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Prosjektet «Økt storfekjøttproduksjon» er et samarbeid mellom Nortura og NIBIO (tidligere NILF). Nortura er prosjekteier, og Norturas hovedmål for prosjektet er økt storfekjøttproduksjon i Sør-Trøndelag. NIBIO har ansvaret for et delprosjekt som har som hovedmål å kartlegge økonomien på gårdsbruk med storfekjøttproduksjon. Denne rapporten beskriver kun resultater fra NIBIOs delprosjekt på økonomi. Nortura forlenger prosjektet også ut 2017 og kommer med en egen rapport i løpet av 2018 Bakgrunnen for at prosjektet kom i gang i 2014 var at det over mange år har vært en reduksjon i samlet antall på mordyr av storfe. Dette skyldes både strukturutvikling og effektivisering i melkeproduksjonen, men også en svak utvikling i økonomien i storfekjøttproduksjonen (NIBIO 2017). På grunn av at storfekjøttproduksjon kan foregå på svært ulike måter, har vi valgt å dele inn brukene i undersøkelsen i to grupper etter kjøttproduksjon per ammeku. De brukene som produserer mer enn 400 kilo kjøtt per ammeku forutsettes i hovedsak å drive okseoppdrett. Begge gruppene er deretter delt i to etter familiens arbeidsfortjeneste per årsverk (klassifisert som «Høy» eller «Lav» og omtalt i rapporten som «høygruppa» og «lavgruppa»).

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Increased occurrence of drought and dry spells during the growing season have resulted in increased interest in protection of tropical water catchment areas. In Mgeta, a water catchment area in the Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania, water used for vegetable and fruit production is provided through canals from the Uluguru South Forest Reserve. The clearing of forest land for cultivation in the steep slopes in the area is causing severe land degradation, which is threatening the water catchment area, livelihoods, and food security of the local communities, as well as the major population centers in the lowlands. In this paper, the economic performance of a traditional cropping-livestock system with East African (EA)-goats and pigs and extensive vegetable production is compared with a more sustainable and environmentally friendly crop-dairy goat production system. A linear programming (LP) crop-livestock model, maximizing farm income considering the environmental constraints in the area was applied for studying the economic performance of dairy goats in the production system. The model was worked out for the rainy and dry seasons and the analysis was conducted for a basic scenario representing the current situation, based on the variability in the 30 years period from 1982-2012, and in a scenario of both lower crop yields and increased crop variability due to climate change. Data obtained from a sample of 60 farmers that were interviewed using a questionnaire was used to develop and parameterize the model. The study found that in the steep slopes of the area, a crop-dairy goat system with extensive use of grass and multipurpose trees (MPTs) would do better than the traditional vegetable gardening with the EA goat production system. The crop-dairy goat system was superior both in the basic and in a climate change scenario since the yield variation of the grass and MPTs system was less affected compared to vegetable crops due to more tree cover and the use of perennial grasses. However, the goat milk production in the area was constrained by inadequate feeding and lack of an appropriate breeding program. Hence, farmers should enhance goat milk production by supplementing with more concentrate feed and by implementing goat-breeding principles. Moreover, policy measures to promote such a development are briefly discussed.

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Sheep grazing is an important part of agriculture in the North Atlantic region, defined here as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Scotland. This process has played a key role in shaping the landscape and biodiversity of the region, sometimes with major environmental consequences, and has also been instrumental in the development of its rural economy and culture. In this review, we present results of the first interdisciplinary study taking a long-term perspective on sheep management, resource economy and the ecological impacts of sheep grazing, showing that sustainability boundaries are most likely to be exceeded in fragile environments where financial support is linked to the number of sheep produced. The sustainability of sheep grazing can be enhanced by a management regime that promotes grazing densities appropriate to the site and supported by area-based subsidy systems, thus minimizing environmental degradation, encouraging biodiversity and preserving the integrity of ecosystem processes.

