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2021 (245)

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This study was conducted with the aim of developing fruit spirits by utilizing old (autochthonous) apple and pear cultivars that can be attractive to both consumers and producers. Consumers of spirits could enjoy the unique flavor, and producers could gain an opportunity for brand development. In total, eight old apple cultivars (Sarija, Žuja, Samoniklica, Prijedorska zelenika, Bobovec, Masnjača, Lijepocvjetka, and Šarenika) and three pear cultivars (Budaljača, Krakača, and Kalićanka) from Bosnia and Herzegovina were used for the spirits production and for characterizing the flavor of distillates. Golden Delicious was used as a representative of commercial apple cultivar. The aroma profile was conducted through the identification of minor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the sensory perception of spirits. Analysis of the VOCs was performed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) techniques after enrichment via solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Sensory evaluation was performed by 12 trained panelists. Overall, 35 minor volatile compounds were found in spirits: 13 esters, 7 alcohols, 6 acids, 5 terpenes, and 4 aldehydes. Significant differences were detected in the distribution and quantity of the VOCs, which were fruit cultivar-dependent. Spirits made from Šarenika apple cultivar showed the largest amount of all acids, especially short- and medium-chain fatty acids; however, this richness was not correlated with pleasant sensory attributes. Spirits obtained from Prijedorska zelenika and Masnjača apple cultivars had the best sensory attributes. Budeljača and Krakača pears are promising cultivars as flavoring in spirits production.

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Apple production generates large amounts of apple pomace including seeds, leading to high transportation costs, public health hazards and undesirable odor. A new reuse strategy of this kind of waste could solve environmental issues and/or create unconventional sources of health beneficial products. In total, seeds from 75 apple cultivars grown in Norway (both domestic and international) have been analyzed for the first time for oil content and fatty acid profile together with tocopherols and carotenoids quantification in defatted seeds. Seeds from cultivar Håkonseple had the highest oil content (22.10%), with linoleic, oleic acid, and palmitic acid as the most abundant fatty acids. The levels of β-carotene and lycopene carotenoids and α-tocopherol were the highest in defatted seeds of the cultivar Sureple Grøn. Principal component analysis separated cultivars according to the total oil content. The Norwegian apple cultivars Håkonseple, Kviteple, Tolleivseple, Vinterrosenstrips, and Tokheimseple are recommended for obtaining vegetable oil due to their high oil contents, while cultivar Sureple Grøn can be separated due to its high levels of β-carotene, lycopene and total tocopherols.

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Pollinating insects are an inherent part of most terrestrial ecosystems as they provide a crucial service for most angiosperms, including numerous important crops. A decrease in pollinator populations can therefore have severe consequences for both natural ecosystems and agricultural yields. Pesticide usage has been pointed out as one of the drivers behind pollinator declines. Globally, neonicotinoids are one of the most commonly used insecticides and studies have shown that exposure at sub-lethal levels can alter foraging behaviour, ultimately negatively affecting survival. Using a custom-made bumblebee colony monitoring system, we examined how the number and duration of foraging bouts of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) on an individual level, and hive growth rate, was affected by exposure to low (6.5 µg/L) and high (10.6 µg/L) sub-lethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid clothianidin via nectar. We also examined possible interaction between clothianidin exposure and abiotic factors (temperature and precipitation), and its impact on foraging bout number and duration. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of clothianidin increased foraging bout duration in bumblebees. Furthermore, the foraging bout duration decreased with increasing temperature at both exposure concentrations, whereas the unexposed control group was not affected by temperature. Neither number of foraging bouts nor the daily rhythm of foraging bout duration was affected by clothianidin exposure or temperature. The foraging bout duration decreased with increasing precipitation in both exposed and non-exposed groups. However, we did not find any interaction between precipitation and exposure, suggesting that precipitation does not affect toxicity. Our study shows the importance of semi-natural experiments and accounting for ambient factors when assessing the risk that pesticide exposure may present to pollinators. We conclude that the effect of clothianidin exposure on bumblebee foraging behaviour is temperature sensitive and that local climatic conditions and future climate change scenarios should be considered in risk assessments of clothianidin and other insecticides.

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Potato contributes highly to the global food security. It is predicted that the production of this crop will be negatively affected by future climatic changes. Application of hydroponics for table potato production can mitigate crop loss in highly vulnerable regions. A preliminary small-scale case-study was performed to test theoretical perspectives of hydroponic production of table potatoes in wood fiber by comparing different fiber types and fertigation strategies. Potatoes were also grown in the field to obtain a reference control. Hydroponic production of potato in a stand-alone wood fiber resulted in ca. 200% higher yield, when compared to standard soil cultivation. However, the quality of the tubers was slightly reduced (lower dry matter content). Productivity of table potatoes was affected by the growing medium and fertigation strategy. Production of potatoes in wood fiber is possible and, in the future, might complement the conventional production systems, or even become an important alternative in locations where in-field cultivation is not possible. Nevertheless, the effect of wood fiber properties and the applied fertigation strategy on yield potential and tuber quality should be further studied. Optimization of these factors will be a topic of a following full-scale research.

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Power-to-methane technology is a promising solution to facilitate the use of excess variable renewable energy for biomethane production. In this approach, hydrogen produced via electrolysis is used to upgrade raw biogas, which can be subsequently used as fuel or stored in the gas grid. Ex-situ biomethanation is an emerging technology that could potentially replace conventional energy-intensive biogas upgrading methods and allow CO2 utilization for biomethane production. This work provides a comprehensive overview on the current status of ex-situ biomethanation with particular attention to trickle bed reactor. The review includes description of ex-situ biomethanation and summarizes previous works on this topic. The key elements related to operational conditions, efficiency, and microbiology of ex-situ biomethanation using trickle bed reactor are described here. Additionally, the review highlights the technical and economic issues that have to be addressed for future development and large-scale implementation of ex-situ biomethanation.

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Understanding the quality of new raw material sources will be of great importance to ensure the development of a circular bioeconomy. Building up quality understanding of wood waste is an important step in this development. In this paper we probe two main questions, one substantial and one theoretical: What different understandings of wood waste quality exist and what significance do they have for the recycling and re-use of this waste fraction? And, what is the evolution of knowledge and sustainable practices of wood waste qualities a case of? The analysis is based on diverse perspectives and forms of methods and empirical material. Studies of policy documents, regulations, standards, etc. have been reviewed to uncover what kind of measures and concepts that have been important for governing and regulating wood waste handling. Interviews concerning wood and wood waste qualities have been conducted with key informants and people visiting recycling and waste management stations in Oslo and Akershus in Norway. By studying quality conceptions through the social birth, production, life, end-of-life and re-birth of wood products, we analyse socio-cultural conditions for sustainability. Furthermore we show how the evolution of knowledge and sustainable practices of wood waste qualities, in the meeting with standards and regulations, is a case of adaptation work in the evolution of Norwegian bioeconomy.

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Water resources and associated ecosystems are becoming highly endangered due to ongoing global environmental changes. Spatial ecological modelling is a promising toolbox for understanding the past, present and future distribution and diversity patterns in groundwater-dependent ecosystems, such as fens, springs, streams, reed beds or wet grasslands. Still, the lack of detailed water chemistry maps prevents the use of reasonable models to be applied on continental and global scales. Being major determinants of biological composition and diversity of groundwater-dependent ecosystems, groundwater pH and calcium are of utmost importance. Here we developed an up-to-date European map of groundwater pH and Ca, based on 7577 measurements of near-surface groundwater pH and calcium distributed across Europe. In comparison to the existing European groundwater maps, we included several times more sites, especially in the regions rich in spring and fen habitats, and filled the apparent gaps in eastern and southeastern Europe. We used random forest models and regression kriging to create continuous maps of water pH and calcium at the continental scale, which is freely available also as a raster map (Hájek et al., 2020b; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4139912). Lithology had a higher importance than climate for both pH and calcium. The previously recognised latitudinal and altitudinal gradients were rediscovered with much refined regional patterns, as associated with bedrock variation. For ecological models of distribution and diversity of many terrestrial ecosystems, our new map based on field groundwater measurements is more suitable than maps of soil pH, which mirror not only bedrock chemistry but also vegetation-dependent soil processes.

