, total, essential, and non-essential amino acids between legumes grown in organic and conventional systems that allowed to highlight the relevance of the cropping system for the nutritional value of legumes.

Sammendrag

Aim: The objective was to assess the nitrogen provided to following crops by peas and fava beans, with varying legume residue incorporation and use of cover crops. Meth: Organic field trial, ‘spilt-split plot design’ with 4 blocks. Whole plots (spring 2014) had legumes (pea or faba beans), and sub plots (autumn 2014) had 4 autumn soil treatments with combinations of legume residue incorporation and cover crop. The sub-sub plots (spring 2015) were with and without additional manure fertilization. Res: The root biomass of both legume pre cops had equal nitrogen (N) concentration, but total root biomass was twice as high for fava beans as for peas (5.08 vs. 2.41 kg m-2). Fava bean pre crop with biomass incorporation without cover crop gave the highest broccoli yield (4.10 t ha-1) compared with pea pre crop with biomass incorporation and no cover crop (2.44 t ha -1). Also the last crop in the rotation, lettuce, had 94% higher yield after fava beans (6.6 t ha-1) compared to peas (3.4 t ha-1). Rye as cover crop efficiently assimilated and conserved N during winter, shown by a 4 to 5 fold reduction in soil NO3-N, and nearly 2 fold reduction in soil N-min levels, compared to open soil. Additional manure application affected crop yield, with 3 and 2 fold increase in broccoli and lettuce respectively. Conc: Fava beans as pre crop resulted in higher yields of broccoli and lettuce the following seasons, compared to peas. This was explained twice as much root biomass for that crop.

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Sammendrag

The SUNNIVA project aims to increase the overall sustainability of vegetable processing by providing valorisation strategies to reduce waste and limiting environmental impact, while improving the nutritional properties of vegetable food products. Results obtained during the first project year indicate that; (i) The waste and by-product fractions of cabbage, tomato and black salsify have a great potential to be better utilized in the food processing chain and to serve as valuable sources for health beneficial phytochemicals (HBPC), and (ii) that tomato and grape seed press cakes have an interesting plant nutritional (NPK) profile, which makes them suitable candidates as raw material in soil amendments. Further, raw materials from tomato and cabbage, in terms of cultivars and morphological parts, has been assessed for HBPC and nutritional value as an effect of N-fertilization and processing. Experimental data for deriving numerical thermal models for agitated and static retort are obtained. Mapping of the most important underutilized vegetable biomass streams in partnering countries are under way. The development of non-destructive tools for rapid HBPC measurements in cabbage and tomato is promising, but some more calibration/validation of the method is necessary. One year into the 3-year project, we conclude that progress has been satisfactory.