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The study examines the economics of different calf rearing systems and considers effects of suckling and milk feeding on production, health and welfare of dairy cows and growth, milk and feed use, health and welfare of calves. The economics of (i) no suckling, (ii) suckling for 3 days, (iii) suckling for 7 weeks, all assuming milk or milk replacer fed until weaning at 13 weeks, was compared with (iv) suckling for 13 weeks and no milk feeding. A linear programming (LP) model, maximizing profit on a dual purpose dairy-beef farm in lowland eastern Norway, was used for the comparison. Details on calf rearing methods, labor, weaning age, intake of milk, and solid feed were gathered for a sample of organic farms and grouped according to the length of the suckling period. The data were coupled with the National Dairy Herd Recording System (NDHRS) using cross-sectional data for the years 2008–2013. The results of the model study showed that suck- ling up to at least 7 weeks and longer than on most farms in the survey, had a positive influence on the farm economics. This was due to the positive influence on calf growth and health as well as lowered costs. Consequently, dual purpose dairy-beef farmers should be careful to sacrifice calf suckling and restrict calf milk feeding. Long suckling until weaning at 13 weeks was, however, unprofitable.

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This report deals with results of a survey to 60 farming households in the three villages Magoda, Kichiwa and Ibumila in the Njombe region of Tanzania, about 700 km from Dar es Salaam. The farmers were selected among those that came forward at village meetings and the survey is not representative for farming households in the region. However, it may represent farmers interested in developing their farms and looking for better ways to do farming in the area.

Sammendrag

Dei siste ti åra har det vore ein vesentleg nedgang i talet på storfe både på landsbasis og i fjellbygdene. På landsbasis er nedgangen vel 12 % medan den samla for Telemark, Buskerud, Oppland, Hedmark og Sør-Trøndelag er knapt 9 % (SSB 2010). Størstedelen av storfekjøtet her i landet vert produsert ved oppfôring av overskotskalvar frå mjølkeproduksjon, men færre mjølkekyr og kalvar har ført til mindre beiteopptak. Med høgare beiteopptak per dyr kan utnyttinga av innmarks- og utmarksareal betrast. Spesielt vil overgang til kastratar i staden for oksar gje større produksjon på beite. Artikkelen jamfører økonomien med oksar og kastratar i fjellbygdene og diskuterer føresetnader for lønsam produksjon av beitebasert kjøt.

Sammendrag

Ved jordbruksforhandlingene i 2011 ble partene enige om det skulle gjennomføres en ekstern evaluering av tilskuddsordningene som har som formål å stimulere til beiting. I evalueringen skulle en foreta en gjennomgang av alle tilskuddsordninger som har til siktemål å stimulere til beiting. Evalueringen skulle særlig vurdere måloppnåelse, ressursinnsats, og forvaltning. Dessuten skulle en vurdere utforming av ordningene med sikte på økt målretting og enklere forvaltning, samt vurdere ansvarsfordeling mellom nasjonalt og regionalt nivå. Avtalepartene skulle være referansegruppe for evalueringen. Statens landbruksforvaltning (SLF) var ansvarlig for evalueringen, og SLF valgte å gi oppdraget til Norsk institutt for landbruksøkonomisk forskning (NILF). Dette notatet er sluttrapport fra evalueringen. De ordningene som er inkludert i evalueringen er: (1) tilskudd til dyr på beite, (2) utmarksbeitetilskudd, (3) areal- og kulturlandskapstilskudd til innmarksbeite og (4) beitetilskudd under de regionale miljøprogrammene. Bakgrunn for evalueringen er nærmere omtalt i kapittel 1.

Sammendrag

The study aims to estimate the effects on the sheep farm economy of reducing grazing levels necessitated due to possible overgrazing by sheep on two important mountainous range pastures in southwest Norway. The pasture range in Setesdal Vesthei is grazed by sheep from distant farms located at Jæren (south of Stavanger), while south-western Hardangervidda is grazed by sheep from local farms and distant farms located along the coast. Farmers utilizing the pasture areas combine sheep with dairy cows, off farm work or businesses, while the local farms combine it with orchards. A Linear Programming (LP) model for specialized sheep farms based on farm records has been developed to study effects of reaching various grazing capacity levels. Reducing the number of sheep in Setesdal Vesthei by 10 percent would lower farm income per breeding stock animal with € 15 to € 119 and with € 35 to € 211 for Hardangervidda. The decrease in annual income will range from € 15,00 to € 119,00 in total for the farms using Setesdal Vesthei. The economic effects depend much on meat production per ewe. Replacing unilateral sheep grazing with a mixed system involving suckling goats and heifers is discussed to deal with the problems of encroachment and increasing elevation of the alpine tree-line.