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Plant diseases may survive and be spread by infected seeds. In this study we monitored the longevity of 14 seed-borne pathogens in 9 crop species commonly grown in the Nordic countries, in addition to a sample of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The data from the first 30 years of a 100-year seed storage experiment located in a natural −3.5 °C environment (permafrost) in Svalbard, Norway, are presented. To date, the pathogens, tested by traditional seed health testing methods (freezing blotter, agar plates, growing on tests), have survived. Linear regression analyses showed that the seed infection percentages of Drechslera dictyoides in meadow fescue, Drechslera phlei in timothy, and Septoria nodorum in wheat were significantly reduced compared to the percentages at the start of the experiment (from 63% to 34%, from 70% to 65%, and from 15% to 1%, respectively), and that Phoma betae in beet had increased significantly (from 43% to 56%). No trends in the infection percentage were observed over the years in Drechslera spp. in barley (fluctuating between 30% and 64%) or in Alternaria brassicicola in cabbage (fluctuating between 82% and 99%), nor in pathogens with low seed infection percentages at the start of the experiment. A major part of the stored sclerotia was viable after 30 years. To avoid the spread of seed-borne diseases, it is recommended that gene banks implement routines that avoid the use of infected seeds.

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In developing countries, over 50% of horticultural crops are lost after harvesting due to absense of or poor postharvest cold storage facilities. Cold storage facility is a critical component of the food supply chain and food security because it can extend the storage period of the perishable products; avoid glut and post-harvest losses, reducing transport bottlenecks. The objective of the study was to design and construct an evaporative cooling system to store horticultural products in a wide range of climatic conditions in Ethiopia. The design integrates direct evaporative cooling system and indirect evaporative cooling system with technical improvements and re-arrangements for continuous operation and handling purpose. After the design and construction work of the cooler was completed, its performance was tested and evaluated without product load at maximum mean annual temperature for five days. Finally, the performance and effect of the cooler on tomato shelf life and quality was evaluated by storing fresh tomatoes inside the cooler shelves. For comparison (control group), randomly selected fresh tomatoes were stored in a basket, which is a standard method that retailer display tomatoes in the market in the study area. A portable evaporative cooler was constructed from locally available and used materials and integrated with new temperature and relative humidity sensors. It had a capacity of 260 Kg (573.2 lb). The evaporative cooler resulted in a reduction in the maximum ambient temperature from 32.8°C (91.6°F) to 23.5°C (74.3°F) in the cooler. As the ambient temperature drops to 21.8°C (71.4°F), the temperature in the cooler reduced to 15°C (59°F). The cooler stabilized the relative humidity between 77- 88%. The newly designed and constructed evaporative cooler reduced the postharvest loss of tomato from 80 % in a traditional basket to 5% in the evaporative cooler. The cooler reduced the postharvest loss of tomato by 94%. It maintained the quality of the fresh tomatoes. In conclusion what we showed in this study was that we have refined the design and constructed a low cost and effective cooling system that can be used by poor retailers of vegetables and fruits. Evaporative cooler is an old and forgotten technology, if the design and construction are refined, it can be used to regulate temperature and relative humidity and used in different purposes especially for those who cannot afford to buy modern thermal regulation technologies.

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Computer models use symbols in various ways adapted from mathematics, computer science, engineering and the natural sciences. Model applications in ecology often seek to represent future states of ecosystems, a task that has been difficult to achieve. Reflection upon the role of symbols in these models may help to disentangle the various sources and contributions to these perceptions of the environment. The modi of time (past, present, future) are here represented by corresponding forms of modelling as narration, performance, and simulation. All three occur in ecological modelling, and transitions between them may be indicative of modelling limits. Given the difficulties of representing the future of ecosystems and finding relevant analogies in the history of ecosystem use, the most challenging task for contemporary ecological models is to perform appropriately with respect to (Big) monitoring Data. We use an analogy between an environmental crisis in natural history and the current Anthropocene to demonstrate the limits of symbols in modelling which are intended to provide an abstract representation. A shift in emphasis on the engineering and computational aspect is proposed for organizing a sustainable human-environment relationship in the Anthropocene.

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A better understanding of regional differentiation and local adaptation of rare arable plants is essential for the development of suitable methods for the reintroduction of these species. We set up F1 and F2 greenhouse experiments with 4–12 source populations of five rare arable plant species to test for genetically based differentiation in biomass production and phenology in South Germany. For three species, i.e. Arnoseris minima, Consolida regalis and Teesdalia nudicaulis, reciprocal transplant experiments were performed in arable fields to investigate local adaptation in plant establishment as well as biomass production to the northern or southern regions of three seed transfer zones. We found low regional differentiation, but provenance-specific responses to drought stress in Legousia speculum-veneris biomass and A. minima phenology. Moreover, little evidence was identified for local adaptation, while significant differences were seen in the performance between the transplant sites and study years, indicating a high phenotypic variability. Our results suggest that the current seed zones are suitable for the seed transfer of rare arable plants in the study region. Thus, there is a low risk of maladaptation when using autochthonous seed sources within the seed zones, but a high extinction risk of these species and their respective ecosystem functions if no active restoration is done, including transplant measures.

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Greenhouses are complex systems whose size, shape, construction material, and equipment for climate control, lighting and heating can vary largely. The greenhouse design can, together with the outdoor weather conditions, have a large impact on the economic performance and the environmental consequences of the production. The aim of this study was to identify a greenhouse design out of several feasible designs that generated the highest net financial return (NFR) and lowest energy use for seasonal tomato production across Norway. A model-based greenhouse design method, which includes a module for greenhouse indoor climate, a crop growth module for yield prediction, and an economic module, was applied to predict the NFR and energy use. Observed indoor climate and tomato yield were predicted using the climate and growth modules in a commercial greenhouse in southwestern Norway (SW) with rail and grow heating pipes, glass cover, energy screens, and CO2-enrichment. Subsequently, the NFR and fossil fuel use of five combinations of these elements relevant to Norwegian conditions were determined for four locations: Kise in eastern Norway (E), Mære in midwestern Norway (MW), Orre in southwestern Norway (SW) and Tromsø in northern Norway (N). Across designs and locations, the highest NFR was 47.6 NOK m−2 for the greenhouse design with a night energy screen. The greenhouse design with day and night energy screens, fogging and mechanical cooling and heating having the lowest fossil energy used per m2 in all locations had an NFR of −94.8 NOK m−2. The model can be adapted for different climatic conditions using a variation in the design elements. The study is useful at the practical and policy level since it combines the economic module with the environmental impact to measure CO2 emissions.

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While interspecific variation in microbiome composition can often be readily explained by factors such as host species identity, there is still limited knowledge of how microbiomes vary at scales lower than the species level (e.g., between individuals or populations). Here, we evaluated variation in microbiome composition of individual parasites among infrapopulations (i.e., populations of parasites of the same species living on a single host individual). To address this question, we used genome-resolved and shotgun metagenomic data of 17 infrapopulations (balanced design) of the permanent, bloodsucking seal louse Echinophthirius horridus sampled from individual Saimaa ringed seals Pusa hispida saimensis. Both genome-resolved and read-based metagenomic classification approaches consistently show that parasite infrapopulation identity is a significant factor that explains both qualitative and quantitative patterns of microbiome variation at the intraspecific level. This study contributes to the general understanding of the factors driving patterns of intraspecific variation in microbiome composition, especially of bloodsucking parasites, and has implications for understanding how well-known processes occurring at higher taxonomic levels, such as phylosymbiosis, might arise in these systems.

