Frøydis Gillund

Research Scientist

(+47) 948 62 225


Visiting address
Holtvegen 66, 9016 Tromsø

To document


This report presents findings from a qualitative survey among actors involved in the production and sale of local food in Oslo and Bristol, with a focus on sales models and challenges and opportunities for direct sales. The actors in Oslo and Bristol had largely the same motivation for local food sales, including environmental sustainability, transparency in the supply chain, creating community, supporting farmers, sharing knowledge about food and agriculture, as well as being a counterweight to the mainstream food system. Climate crisis and food safety were stronger motivational factors among actors in Bristol than in Oslo, while in Oslo there was more emphasis on the importance of local sales channels for food diversity and quality. Several interviewees pointed to lack of economic profitability as one of the most important challenges for the local food producers. It requires a great deal of work both with production, marketing and sales to be economically successful as a small-scale producer. At the same time, buying local food often requires more time, effort and money from consumers compared to shopping in grocery stores. The report points to several possible solutions to these challenges: increased demand for local food due to changes in attitudes, increased cooperation between producers, sales channels, organizations and public authorities to reduce competition and find common solutions, as well as the development of common digital platforms that can create economies of scale and make marketing and deliveries more efficient. It is also important to look at how the public sector, both through grants, procurement and guidance, can facilitate increased production and sale of local food.


Short food supply chains (SFSCs) are associated with a range of contested, place-based attributes which contrast with the characteristics of complex, global and corporate chains. This article avoids such oppositional binaries by focusing on SFSCs serving two European cities, namely Oslo (Norway) and Bristol (UK). It reviews cities as a particular kind of market within which to secure custom, by presenting qualitative data from a study of SFSCs in these two cities to examine marketing barriers and opportunities encountered. Distinctive urban contexts, such as the density of consumers and presence of food-related infrastructures, can influence the marketing strategies and sales channels chosen by food enterprises. Difficulties are faced by both food producers and the sales channels through which they come to market, especially in relation to financial viability, price competition and efficiency. Our analysis, as well as highlighting connections and divergences between Oslo and Bristol, emphasises the role of these cities in providing diverse food market niches. Alongside global chains, functioning SFSCs help to reflect the history of Oslo and Bristol as trading cities with diverse populations and reveal enterprise adaptability and innovation as market demand shifts.

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This Biosafety Report intends to contribute to ongoing efforts to translate the criteria concerning sustainability, ethical justifiability and social utility in the Norwegian Gene Technology Act into more concrete terms. It does so by presenting ten assessment questions that are important to consider when assessing whether late blight resistant (LBR) genetically modified (GM) potato contributes to sustainability, benefits society and is ethically justifiable in a Norwegian agricultural context. Late blight is the most devastating disease on potatoes globally. Current control measures in conventional potato production are largely based on chemical treatment with fungicides that is costly, both for potato producers and the environment. If successful, cultivating LBR GM potato may result in a reduction of fungicide applications to control the late blight disease in potato production. Hence, LBR GM potato is claimed to be one of the first GM plants that have the potential to solve a serious problem for Norwegian and European farmers.