Sammendrag

This paper describes a stochastic linear programming model for farms with a milk and cattle meat production system. This model documentation is worked out using the farm account records for three family farms in Northern Norway. The model is built in Excel using the addin Simetar to analyze risks. The LP model maximizes farm gross margins but the fixed costs of each farm are subtracted in order to compute farm profit and risk in farm profit. Data for the 15 years from 1991–2005 from the farms and from the annual editions of the Handbook of farm planning (NILF, 2000) have been used as a basis for developing the stochastic variables. The following variables have been made stochastic: area and yield of green fodder, yields of leys and pastures, yield of milk per cow, meat price, milk price, fuel costs and costs of concentrate feed. The rate of interest is also made stochastic. In the model the rate of interest is affecting the risk in farm profit through the fixed costs. Emphasize has been given to build a flexible model allowing for examining effects of changes in several ways e.g. length of grazing period, calving time, or harvesting method for grass. The milk production is restricted by a farm specific milk quota, but otherwise the farming intensity is varied as farmers may choose selling e.g. small calves or up to two years old castrates with extensive use of pasture. Updating the model with data for another year is facilitated by defining prices for one year at a time and by cell referencing all variables. The records may be replaced with records for family farms with similar production systems in other areas in the country. The production is based on grass and pasture roughage. Dairy farms in more central areas also produce cereals, grain and oilseeds and the model has to be developed further for such farms. The model will be used to carry out different farm economics analysis for Norwegian family farms combining milk and cattle meat production in production systems involving extensive use of pasture.

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Denne rapporten er et sammendrag av resultater fra det strategiske forskningsprogrammet «Risikoeksponering og risikohandtering i matproduksjon – sammenligning av havbruk og jordbruk». Hovedmålene for programmet var å: 1 skaffe økt kunnskap om risiko og om strategier og verktøyer for å møte risiko 2 undersøke om havbruks- og jordbruksbedrifter kan ha gjensidig nytte av å sammenligne risikoeksponering og risikohandtering i de to næringene 3 utvikle teorier og metoder som kan brukes til å handtere risiko i matproduksjon. Målene er søkt nådd ved mange delstudier. Resultatene fra disse delstudiene er publisert og formidlet i artikler og foredrag. I denne rapporten oppsummeres resultatene. Gjennom denne rapporten ønsker vi å gi en forenklet framstilling og oversikt over bidrag fra programmet. Vi har valgt å ikke presentere de individuelle arbeider/artikler hver for seg, men belyse temaer som har vært tatt opp i programmet. Rapporten kan også være en veileder for de som ønsker å se nærmere på enkeltbidrag fra programmet. Kapittel 2–4 dekker hovedmål 1. Kapittel 5 dekker hovedmål 2, mens kapittel 6 dekker hovedmål 3.

Sammendrag

The study aims to estimate the effects on the sheep farm economy of reducing grazing levels necessitated due to possible overgrazing by sheep on two important mountainous range pastures in southwest Norway. The pasture range in Setesdal Vesthei is grazed by sheep from distant farms located at Jæren (south of Stavanger), while south-western Hardangervidda is grazed by sheep from local farms and distant farms located along the coast. Farmers utilizing the pasture areas combine sheep with dairy cows, off farm work or businesses, while the local farms combine it with orchards. A Linear Programming (LP) model for specialized sheep farms based on farm records has been developed to study effects of reaching various grazing capacity levels. Reducing the number of sheep in Setesdal Vesthei by 10 percent would lower farm income per breeding stock animal with € 15 to € 119 and with € 35 to € 211 for Hardangervidda. The decrease in annual income will range from € 15,00 to € 119,00 in total for the farms using Setesdal Vesthei. The economic effects depend much on meat production per ewe. Replacing unilateral sheep grazing with a mixed system involving suckling goats and heifers is discussed to deal with the problems of encroachment and increasing elevation of the alpine tree-line.