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Knowing how and to what extent environmental parameters affect threatened species facilitates the understanding of their specific microhabitat requirements. In this study, we examined the response patterns of four threatened tropical plant species to variations in temperature, precipitation, and physiographic variables, and analyzed the relative contributions of environmental variables to the observed distributions of the species. The studied species are Bursera coyucensis, Cryosophila argentea, Guatteria anomala, and Vatairea lundellii and are cataloged into specific risk categories in the Mexican Official Standard NOM-059-SEMARNAT. Our findings suggest differences in ranges of temperature and precipitation (for example, C. argentea exhibited narrower ranges compared to G. anomala and V. lundellii in precipitation) and similarity in ranges of slope across species distributions. We also found that most species distributions respond non-linearly to variations in environmental variables. These results contribute to defining the environmental spaces of these species. The partial and combined effects of climatic variables, and the range of environmental distributions reported here, have intrinsic implications for the adaptation capacity, plasticity, and survival of these species to environmental variation. This information could be useful to promote conservation activities such as the creation of microhabitats with optimal environmental preferences through sustainable silviculture.

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The Norwegian newly bred pear cultivar, ‘Celina/QTee®’, which was launched in 2010, has been released from the Norwegian breeding program. It derived from the combination ‘Colourée de Juillet’ × ‘Williams’. In Norway the flowering is medium to late in May and it ripens in the beginning of September. It has large attractive fruits with red blush and good fruit quality, storability and shelf life. Significant areas of ‘Celina’ cultivars are planted in other countries, mainly Europe. Generally, unfavourable environmental conditions for pear pollination during the Nordic spring can have a very negative effect on the yields in Norwegian pear orchards. Therefore, it is of considerable importance to interplant multiple suitable pollinizer genotypes together with the main cultivar. In order to find the right pollinizers besides following biology of fertilization, pollinizing efficacy using microsatellites were studied at NIBIO Ullensvang, western Norway. In this study, during 2017, seeds from fruits of the pear cultivar ‘Celina’ were extracted. The fruits were randomly harvested from five different orchards located in Ullensvang including NIBIO. Alongside the seeds, leaves were taken from the mother cultivar (‘Celina’) and five pear pollinizer cultivars presented in the orchards (‘Fritjof’, ‘Kristina’, ‘Clara Frijs’, ‘Herzogine Elsa’ and ‘Anna’). Using 11 microsatellite markers, a genetic characterization was conducted on both the seeds and the leaves. The obtained SSR profiles were used for gene assignment analyses. The results of the genetic analyses indicate a very heterogeneous situation regarding pollination. In conclusion, ‘Fritjof’, ‘Kristina’, ‘Clara Frijs’, ‘Herzogine Elsa’ and ‘Anna’ pears had different pollen contributions as pollinizers to ‘Celina’ depending on the investigated orchard. Only one cultivar (‘Herzogine Else’) could be singled out as a major pollen contributor in more than two orchards. Genetic analyses will be repeated in the same orchards, during an additional season, after which more conclusive results will be available.

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Performance of the Quince rootstocks ‘Adams’, ‘C’ and ‘Eline®’, all grafted with pear cultivars ’Celina’, ‘Ingeborg’ and ‘Kristina’, were compared at the experimental farm of NIBIO Ullensvang, western Norway. Tree vigour, yield, fruit size and fruit quality were evaluated annually for the first seven years. No severe winter damage was observed during these years and none of the trees died. After seven years there were no significant differences in tree size in ‘Celina’ and ‘Ingeborg’ grafted on the different rootstocks, while trunk diameter increase of ‘Kristina’ was significantly larger on ‘Eline®’ than on ‘C’ and intermediate on ‘Adams’. Flower development and fruit set were not affected by rootstocks in any of the three scion cultivars. On average, mature fruit were picked during mid to end September and the trees began producing a small crop in the third season. No alternate bearing pattern was identified. For ‘Celina’ and ‘Kristina’ yield was similar for trees on all three rootstocks. Cumulative yields for the first five cropping years were 31.3 kg tree‑1 for ‘Celina’, 25.9 kg tree‑1 for ‘Kristina’ and 19.4 kg tree‑1 for ‘Ingeborg’. ‘Celina’ produced the highest total number of fruit when grafted on ‘Adams’ or ‘C’. Trees on ‘Eline®’ produced a significantly lower number of fruit in both ‘Celina’ and ‘Ingeborg’. On average for all cultivars, no significant effect of rootstock was observed on average fruit weight during these 5 production years. ‘Eline®’ on average yielded fruit of 165 g for all cultivars while for ‘Adams’ and ‘C’ it was 162 g. Soluble solids concentration was high (11.2% on average) but was not significantly affected by rootstocks. Fruit acidity was similar for all quince rootstocks (0.19-0.21%). The fruit development period between full bloom and harvest showed a clear inverse linear relationship with the average daily temperature. In conclusion, because the trees have not reached their full production none of these quince rootstocks can yet be recommended as the preferred rootstock for pear growing in a cool, mesic northern climate.

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The growing interest in using everbearing (EB) strawberry cultivars to extend the cultivation period has faced some challenges. These include poor runner production due to its perpetual flowering nature; irregular flowering behavior and extended periods of high temperature have caused floral inhibition and reduced yield. As flowering is an interplay between temperature and photoperiod, it is important to investigate the effects of this interaction on the cultivation. Therefore, this study used meristem dissection as a tool to study the effect of temperature and photoperiod on meristem development. Tray plants of two EB strawberry cultivars ‘Florentina’ and ‘Favori’ were grown at 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C under short day (SD) conditions, and subsequently at 20 °C under long day (LD) conditions. The meristem development was analysed every 6 weeks for a 15-week period in SD and for 14 weeks in LD conditions using meristem dissection. The plants showed similar flowering patterns to previously studied everbearing cultivars, which was qualitative LD plants at high temperatures and quantitative LD plants at lower temperatures. Our results show that meristem dissection can be used to determine the temperature and photoperiodic effect on meristem development, and for the occurrence of cropping peaks, and can therefore be used to decide the environmental input and to evaluate yield potential.

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Butt rot (BR) damage of a tree results from a decay caused by a pathogenic fungus. BR damages associated with Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) account for considerable economic losses in timber production across the northern hemisphere. While information on BR damages is critical for optimal decision-making in forest management, maps of BR damages are typically lacking in forest information systems. Timber volume damaged by BR was predicted at the stand-level in Norway using harvester information of 186,026 stems (clear-cuts), remotely sensed, and environmental data (e.g. climate and terrain characteristics). This study utilized Random Forests models with two sets of predictor variables: (1) predictor variables available after harvest (theoretical case) and (2) predictor variables available prior to harvest (mapping case). Our findings showed that forest attributes characterizing the maturity of forest, such as remote sensing-based height, harvested timber volume and quadratic mean diameter at breast height, were among the most important predictor variables. Remotely sensed predictor variables obtained from airborne laser scanning data and Sentinel-2 imagery were more important than the environmental variables. The theoretical case with a leave-stand-out cross-validation resulted in an RMSE of 11.4 m3 · ha−1 (pseudo-R2: 0.66) whereas the mapping case resulted in a pseudo-R2 of 0.60. When spatially distinct clusters of harvested forest stands were used as units in the cross-validation, the RMSE value and pseudo-R2 associated with the mapping case were 15.6 m3 · ha−1 and 0.37, respectively. The findings associated with the different cross-validation schemes indicated that the knowledge about the BR status of spatially close stands is of high importance for obtaining satisfactory error rates in the mapping of BR damages.

