Geir Wæhler Gustavsen

Research Scientist

(+47) 907 01 453
geir.gustavsen@nibio.no

Place
Ås R9

Visiting address
Raveien 9, 1430 Ås

Abstract

This paper analyses the frequency of the consumption of table potatoes in Norway. The analysis shows that the frequency of potato consumption is higher in older cohorts than in younger, and it declines over the life cycle. This indicates that the total consumption will continue to decrease as older potato eating cohorts are replaced with younger cohorts who eat potatoes less frequently. This is bad for food security, it is bad for nutritional health and it is bad for the environment. It is argued that nutritional and environmental organizations should work together to increase the status of the potato.

Abstract

Urban agriculture is increasingly recognized as an important sustainable pathway for climate change adaptation and mitigation, for building more resilient cities, and for citizens’ health. Urban agriculture systems appear in many forms – both commercial and non-commercial. The value of the services derived from urban agriculture, e.g. enhanced food security, air quality, water regulation, and high level of biodiversity, is often difficult to quantify to inform policymakers and the general public in their decision making. We perform a contingent valuation survey regarding four different types of urban agriculture in Oslo. The citizens of Oslo are asked about their attitudes and willingness to pay for non-commercial and commercial urban agriculture. The non-commercial agriculture consists of urban community gardens for the citizens and urban gardens for work training, education and kindergartens. On the other hand, the commercial urban agriculture consists of aquaponics and vertical production. Results show that the citizens of Oslo are willing to increase their tax payments to contribute to further development of urban farming in Oslo. Keywords: Willingness to pay; community garden; aquaponics; vertical farming; Oslo

Abstract

In studies of consumption of local food specialties (LFSs), individual personalities are rarely mentioned. In this article, we want to expand on and provide a nuanced explanation of the characteristics of these consumers of these products, asking: Are there any personality traits that characterize these consumers? We use the Big Five personality model to unpack the relationship between individuals' personalities and choices of LFS in the Norwegian context. The model consists of the following five personal traits: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience. These personality traits are latent, but through questions regarding behavior, the traits may be revealed. To construct latent variables to measure these traits, we apply the graded response model. Furthermore, socioeconomic variables are combined with personality traits in logistic regression models to find the relationships between personality and choice of Norwegian LFSs. Our results show that in all models the latent variable Openness to experience was one of the most important predictors of all the choices of LFS made by individuals. Openness to experience is characterized by fantasy, aesthetic sensitivity, attentiveness to inner feelings, preference for variety, and intellectual curiosity. The consequence of the connection between Openness to experience and LFS is that stakeholders may take this into account when seeking to increase sales.

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Abstract

Meat demand is likely influenced by the birth cohort and age of the individual. In this study, we examine the demand for beef, pork, poultry, and other meat in the United States using the 1984–2012 Consumer Expenditure Survey and the almost ideal demand system with the incorporation of age, period, and cohort (APC) effects. We find that the model with APC effects performs better than the models without APC effects. The results indicate that cohorts born in earlier time periods are expected to purchase significantly less poultry compared to cohorts born in later time periods, when they are measured at the same age. Over the life cycle, purchase of poultry is expected to increase with age while the opposite is true for red meat. We also find that the own‐price elasticity for beef is highest among the products examined, while the own‐price elasticity for other meat is lowest and the inclusion of APC effects increases the absolute value of the own‐price elasticities for beef, pork, and poultry, but reduces the own‐price elasticity for other meat. Our forecasts indicate that the aggregate poultry purchase will continue to increase until 2022, while the aggregate purchase of red meat will slightly increase until 2017, but will either decrease or stay at same level from year 2017 to 2022.

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Abstract

Immigration has changed the United States from having a predominantly white to a more ethnically diverse population. People who move to the U.S. may initially have diets unlike native-born Americans but gradually adopt eating patterns more like them. Using NHANES data and a censored gamma regression model, this study estimated the daily consumption of major food products among groups of immigrants and the corresponding groups born in the U.S. Results show that immigrants had lower consumption of meat and higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, and immigrants’ consumption converged towards a less healthy American diet after five years in the U.S.

Abstract

According to World Health Organization a diet high in vegetables may reduce the risk of coronary heart diseases, stroke, and certain types of cancer. In addition, vegetables have lower carbon footprints than most other foods. But what is the most important motivation to consume vegetables? Is it health or is it climate and the environment? The main objective in this paper is to find drivers behind vegetable consumption, with emphasis on health and environmental motivation. To analyze the connection between individual's attitudes towards the climate, environment and health and the frequency of vegetable consumption we used survey data from 2015. The individual attitudes are hidden but through questions regarding perceptions and behavior the attitudes may be retrieved. We constructed latent variables to represent measures of environment and health attitudes. These latent variables were included in an econometric model linking attitudes with frequency of vegetable consumption. We applied the model to test for differences in frequencies of vegetable consumption for individuals with little and high degree of environmental and health consciousness. The main results show that health is a stronger motivator for vegetable consumption than environmental consciousness.