Sammendrag

The paper analyses and discusses possible impacts on Norwegian agriculture of an EU membership based on the regionalized agricultural sector model CAPRI. Norwegian agriculture is characterized by a small-scale farming structure and high levels of support. Previous analyses have shown that Norwegian agriculture is expected to undergo dramatic changes because of EU membership in terms of farm income, production and structural change. Our study indicates that a substantial share of the agricultural production can be maintained at the national level. Milk and crop production may remain largely unaffected, while meat production decreases in the range of 10–20% compared to a reference run without membership. However, a reduction in total farm income by about 40% indicates that structural adjustments will follow EU accession. The results are discussed in view of the pattern of adjustments observed in Finland and Austria after EU accession in 1995. The need for the dairy industry to take advantage of the improved market access is stressed. Attention is also called to some strengths and limitations of the CAPRI model to analyse large-scale policy changes and to identify model improvements as an area of future research.

Sammendrag

Utmark har lenge vore og er viktig for mange gardsbruk. Skogen gir tømmer og ved til sal og eige bruk. I tillegg betyr jakt og fiske mykje for mange. Mange husdyr beiter i utmarka. I eldre tider var utmarka ein viktig ressurs for å skaffe vinterfôr (utslått, lauv, beit, skav, mose m.m.). Dei seinare åra har det vorte lagt større vekt på andre verdiar ved utmarka enn mat og tømmer, m.a. rekreasjon, kulturlandskap og artsmangfald (biodiversitet). Verdien av rekreasjon i utmarka er utan tvil stor, men det kan vere svært utfordrande å få fram sikre tal for verdien av kulturlandskap og biodiversitet som fylgjer av beitinga i utmark. Dette notatet fokuserer på utmarksbeite for husdyr. Formålet med notatet er å svare på følgjande spørsmål: • Kor mange husdyr av ymse slag beiter i utmark? • Kor mykje fôr tek desse dyra opp på utmarksbeite? • Kva er verdien av dette fôret? • Kor stor er arbeidsinnsatsen i beitebaserte næringar? […]

Sammendrag

Economic externalities of mitigating measures to reduce sheep losses to carnivores are not sufficiently addressed in Norwegian nature management. Evaluating such measures involves a "scale” problem: outfield (i.e. open range) grazing sheep have quite small home ranges, large carnivores from hundred to several thousand km2. Because these ranges are a different order of magnitude, exposure to mitigating measures taken in any sheep home range area might influence predatory behaviour outside that area. These external effects impact on society, the environment and other farmers and could outweigh any advantages. Scale consideration is of crucial importance in designing field research projects to explore such issues.

Sammendrag

Sheep and goat farming systems in this part of Europe are based on extensive use of non-fertilised natural pastures and a long barn-feeding period. One million ewes are kept for the production of meat and wool while 60,000 goats are kept mainly for themilk. The local demand for organic meat and milk is increasing gradually and 10 percent of the agricultural area is projected to be managed according to organic principles by 2010. This paper discusses the feasibility of introducing cashmere goats in an organic sheep farming production system, based on economical calculations in a Linear Programming model. Significant movements from sheep to cashmere goats production are entirely as slaughtering of eight months old kids (11 kg) is unprofitable, assuming equal labour input of goats and sheep. Yields of meat and cashmere could be improved by feeding the kids until 20 months (19 kg) so possibly making goats as profitable as sheep. The benefits of high value cashmere production and controlling bush encroachment by goats favour a mixed farming system. If yield-levels of roughage can be maintained at 75% without artificial fertilizers and challenges in housing of small ruminants are solved, a shift away from conventional farming is profitable given the current support for organic farming.