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The environmental sustainability of food production systems, including net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, is of increasing importance. In Norwegian pork production, animal performance is high in terms of reproduction, growth, and health. The development and use of an IPCC methodology-based model for estimating GHG emissions from pork production could be helpful in identifying the effects of progress in genetics and management. The objective was to investigate whether an IPCC methodology-based model was able to reflect the effects of the progress in genetics and management in pork production on the GHG emissions per kg carcass weight (CW). It is hypothesized that this progress has led to low GHG emissions intensities in Norwegian pork compared to global levels and that expected improvements will give a lasting reduction in GHG emissions intensities. A model ‘HolosNorPork’ for estimating net farm gate GHG emissions intensities was developed, including allocation procedures, at the pig production unit level. The model was run with pig production data from in average 632 farms from 2014 to 2019. The estimates include emissions of enteric and manure storage methane, manure storage nitrous oxide emissions, as well as GHG emissions from production and transportation of purchased feeds, and direct and indirect GHG emissions caused by energy use in pig-barns. The model was able to estimate the effects on net GHG emissions intensities from pork production on the basis of production characteristics. The estimated net GHG emissions intensity was found to have decreased from on average 2.49 to 2.34 kg CO2 eq. kg−1 CW over the investigated period. For 2019 the net GHG emission for the one-third lower performing farms was estimated to 2.56 kg CO2 eq. kg−1 CW, whereas for the one-third medium and one-third best performing farms the estimates were 2.36 and 2.16 kg CO2 eq. kg−1 CW, respectively. The net GHG emissions intensity for pork carcasses from boars was estimated to be 2.07 kg CO2 eq. kg−1 CW. For the health regimes investigated, Conventional and Specific-Pathogen Free (SPF), the estimated GHG emissions intensities for 2019 were 2.37 and 2.24 kg CO2 eq. kg−1 CW, respectively. The effects on net GHG emissions intensities of breeding and management measures were estimated to be profound, and this progress in pig production systems contributes to an on-going strengthening of pork as a sustainable source for human food supply.

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The ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has spread across most of the host range of European ash with a high level of mortality, causing important economic, cultural and environmental effects. We present a novel method combining a Monte-Carlo approach with a generalised additive model that confirms the importance of meteorology to the magnitude and timing of H. fraxineus spore emissions. The variability in model selection and the relative degree to which our models are over- or under-fitting the data has been quantified. We find that both the daily magnitude and timing of spore emissions are affected by meteorology during and prior to the spore emission diurnal peak. We found the daily emission magnitude has the strongest associations to weekly average net radiation and leaf moisture before the emission, soil temperature during the day before emission and net radiation during the spore emission. The timing of the daily peak in spore emissions has the strongest associations to net radiation both during spore emission and in the day preceding the emission. The seasonal peak in spore emissions has a near-exponential increase/decrease, and the mean daily emission peak is approximately Gaussian.

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This study evaluated the effects of bio-based carbon materials on methane production by anaerobic digestion. The results showed that biochar and hydrochar can promote cumulative methane yield by 15% to 29%. However, there was no statistical significance (p > 0.05) between hydrochar and biochar produced at different temperature on methane production. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bioinformatics analysis showed that biochar and hydrochar enriched microorganism that might participate in direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) such as Pseudomonadaceae, Bacillaceae, and Clostridiaceae. The the surface properties of the modified biochar were characterized with BET, Raman, FTIR and XPS. Bio-based carbon materials with uniform dispersion provided a stable environment for the DIET of microorganisms and electrons are transferred through aromatic functional groups on the surface of materials. This study reveals bio-based carbon materials surface properties on methane production in anaerobic digestion and provides a new approach to recycling spent coffee grounds.

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With the development of the world economy and society, the living standards of residents have been improved, along with a large amount of food waste and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In the face of global warming and energy shortages, food waste can be used as high-value bio-energy raw materials which is also an effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel anaerobic digestion and CO2 emissions efficiency analysis based on a Slacks-Based Measure integrating Data Envelopment Analysis (SBM-DEA) model to evaluate and optimize the process structure of anaerobic treatment of food waste. The total feed volume and the discharge volume of liquid digestate are taken as inputs, and the total methane (CH4) production volume is taken as the desirable output and CO2 emissions are regarded as the undesirable output to build the biogas production and CO2 emissions evaluation model during the anaerobic digestion process. Finally, the proposed method is used in the actual anaerobic digestion process. The results show that the overall efficiency values in January, April, May, and June in 2020 are higher than those in other months. At the same time, due to the optimal allocation of slack variables of inputs and undesirable outputs, the efficiency values of other inefficient anaerobic digestion days can be improved.

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One challenge in precision nitrogen (N) management is the uncertainty in future weather conditions at the time of decision-making. Crop growth models require a full season of weather data to run yield simulation, and the unknown weather data may be forecasted or substituted by historical data. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a model-based in-season N recommendation strategy for maize (Zea mays L.) using weather data fusion; and (2) evaluate this strategy in comparison with farmers’ N rate and regional optimal N rate in Northeast China. The CERES-Maize model was calibrated using data collected from field experiments conducted in 2015 and 2016, and validated using data from 2017. At two N decision dates - planting stage and V8 stage, the calibrated CERES-Maize model was used to predict grain yield and plant N uptake by fusing current and historical weather data. Using this approach, the model simulated grain yield and plant N uptake well (R2 = 0.85–0.89). Then, in-season economic optimal N rate (EONR) was determined according to responses of simulated marginal return (based on predicted grain yield) to N rate at planting and V8 stages. About 83% of predicted EONR fell within 20% of measured values. Applying the model-based in-season EONR had the potential to increase marginal return by 120–183 $ ha−1 and 0–83 $ ha−1 and N use efficiency by 8–71% and 1–38% without affecting grain yield over farmers’ N rate and regional optimal N rate, respectively. It is concluded that the CERES-Maize model is a valuable tool for simulating yield responses to N under different planting densities, soil types and weather conditions. The model-based in-season N recommendation strategy with weather data fusion can improve maize N use efficiency compared with current farmer practice and regional optimal management practice.

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The decline of the Arctic cryosphere during recent decades has lowered the region’s surface albedo, reducing its ability to reflect solar radiation back to space. It is not clear what role the Antarctic cryosphere plays in this regard, but new remote-sensing-based techniques and datasets have recently opened the possibility to investigate its role. Here, we leverage these to show that the surface albedo reductions from sustained post-2000 losses in Arctic snow and ice cover equate to increasingly positive snow and ice albedo feedback relative to a 1982–1991 baseline period, with a decadal trend of +0.08 ± 0.04 W m–2 decade–1 between 1992 and 2015. During the same period, the expansion of the Antarctic sea-ice pack generated a negative feedback, with a decadal trend of −0.06 ± 0.02 W m–2 decade–1. However, substantial Antarctic sea-ice losses during 2016–2018 completely reversed the trend, increasing the three-year mean combined Arctic and Antarctic snow and ice albedo feedback to +0.26 ± 0.15 W m–2. This reversal highlights the importance of Antarctic sea-ice loss to the global snow and ice albedo feedback. The 1992–2018 mean feedback is equivalent to approximately 10% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions over the same period; the share may rise markedly should 2016–2018 snow and ice conditions become common, although increasing long-wave emissions will probably mediate the impact on the total radiative-energy budget.

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This paper explores and sheds light on the elements, complexity, and dynamics of sociocultural adaptation to innovation and climate change in European Urban Agriculture. We use a scoping-exploratory review to search and unveil elements of sociocultural adaptation (SCA) in the existing literature on European urban agriculture. We categorize these elements into three main categories. This categorization can inform and be further explored, operationalized, and developed in new case-study-based research and serve as a starting point to better understand social adaptation to innovation and climate change in urban contexts, and beyond. Key results draw attention to (a) socio-technical and socio-ecological innovations as critical to sociocultural adaptation to innovation and climate change (b) some elements of SCA identified through the scoping review seem more central than others for the adaption process (c) we are left with the question of whether we need to bridge social science with biology sciences, such as human behavioral biology and neurobiology to find the answer to deeper questions about SCA.