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Abstract

We used a survey to investigate some motives for drinking red, sparkling, and white wine among 3,433 Norwegian respondents. Respondents with interest in wine drank all types of wine more frequently than those with little interest. Interest in cultural activities, which often are associated with wine consumption, also increased the frequency of consumption of all types of wine. Respondents who scored high on conspicuous attitudes drank sparkling and white wine more frequently than respondents with low scores. However, conspicuous attitudes did not affect the frequency of red wine consumption. (JEL Classifications: D12, Q13).

Abstract

According to the World Health Organization a diet high in vegetables may reduce the risk of coronary heart diseases, stroke, and certain types of cancer. In addition, vegetables have lower carbon footprints than most other foods. The main objective in this paper is to find drivers behind vegetable consumption, with emphasis on health and environmental motivation. We used the theory of planned behavior together with direct acyclic graphs as a theoretical basis. The empirical analysis applied the graded response model and bounded beta regression with survey data from 2019. The main results show that health attitude is a stronger motivator for vegetable consumption than environmental attitudes.

Abstract

This paper contributes to the debate on sustainable water consumption by exploring the relation between consumers’ personality, understanding of risk/trust and social distinction in water drinking practices in Norway. Our main research question, how can we understand preferences for water consumption?, is approached by answering a set of hypotheses inspired by a combination of three theoretical approaches. Latent variables measuring personality and conspicuous attitudes are included in frequency models based on the statistical beta distribution together with other predictors. Statistical tests were performed to find the connection between expected frequency of water consumption, personality, risk/trust and conspicuous attitudes. The conclusion is that the consequence of the connections between consumers’ personality, understanding of risk and conspicuous consumption of water should be considered by Norwegian stakeholders when planning future strategies and methods for more sustainable water consumption.

Abstract

In studies of consumption of local food specialties individuals' personality are rarely included. In this article we want to expand and give nuances to the understanding of what characterizes these consumers and ask: Are there any common personality traits, or personal characteristics of these consumers? We make use of the Big Five personality model to unpack the relation between individual's personality and choices of local food specialties. This model consists of the following five personal traits: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience. These personality traits are hidden but through questions regarding behavior the traits may be retrieved. In order to construct latent variables to represent measures of these traits, we apply Item Response Theory (IRT). Socioeconomic variables are combined with personality traits in logistic regression models to find the connection between personality and choice of Norwegian local food specialties. The results show that in all models the latent variable Openness to Experience is a significant predictor for choice of local food specialties. This personality trait was one of the most important predictors in all the choices made by the individuals. Openness to Experience is characterized by fantasy, aesthetic sensitivity, attentiveness to inner feelings, preference for variety, and intellectual curiosity.

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Abstract

Little attention has been paid to the effects of personality traits on the consumption of wine and beer. We used a survey to investigate the associations between personality traits and the differences in expected consumption frequencies of wine and beer for 3,482 Norwegian respondents. High scores on extraversion and openness to experiences increased the expected frequency of wine consumption, high score on agreeableness reduced the frequency of wine consumption, while scores on conscientiousness and neuroticism had no effects. For beer, there were no significant effects between personality traits and the frequency of consumption.

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Abstract

We compare the food values in the USA and Norway using the best–worst scaling approach. The food values examined are aimed at capturing the main issues related to food consumption such as naturalness, taste, price, safety, convenience, nutrition,novelty, origin, fairness, appearance, environmental impact and animal welfare. Results show that respondents in both countries have mostly similar food values,with safety being the most important value; while convenience and novelty are the least important values. Specifically, US respondents consider price more important and naturalness less important than Norwegian respondents.

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Abstract

Over their life course, people change their consumption habits when prices, income, tastes or nutritional needs change. The time period during which an individual grew up is often reflected in his or her consumption of different types of food. To investigate the possible links between demographic changes and food consumption, we constructed two-step censored demand systems for different groups of foods. We estimated the systems using Norwegian data for the 1986 – 2012 period. In the systems, age, period, cohort, other demographic and economic variables are included. The estimated systems are used to construct a long-run forecasting model for meat and dairy products. In this model, younger cohorts replace older cohorts with a different consumption pattern. The total purchases of beef, lamb, pork and fluid milk are predicted to decrease, while the total purchases of chicken, yoghurt and cheese are predicted to increase towards 2027.

Abstract

This research note offers a critical-constructive discussion of the article ‘Class, Culture and Culinary Tastes: Cultural Distinctions and Social Class Divisions in Contemporary Norway’, written by Flemmen, Hjellbrekke and Jarness (FHJ) (Sociology, 2018(1)). Concerns are raised about the methods and the use of the data. A robustness analysis with alternative data and/or alternative methods is suggested. Conceptually, the analysis of FHJ is considered not to engage adequately with a more qualitative body of historical and ethnological literature, as well as the impact of Norwegian agricultural policy. To describe and understand the evolution of social meaning and social patterns of the consumption of ‘traditional’ Norwegian foodstuffs, a qualitative approach could have contributed constructively. Overall, wider implications for Bourdieu-inspired analyses of cultural consumption are addressed.