Sammendrag

This report looks at the special measures for agriculture within the field of taxation and social security. Chapter 1 and 2 deal with general overview of taxes and taxation principles. Chapter 3 give more detailed information of the tax system in the selected countries, US, Canada, Australia, Germany, UK, France, Ireland, Italy and Switzerland. Chapter four deals with notifications to the Committee on Agriculture in the World Trade Organisation (WTO) concerning tax measures. In chapter 5 we have tried to systematize the different tax schemes in the selected countries.

Sammendrag

I rapporten er studert effekten av forskjellige tilpasninger ved store avlingsvariasjoner på eng i Nord-Norge på grunn av overvintringsskader og andre årsaker. Bakgrunnen for undersøkelsen er det låge og ustabile avlingsnivået for grovfôr i Nord-Norge i forhold til områder med gunstigere vilkår for dyrking av gras og grønnfôr. De problemstillinger som fokuseres er: Hvilke økonomiske konsekvenser har utgang av en større eller mindre del av enga? Hvilken økonomisk betydning har det generelle avlingsnivået på eng i Nord-Norge? Til å analysere problemstillingen er det utarbeidet en LP-modell. I modellen beregnes familiens arbeidsfortjeneste som mål for lønnsomheten. Lønnsomheten i en basisløsning uten avlingsskade sammenlignes med lønnsomheten ved forskjellige forutsetninger for avlinger og overvintringsskade. I modellen er det lagt vekt på å utforme relativt detaljerte forutsetninger for avlinger ved dyrking av grovfôr, fôrkjøp og husdyrproduksjon med skranker for areal, arbeidskraft og fôring. Modellen bygger på NILFs regnskapsmateriale for 72 bruk med mjølkeproduksjon i Nord-Norge for årene 1997 og 1998, forsøksresultater og data fra forskjellige andre kilder. Den består av 30 prosesser og 28 skranker og er dokumentert i vedlegg A. Modellen er utarbeidet i prisnivået for år 2000 og familiens arbeidsfortjeneste i basisløsningen (kr 192 700) er sammenlignet med resultater for de aktuelle regnskapsbruk som er framskrevet. Resultatet var 1,1 % høyere i basisalternativet enn i regnskapa når avlingene av eng og beite er kalibrerte til om lag samme nivå (0,7 % høyere) som i regnskapene. Forbruket av kraftfôr er noenlunde på linje, det var 1,8 % lavere i modellen enn i regnskapene. Samlet fôrforbruk var 0,4 % lavere i modellen enn i regnskapene. Modellen synes alt i alt tilstrekkelig representativ for bruk med mjølkeproduksjon i landsdelen. [...]

Sammendrag

The study examines the economics of combined milk and meat production as an alternative to the current specialised milk production on Norwegian goat. The reasons for the study are 1) to increase goat farm incomes,2) to improve the annual distribution pattern of goat milk and 3) to reduce negative publicity of farmers killing surplus goat kids just after birth. The most promising management practice would be to change the time of kidding from February to late April or May, combined with suckling the kids during the daytime until August. The kids are to be slaughtered in August in order to utilise the summer grazing period and market the kids the month before start of the lamb slaughter season. While the kids are being suckled, the does are milked once per day and after weaning the does are milked twice a day, thereby increasing milk deliveries during autumn and winter when milk prices are higher. A discussion of how the natural conditions and the Norwegian agricultural policy contribute to the results increases the value of the study.

Sammendrag

The seasonal variations in volume of the milk in Norwegian goat dairyfarming, complicate production of brand goat cheeses. In the specialised goat dairy farming system most kids are culled shortly after birth without utilising the meat. In this paper the farm economics of an alternative system with altered period of kidding (currently in theperiod from January to March) combined with production of meat and cashmere fibre, is examined. May kidding combined with raising the kids for 8 or 20 months yielded the m ost promising economical return. Raising the kids one year is also profitable when kidding takes place in February while December kidding seems to perform best with thepresent system of culling the kids right after birth. Cashmere fibre production seems to be profitable on Norwegian dairy goat farms and fibre and meat could become an optio n in countries seeking to improve incomes on dairy goat farms. Compared to the present system the changes also would be favourable from an animal welfare point of view.