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Ageing and competition reduce trees’ ability to capture resources, which predisposes them to death. In this study, the effect of senescence on the survival probability of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) was analysed by fitting alternative survival probability models. Different model formulations were compared in the dataset, which comprised managed and unmanaged plots in long-term forest experiments in Finland and Norway, as well as old-growth stands in Finland. Stand total age ranged from 19 to 290 years. Two models were formulated without an age variable, such that the negative coefficient for the squared stem diameter described a decreasing survival probability for the largest trees. One of the models included stand age as a separate independent variable, and three models included an interaction term between stem diameter and stand age. According to the model including stand age and its interaction with stem diameter, the survival probability curves could intersect each other in stands with a similar structure but a different mean age. Models that did not include stand age underestimated the survival rate of the largest trees in the managed stands and overestimated their survival rate in the old-growth stands. Models that included stand age produced more plausible predictions, especially for the largest trees. The results supported the hypothesis that the stand age and senescence of trees decreases the survival probability of trees, and that the ageing effect improves survival probability models for Norway spruce.

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The main objective was to evaluate to what extent subsoil compaction on an arable clay soil (Stagnosol (Drainic)) may be alleviated after 5 years under the climate conditions in South-East Norway. Therefore, field plots which had been ploughed and under minimum tillage were compacted through wheel impact (10x) with a 6.6 Mg wheel load. Samples were taken from the ‘compacted’ and ‘non-compacted reference’ treatments at depths of 40 and 60 cm both before and directly after compaction and again 5 years later. The soil physical parameters revealed that pre-compression stress, bulk density, air capacity, air conductivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity at depths of 40 and 60 cm were impaired by compaction, especially under ploughed. After 5 years, bulk density and pre-compression stress remained almost unchanged, while air capacity, air conductivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity had increased at both the 40 and 60 cm depth on both plots as compared to the compacted state and to R for the most part, indicating the recovery of the soil structure in the subsoil. The compaction status evaluated by the ‘compaction verification tool’ indicates the relative reduction of ‘harmful soil compaction’ (after wheel impact) with a change towards ‘slightly harmful compaction’ for the most part with an as yet limited saturated hydraulic conductivity at both depths after 5 years.

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Fava bean (Vicia faba L.) yields are featured by high variability, influenced by the agro-environmental conditions during the growing seasons. These legume crops are sensitive to hydric and heat stresses. The adaptation depends on the efficiency of specific cultivars to use the available resources to produce biomass. This capacity is determined by the genotype and agronomical management practices. The present work aimed to uncover the influence of Baltic agro-environmental conditions (fava bean cultivar, plant density, climate, and soil features) on yield and protein content. For this, field trials were set under Baltic agro-climatic conditions, in Latvia and Estonia with five commercially available fava bean cultivars, representing broad genetic variation (‘Gloria’, ‘Julia’, ‘Jogeva’, ‘Lielplatones’, and ‘Bauska’). The results evidenced ‘Bauska’, ‘Julia’, and ‘Lielplatones’, as the most productive cultivars in terms of seed yield (4.5, 3.7, and 4.6 t ha−1, respectively) and protein yield (1.39, 1.22, and 1.36 t ha−1, respectively) under Estonian and Latvian agro-climatic conditions. Sowing these specific cultivars at densities of 30–40 seeds m−2 constitutes sustainable management for fava bean production in conventional cropping systems in the Baltic region.

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The national forest authority monitors forest regeneration on clear-cut areas annually and needs a more objective and unbiased sample. This can be solved with satellite images, and a method to detect new clear-cuts with time series of Sentinel-2 satellite images has been developed and tested. The 25 % percentile of the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index, based on near-infrared and short wave infrared bands, is calculated and the differential (dNBR) between two years is used to detect new forest clearings. The method has been tested against a management plan with new clear-cuts in 2017. A total of 162 points, 81 in clear-cut and 81 in other stands, was used to test the accuracy. Based on the confusion matrix, the F1 score was 0.97 and the more balanced Matthews correlation coefficient 0.95.

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In Norway, both reindeer herders and sheep farmers base their meat production on natural outfield (utmark) pastures during the summer. In winter, most of the sheep are housed and fed indoors, while the reindeer survive on outfield pastures the whole year. During the last few decades, the losses of both sheep and reindeer to protected carnivores has increased in several areas in Norway. In this article, we focus on reindeer herding in the Troms and Nordland reindeer grazing area (reinbeiteområde). Due to large losses of reindeer calves, during the period from their birth in spring until late autumn, several reindeer herding districts hardly have any animals for slaughter. This has a very negative impact on both the economy and the cultural way of life. This article also discusses the reasons why it is difficult to document/prove who or what is responsible for the losses of reindeer calves. It is difficult to get permission to cull extra-active predators if the politically determined quota in each management region is not fulfilled. Documenting the correct number of predators inside each management region is therefore very important for reindeer herding and sheep farming. This has led to criticism and demonstrations by reindeer herders and sheep farmers. Norwegian predator policy formally builds on differentiated management. However, external review reveals that the management model builds on erroneous assumptions. Further, international law also requires that the burden created by predators does not unduly affect indigenous culture. The authors conclude that there is a need for extensive reforms in predator management in Norway.

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In Norway, the reindeer exists as both a wild and semi-domesticated species. The latter forms the basis of a livelihood and industry that is the clearest characteristic of Sámi culture, and it is protected by international law and the Norwegian Constitution. Nevertheless, reindeer herding is threatened by loss of land used for infrastructure and recreation facilities development, as well as human activities in the outfields (utmark). Reindeer are physically vulnerable, and society’s institutions do not provide sufficient protection of land for grazing and herding of reindeer. Politicians and the general public are largely unaware of this. The chapter documents this by analyzing land-use challenges in two reindeer-herding districts. Besides loss of pastureland, the accumulated effect of former losses is a loss of flexibility, which makes adaptation to new challenges increasingly difficult. The authors suggest several practical measures (e.g. plans, maps, etc.), but also point to the need for general education in Sámi culture and affairs, for politicians as well as the public. This should be a part of necessary reconciliation processes in the context of historical assimilation policies. Furthermore, the Norwegian government should strengthen its efforts to realize the intentions of plan and building laws by strengthening local and regional government obligations.

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The role of soils in the global carbon cycle and in reducing GHG emissions from agriculture has been increasingly acknowledged. The ‘4 per 1000’ (4p1000) initiative has become a prominent action plan for climate change mitigation and achieve food security through an annual increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks by 0.4%, (i.e. 4‰ per year). However, the feasibility of the 4p1000 scenario and, more generally, the capacity of individual countries to implement soil carbon sequestration (SCS) measures remain highly uncertain. Here, we evaluated country-specific SCS potentials of agricultural land for 24 countries in Europe. Based on a detailed survey of available literature, we estimate that between 0.1% and 27% of the agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can potentially be compensated by SCS annually within the next decades. Measures varied widely across countries, indicating differences in country-specific environmental conditions and agricultural practices. None of the countries' SCS potential reached the aspirational goal of the 4p1000 initiative, suggesting that in order to achieve this goal, a wider range of measures and implementation pathways need to be explored. Yet, SCS potentials exceeded those from previous pan-European modelling scenarios, underpinning the general need to include national/regional knowledge and expertise to improve estimates of SCS potentials. The complexity of the chosen SCS measurement approaches between countries ranked from tier 1 to tier 3 and included the effect of different controlling factors, suggesting that methodological improvements and standardization of SCS accounting are urgently required. Standardization should include the assessment of key controlling factors such as realistic areas, technical and practical feasibility, trade-offs with other GHG and climate change. Our analysis suggests that country-specific knowledge and SCS estimates together with improved data sharing and harmonization are crucial to better quantify the role of soils in offsetting anthropogenic GHG emissions at global level.