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Abstract

The Norwegian per capita sales of wine have more than doubled over the past 20 years, while the sales of sprits and beer have declined. These changes are likely to be the effect of changes in economic, demographic, and attitudinal factors as well as the availability of wine. We estimated age-period-cohort (APC) logit models using data from a large repeated cross-sectional survey over the period 1991–2015. The estimation results indicate substantial effects of the APC variables as well as income, availability, and attitudes. The model was used to simulate wine consumption over the life cycle in different birth cohorts. The simulation results indicate that wine consumption frequency increases by age, and younger cohorts are expected to increase their consumption frequencies more than older cohorts, which suggests an increased wine consumption over time.

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Abstract

Consumer resistance against GM crops is still substantial in the United States and Europe. We conducted an internet survey in the United States and Norway with more than 1,000 respondents in each country to estimate consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for GM soybean oil, farmed salmon fed with GM soy, and GM salmon. The differences in WTP for the conventional as compared with the GM alternatives are relatively small. Only between 7 and 13% of the respondents indicated that they were willing to pay more than a 20% premium for each of the conventional alternatives as compared to the corresponding GM alternatives. The average WTP premiums range from 7.5 to 9.2%. This suggests a large similarity in WTP in Norway and the United States and across the three products.

Abstract

Food production contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Animal products – particularly meat from ruminants – generally have higher GHG emissions than plant products. Over the last few decades the global per capita consumption of animal products has increased. This has a negative impact on climate change, land and water availability, and human health. We are faced with the two-fold challenge of reducing GHG emissions while still producing enough food for our growing population. Part of the solution could be for consumers to change towards a more sustainable diet. In this paper we take Norway as a case study for estimating optimal taxes and subsidies on different food items which can change consumption patterns in order to reduce the GHG emissions derived from the average Norwegian diet. In the estimate we ensure that the average calorie intake with the new diet remains the same as with the current diet, and factor in other health considerations. Our findings suggest that limited but useful emission reduction targets can be set with only a few changes in diets. The methodology presented in this paper may be used to estimate optimal climate taxes and subsidies under different emission, quantities, taxes, subsidies, and health constraints.

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Abstract

Norwegian fluid milk consumption has declined steadily over the last twenty years, despite the dairy industry spending increasing amounts of money on advertising. Using a two-stage model, we investigate whether advertising has increased the demand for milk. No effect of advertising on the demand for non-alcoholic beverages is found in the first stage. In the second stage, an almost ideal demand system including advertising expenditures on competing beverages is estimated. The effects of generic advertising within the beverage group are positive and significant for whole milk and negative and significant for lower fat milk. The own-advertising elasticity for the combined fluid milk group is 0.0008. This highly inelastic elasticity suggests that increased advertising will not be profitable for the producers. Several cross-advertising effects are statistically significant, emphasizing the usefulness of a demand system approach.

Abstract

In this paper we first discuss the consumption behaviour of Norwegian farm households. Then, possible consumption models are outlined and our data sample is described. In the next section we discuss the use of panel data methods to estimate our consumption function. Finally, the results from estimating a consumption function with the DPD computer program are discussed. The preliminary results indicate that the GMM estimation using the system estimator of Blundell and Bond (1998) may be superior to the other methods. The parameter of the lagged dependent variable is inside the limits indicated by the OLS and the within estimator. The second lag of the dependent variable is rejected as an instrument and there are strong indications of serial correlation. Later on, we have to transform the model to make the serial correlation disappear. In a later version of this paper we will test if the MPC is changing over time. We will also test if there are different effects from price- and production dependent agricultural income and other income.

Project image

Division of Food Production and Society

Sustainable growth of the Norwegian Horticulture Food System – GreenRoad GS35 (“GrøntStrategi mot 2035)


The main aim of GreenRoad is to deliver knowledge and solutions for increased value creation and sustainability in the horticultural food system in Norway. The project will define and prioritize areas and regions suitable for production of selected horticultural crops, assessing environmental, climatic, topographic, economic, social, legal and political constraints and opportunities for increased horticultural production, also in new regions (WP1). The environmental, economic and social sustainability of different strategies for increased horticultural production will be assessed, and new assessment methodologies developed (WP2). GreenRoad will also generate new biological and technical knowledge on methods for increased, improved, sustainable production of high quality horticultural products, taking into account provision of ecosystem services (biodiversity and pollinating activities), circularity of organic resources and the use of waste heat (WP3). The project will assess sustainable value creation barriers and opportunities at all stages in the supply chain, with a focus on seasonal labour supply, retail market structure and labelling strategies, and with Finland as a contrasting case. Business and policy measures to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables will be identified (WP4). Partners and stakeholders will be involved throughout the project in focus groups and other forms of participatory research, and their feedback will contribute to develop innovation platforms and pathways towards GS35 (WP5). A case study on apples binds the different WPs together with a “farm to fork” perspective. The project involves a variety of different disciplines (biology, geography, economy, sociology…) who will collaborate in different WPs. There is a strong involvement of business and national and international research partners.

Active Updated: 13.10.2021
End: dec 2024
Start: jan 2021