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Aim It is generally assumed that the degree of resource specialization in herbivorous insects increases towards lower latitudes. However, latitudinal patterns in herbivore diet breadth at large spatial scales remain poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the drivers of latitudinal variation in lepidopteran ‘fundamental’ resource specialization, which we defined as the host breadth when not limited by interspecific interactions at the same trophic level. Location The Japanese archipelago (22°N–45°N), including hemiboreal, temperate and subtropical zones. Taxon Herbivorous butterflies. Methods Species-specific fundamental host breadth was calculated based on pooled host-use records. We investigated the latitudinal pattern and significant drivers of the degree of specialization in regional species pools at a 10-km grid level. As potential drivers, we focused on geography, current climate and diversity and body size of butterflies. Through Bayesian structural equation modelling, we investigated the complicated relationships between these variables and community-level resource specialization represented by three different indices of host breadth. Results We found that the fundamental resource specialization of butterfly communities increases towards higher latitudes. This pattern is contrary to the presumed general trend found in studies based on realized resource specialization within local communities. We found that the observed pattern is driven mainly by factors related to climate, butterfly diversity and body size in each community. Above all, annual mean temperature most strongly drove community-level fundamental host breadth of herbivorous butterflies. Main conclusions Our findings suggest that the fundamental resource specialization may show different latitudinal patterns from the conventional prediction based on knowledge of realized resource specialization. Our results emphasize the importance of the current climate as a major factor regulating butterfly morphology and fundamental host breadth, regardless of whether the impact is direct or indirect.

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Abandonment of agricultural land is a process described from different regions of many industrialized countries. Given the current focus on land use, land use change and food security, it appears highly relevant to develop improved tools to identify and monitor the dynamics of agricultural land abandonment. In particular, the temporal aspect of abandonment needs to be assessed and discussed. In this study, we used the detailed information available through the Norwegian subsidy claim database and analyzed the history of use of unique land parcels through a fourteen-year period. We developed and tested five different statistics identifying these land parcels, their temporal dynamics and the extent of occurrence. What became apparent was that a large number of land parcels existing in the database as agricultural land were taken out of production, but then entered into production again at a later stage. We believe that this approach to describe the temporal dynamics of land abandonment, including how it can be measured and mapped, may contribute to the understanding of the dynamics in land abandonment, and thus also contribute to an improved understanding of the food production system.

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I Norge regnes flere varianter av edelløvskog som truet. På Østlandet finnes det gjengrodde jordbruks- og skoglandskap hvor skjøtselstiltak kan bidra til å gjenskape edelløvskogen. Formålet med denne artikkelen er å undersøke skogeieres erfaringer med og interesse for restaurering av edelløvskog, hva restaurering av edelløvskoger kan bety for lokalbefolkningen og hvordan lokale organisasjoner kan bidra til friluftsliv i områder med edelløvskog. Videre er formålet å gi et bilde av hvor godt dagens forvaltningssystemer og virkemiddelapparat er tilpasset restaurering av skog som er avhengig av skjøtsel for ivaretakelse av det biologiske mangfoldet. restoration, deciduous forest, policy instruments, attitudes

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1. Predicting plant–pollinator interaction networks over space and time will improve our understanding of how environmental change is likely to impact the functioning of ecosystems. Here we propose a framework for producing spatially explicit predictions of the occurrence and number of pairwise plant–pollinator interactions and of the species richness, diversity and abundance of pollinators visiting flowers. We call the framework ‘MetaComNet’ because it aims to link metacommunity dynamics to the assembly of ecological networks. 2. To illustrate the MetaComNet functionality, we used a dataset on bee–flower networks sampled at 16 sites in southeast Norway along with random forest models to predict bee–flower interactions. We included variables associated with climatic conditions (elevation) and habitat availability within a 250 m radius of each site. Regional commonness, site-specific distance to conspecifics, social guild and floral preference were included as bee traits. Each plant species was assigned a score reflecting its site-specific abundance, and four scores reflecting the bee species that the plant family is known to attract. We used leave-one-out cross-validations to assess the models' ability to predict pairwise plant–bee interactions across the landscape. 3. The relationship between observed occurrence or absence of interactions and the predicted probability of interactions was nearly proportional (GLMlogistic regression slope = 1.09), matching the data well (AUC = 0.88), and explained 30% of the variation. Predicted probability of interactions was also correlated with the number of observed pairwise interactions (r = 0.32). The sum of predicted probabilities of bee–flower interactions were positively correlated with observed species richness (r = 0.50), diversity (r = 0.48) and abundance (r = 0.42) of wild bees interacting with plant species within sites. 4. Our findings show that the MetaComNet framework can be a useful approach for making spatially explicit predictions and mapping plant–pollinator interactions. Such predictions have the potential to identify areas where the pollination potential for wild plants is particularly high, and where conservation action should be directed to preserve this ecosystem function. interactions, network, plants, pollinators, predict, random forest

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Old trees are important for biodiversity, and the process of their identification is a critical process in their conservation. However, determining the tree age by core extraction, ring counts, and eventually, cross-dating by means of dendrochronology is labor-intensive and expensive. Here we examine the alternative method of estimating determining tree age by visual characteristics for old Norway spruce and Scots pine trees. We used forest stands previously identified as “Old tree habitats” by visual criteria in Norwegian boreal forests. The efficiency of this method was tested using pairwise comparison of the age of core samples from trees within these sites, and within neighboring sites. Age regression models were constructed from morphological traits and site variables to investigate how accurately old trees can be detected. Cored trees in the Old-tree habitats were on average 41.9 years older than compared to a similar selection of trees from nearby mature forests. Several characteristics such as bark structure, stem taper and visible growth eccentricities can be used to identify old Norway spruce and Scots pine trees. Old trees were often found on less productive sites. Due to the wide range of environments included in the study, we suggest that these findings can be generalized to other parts of the boreal zone.

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Distribution modeling methods are used to provide occurrence probability surfaces for modeled targets. While most often used for modeling species, distribution modeling methods can also be applied to vegetation types. However, surfaces provided by distribution modeling need to be transformed into classified wall-to-wall maps of vegetation types to be useful for practical purposes, such as nature management and environmental planning. The paper compares the performance of three methods for assembling predictions for multiple vegetation types, modeled individually, into a wall-to-wall map. The authors used grid-cell based probability surfaces from distribution models of 31 vegetation types to test the three assembly methods. The first, a probability-based method, selected for each grid cell the vegetation type with the highest predicted probability of occurrence in that cell. The second, a performance-based method, assigned the vegetation types, ordered from high to low model performance, to a fraction of the grid cells given by the vegetation type’s prevalence in the study area. The third, a prevalence-based method, differed from the performance-based method by assigning vegetation types in the order from low to high prevalence. Thus the assembly methods worked in two principally different ways: the probability-based method assigned vegetation types to grid cells in a cell-by-cell manner, and both the performance-based method and prevalence-based method assigned them in a type-by-type manner. All methods were evaluated by use of reference data collected in the field, more or less independently of the data used to parameterize the vegetation-type models. Quantity, allocation, and total disagreement, as well as proportional dissimilarity metrics, were used for evaluation of assembly methods. Overlay analysis showed 38.1% agreement between all three assembly methods. The probability-based method had the lowest total disagreement with, and proportional dissimilarity from, the reference datasets, but the differences between the three methods were small. The three assembly methods differed strongly with respect to the distribution of the total disagreement on its quantity and allocation components: the cell-by-cell assignment method strongly favored allocation disagreement and the type-by-type methods strongly favored quantity disagreement. The probability-based method best reproduced the general pattern of variation across the study area, but at the cost of many rare vegetation types, which were left out of the assembled map. By contrast, the prevalence-based and performance-based methods represented vegetation types in accordance with nationwide area statistics. The results show that maps of vegetation types with wall-to-wall coverage can be assembled from individual distribution models with a quality acceptable for indicative purposes, but all the three tested methods currently also have shortcomings. The results also indicate specific points in the methodology for map assembly that may be improved. area frame survey, assembly strategies, distribution modeling, spatial probabilities, vegetation mapping, vegetation types

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We designed and deployed an apparatus to apply UV light for suppression of powdery mildew in open field production of strawberry. The unit was evaluated in a commercial production field for one season, and for two additional seasons in open field research plots at the University of Florida Gulf Coast Research and Education Center. The apparatus contained two 180-cm-long hemicylindrical arrays of twenty 55-W low-pressure discharge UV-C lamps (operated at 30 W; peak wavelength = 254 nm) backed by polished aluminum reflectors covering two adjacent beds of the strawberry planting. The lamp arrays were suspended within a steel carriage that was tractor-drawn through the planting at 2.3, 4.6, and 5.6 km h−1. Nighttime applications of UV-C at doses ranging from 65 to 170 J⋅m−2 either once or twice weekly provided suppression of foliar and fruit disease that was consistently equal to or better than that provided by a commercial calendar-based fungicide spray program.

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Pollination sustains biodiversity and food security, but pollinators are threatened by habitat degradation, fragmentation, and loss. We assessed how remaining forest influenced bee visits to flowers in an oil palm-dominated landscape in Borneo. We observed bee visits to six plant species: four crops (Capsicum frutescens L. “chili”; Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai “watermelon”; Solanum lycopersicum L. “tomato”; and Solanum melongena L. “eggplant”); one native plant Melastoma malabathricum L. “melastome”; and the exotic Turnera subulata Smith “turnera”. We made one local grid-based and one landscape-scale transect-based study spanning 208 and 2130 m from forest, respectively. We recorded 1249 bee visits to 4831 flowers in 1046 ten-min observation periods. Visit frequency varied among plant species, ranging from 0 observed visits to S. lycopersicum to a mean of 0.62 visits per flower per 10 min to C. lanatus. Bee visitation frequency declined with distance from forest in both studies, with expected visitation frequency decreasing by 55% and 66% at the maximum distance from forest in each study. We also tested whether the distance to the nearest oil palm patch, with a maximum distance of 144 m, influenced visitation, but found no such associations. Expected visitation frequency was 70%–77% lower for plants close to a 200 ha forest fragment compared with those near large continuous forests (>400 ha). Our results suggest that, although found throughout the oil palm-dominated landscape, bees depend on remaining forests. Larger forests support more bees, though even a 50 ha fragment has a positive contribution. Abstract in Indonesian is available with online material.

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Background Monilinia blight caused by Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Reade) Honey (M.vc) is a major disease of wild blueberry that can result in severe crop losses in the absence of an integrated disease management programme. The fungus causes blight in the emerging floral and vegetative buds, but the degree of susceptibility varies among the different wild blueberry phenotypes, ranging from the highly susceptible V. a. f. nigrum to the moderately susceptible V. angustifolium and the least susceptible V. myrtilloides. Results The present study evaluated the defense responses of these major phenotypes during their primary infection (floral buds) with M.vc. The temporal expression profiles of PR genes (PR3 and PR4) and the flavonoid pathway structural genes (CHS, ANS, ANR, DFR and FLS) were analysed. The PR3 and PR4 gene expression profiles revealed that V. myrtilloides responded to M.vc infection by activating the expression of both PR genes. V. a. f. nigrum, on the other hand, failed to activate these genes, while V. angustifolium, exhibited an intermediate response. Our study with the flavonoid pathway genes indicated variability in activation of the genes during post-infection time points with ANS and ANR in V. myrtilloides, FLS in V. angustifolium and no response observed in V. a. f. nigrum. Conclusions Altogether, this study highlights that the degree of phenotype susceptibility is associated with the timely activation of host defense responsive genes. Data obtained in this study provided a starting point for a better understanding of the wild blueberry- M. vaccinii-corymbosi pathosystem.

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While free-living herbivorous insects are thought to harbor microbial communities composed of transient bacteria derived from their diet, recent studies indicate that insects that induce galls on plants may be involved in more intimate host–microbe relationships. We used 16S rDNA metabarcoding to survey larval microbiomes of 20 nematine sawfly species that induce bud or leaf galls on 13 Salix species. The 391 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) detected represented 69 bacterial genera in six phyla. Multi-variate statistical analyses showed that the structure of larval microbiomes is influenced by willow host species as well as by gall type. Nevertheless, a “core” microbiome composed of 58 ASVs is shared widely across the focal galler species. Within the core community, the presence of many abundant, related ASVs representing multiple distantly related bacterial taxa is reflected as a statistically significant effect of bacterial phylogeny on galler–microbe associations. Members of the core community have a variety of inferred functions, including degradation of phenolic compounds, nutrient supplementation, and production of plant hormones. Hence, our results support suggestions of intimate and diverse interactions between galling insects and microbes and add to a growing body of evidence that microbes may play a role in the induction of insect galls on plants.

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Introduction Insects are reported to be in decline around the globe, but long-term datasets are rare. The causes of these trends are elusive, with changes in land use and climate among the top candidates. Yet if species traits can predict rates of population change, this can help identify underlying mechanisms. If climate change is important, for example, high-latitude species may decline as temperate species expand. Land use changes, however, may impact species that rely on certain habitats. Aims and methods We present 30 years of moth captures (comprising 97,032 individuals of 808 species) from a site in southeast Norway to test for population trends that are correlated with species traits. We use time series analyses and joint species distribution models combined with local climate and habitat data. Results and discussion Species richness declined by 8.2% per decade and total abundance appeared to decline as well (−9.4%, p = 0.14) but inter-annual variability was high. One-fifth of species declined, although 6% increased. Winter and summer weather were correlated with annual rates of abundance change for many species. Opposite to general expectation, many species responded negatively to higher summer and winter temperatures. Surprisingly, species’ northern range limits and the habitat in which their food plants grew were not strong predictors of their time trends or their responses to climatic variation. Complex and indirect effects of both land use and climate change may play a role in these declines. Implications for insect conservation Our results provide additional evidence for long-term declines in insect abundance. The multifaceted causes of population changes may limit the ability of species traits to reveal which species are most at risk.

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Due to global climate change–induced shifts in species distributions, estimating changes in community composition through the use of Species Distribution Models has become a key management tool. Being able to determine how species associations change along environmental gradients is likely to be pivotal in exploring the magnitude of future changes in species’ distributions. This is particularly important in connectivity-limited ecosystems, such as freshwater ecosystems, where increased human translocation is creating species associations over previously unseen environmental gradients. Here, we use a large-scale presence–absence dataset of freshwater fish from lakes across the Fennoscandian region in a Joint Species Distribution Model, to measure the effect of temperature on species associations. We identified a trend of negative associations between species tolerant of cold waters and those tolerant of warmer waters, as well as positive associations between several more warm-tolerant species, with these associations often shifting depending on local temperatures. Our results confirm that freshwater ecosystems can expect to see a large-scale shift towards communities dominated by more warm-tolerant species. While there remains much work to be done to predict exactly where and when local extinctions may take place, the model implemented provides a starting-point for the exploration of climate-driven community trends. This approach is especially informative in regards to determining which species associations are most central in shaping future community composition, and which areas are most vulnerable to local extinctions.

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Rapid deterioration of harvested macroalgal biomass is a challenge for macroalgal industry and can be overcome with the inexpensive ensiling preservation. To improve silage quality, Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta biomass was subjected to ensiling conditions following a 2 × 4 factorial design, with 2 prewilting treatments (no-prewilting and prewilted to 300 g DM kg−1 fresh biomass) and 4 additive treatments (no additive, formic acid, single and two species of Lactobacillus inoculant), and ensiled for 3 or 12 months at 15 °C. Acetate was the main fermentation product in these seaweed silages. Prewilting reduced the acetate, mannitol, and NH3 content in silages. In S. latissima silages without additives, prewilting led to less acidification (pH = 5.7). Also, prewilting caused protein and phlorotannin degradation. When treated with formic acid, the silage pH was below 4 regardless of the biomass’s moisture content. The use of Lactobacillus spp. inoculants was essential for lactate production in seaweed silages, and it significantly lowered silage pH in S. latissima and prewilted A. esculenta compared to silages with no additives. A high level of the phlorotannin content was preserved (> 90%) in the 3-month A. esculenta silages without prewilting. However, major reduction of antioxidant activity was observed in 12-month silages in both seaweed species. In conclusion, ensiling is a viable method for preserving Alaria and Saccharina biomass. Prewilting restricted silage fermentation, and both formic acid and bacterial additives facilitated silage acidification. However, there was no clear benefit of these treatments in preserving the antioxidant activity.

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Background The Norwegian forest resource map (SR16) maps forest attributes by combining national forest inventory (NFI), airborne laser scanning (ALS) and other remotely sensed data. While the ALS data were acquired over a time interval of 10 years using various sensors and settings, the NFI data are continuously collected. Aims of this study were to analyze the effects of stratification on models linking remotely sensed and field data, and assess the accuracy overall and at the ALS project level. Materials and methods The model dataset consisted of 9203 NFI field plots and data from 367 ALS projects, covering 17 Mha and 2/3 of the productive forest in Norway. Mixed-effects regression models were used to account for differences among ALS projects. Two types of stratification were used to fit models: 1) stratification by the three main tree species groups spruce, pine and deciduous resulted in species-specific models that can utilize a satellite-based species map for improving predictions, and 2) stratification by species and maturity class resulted in stratum-specific models that can be used in forest management inventories where each stand regularly is visually stratified accordingly. Stratified models were compared to general models that were fit without stratifying the data. Results The species-specific models had relative root-mean-squared errors (RMSEs) of 35%, 34%, 31%, and 12% for volume, aboveground biomass, basal area, and Lorey’s height, respectively. These RMSEs were 2–7 percentage points (pp) smaller than those of general models. When validating using predicted species, RMSEs were 0–4 pp. smaller than those of general models. Models stratified by main species and maturity class further improved RMSEs compared to species-specific models by up to 1.8 pp. Using mixed-effects models over ordinary least squares models resulted in a decrease of RMSE for timber volume of 1.0–3.9 pp., depending on the main tree species. RMSEs for timber volume ranged between 19%–59% among individual ALS projects. Conclusions The stratification by tree species considerably improved models of forest structural variables. A further stratification by maturity class improved these models only moderately. The accuracy of the models utilized in SR16 were within the range reported from other ALS-based forest inventories, but local variations are apparent.

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In the last decade, several major dwarf-shrub dieback events have occurred in northern European coastal heathlands. These dieback events occur after extended periods with sub-zero temperatures under snow-free conditions and clear skies, suggesting that coastal heathlands have low resistance to winter drought. As climate projections forecast increased drought frequency, intensity, and duration, coastal heathlands are likely to experience more such diebacks in the future. There are, however, few empirical studies of drought impacts and responses on plant communities in humid oceanic ecosystems. We established a drought experiment with two distinct levels of intensified drought to identify responses and thresholds of drought resistance in coastal heathland vegetation. We repeated the experiment in two regions, separated by five degrees latitude, to represent different bioclimatic conditions within the coastal heathlands' wide latitudinal range in Europe. As coastal heathlands are semi-natural habitats managed by prescribed fire, and we repeated the experiment across three post-fire successional phases within each region. Plant community structure, annual primary production, and primary and secondary growth of the dominant dwarf-shrub Calluna vulgaris varied between climate regions. To our surprise, these wide-ranging vegetation- and plant-level response variables were largely unaffected by the drought treatments. Consequently, our results suggest that northern, coastal heathland vegetation is relatively resistant to substantial intensification in drought. This experiment represents the world's wettest (2200 mm year−1) and northernmost (65°8'N) drought experiment to date, thus filling important knowledge gaps on ecological drought responses in high-precipitation and high-latitude ecosystems across multiple phases of plant community succession.

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This paper reviews the degradation, preservation and conservation of waterlogged archaeological wood. Degradation due to bacteria in anoxic and soft-rot fungi and bacteria in oxic waterlogged conditions is discussed with consideration of the effect on the chemical composition of wood, as well as the deposition of sulphur and iron within the structure. The effects on physical properties are also considered. The paper then discusses the role of consolidants in preserving waterlogged archaeological wood after it is excavated as well as issues to be considered when reburial is used as a means of preservation. The use of alum and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as consolidants is presented along with various case studies with particular emphasis on marine artefacts. The properties of consolidated wood are examined, especially with respect to the degradation of the wood post-conservation. Different consolidants are reviewed along with their use and properties. The merits and risks of reburial and in situ preservation are considered as an alternative to conservation.

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Brassica oleracea var. acephala (kale) is a cruciferous vegetable widely cultivated for its leaves and flower buds in Europe and a food of global interest as a “superfood”. Brassica crops accumulate phytochemicals called glucosinolates (GSLs) which play an important role in plant defense against biotic stresses. Studies carried out to date suggest that GSLs may have a role in the adaptation of plants to different environments, but direct evidence is lacking. We grew two kale populations divergently selected for high and low indol-3-ylmethylGSL (IM) content (H-IM and L-IM, respectively) in different environments and analyzed agronomic parameters, GSL profiles and metabolomic profile. We found a significant increase in fresh and dry foliar weight in H-IM kale populations compared to L-IM in addition to a greater accumulation of total GSLs, indole GSLs and, specifically, IM and 1-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylGSL (1MeOIM). Metabolomic analysis revealed a significant different concentration of 44 metabolites in H-IM kale populations compared to L-IM. According to tentative peak identification from MS interpretation, 80% were phenolics, including flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and anthocyanin derivates, including acyl flavonoids), chlorogenic acids (esters of hydroxycinnamic acids and quinic acid), hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid) and coumarins. H-IM kale populations could be more tolerant to diverse environmental conditions, possibly due to GSLs and the associated metabolites with predicted antioxidant potential.

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Subtropical forests are important ecosystems globally due to their extensive role in carbon sequestration. Extreme climate events are known to introduce disturbances in the ecosystem that cause long-term changes in carbon balance and radiation reflectance. However, how these ecosystem function changes contribute to global warming in terms of radiative forcing (RF), especially in the years following a disturbance, still needs to be investigated. We studied an extreme snow event that occurred in a subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in south-western China in 2015 and used 9 years (2011–2019) of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and surface albedo (α) data to investigate the effect of the event on the ecosystem RF changes. In the year of the disturbance, leaf area index (LAI) declined by 40% and α by 32%. The annual NEE was −718 ± 128 g C m−2 as a sink in the pre-disturbance years (2011–2014), but after the event, the sink strength dropped significantly by 76% (2015). Both the vegetation, indicated by LAI, and α recovered to pre-disturbance levels in the fourth post-disturbance year (2018). However, the NEE recovery lagged and occurred a year later in 2019, suggesting a more severe and lasting impact on the ecosystem carbon balance. Overall, the extreme event caused a positive (warming effect) net RF which was predominantly caused by changes in α (90%–93%) rather than those in NEE. This result suggests that, compared to the climate effect caused by forest carbon sequestration changes, the climate effect of α alterations can be more sensitive to vegetation damage induced by natural disturbances. Moreover, this study demonstrates the important role of vegetation recovery in driving canopy reflectance and ecosystem carbon balance during the post-disturbance period, which determines the ecosystem feedbacks to the climate change.

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To increase the annual uptake of CO2 as well as the long-term storage of carbon (C) in forests, the Norwegian government consider large-scale replacements of native, deciduous forests with faster-growing species like Norway spruce. To assess the effects of tree species change on ecosystem C and nitrogen (N) stocks and soil chemistry, we used a paired plot approach including stands of native downy birch and planted 45 – 60-year-old Norway spruce. The birch stands were used as reference for the assessment of differences following the tree species change. We found significantly higher C and N stocks in living tree biomass in the spruce stands, whereas no significant differences were found for dead wood. The cover of understory species groups, and the C and N stocks of the aboveground understory vegetation was significantly higher in the birch stands. The tree species change did not affect the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock down to 1 m soil depth; however, the significantly higher stock in the forest floor of the spruce stands suggested a re-distribution of SOC within the profile. There was a significant positive correlation between the SOC stock down to 30 cm soil depth and the total ecosystem C stock for the birch stands, and a negative correlation for the spruce stands. Significant effects of tree species change were found for C and N concentrations, C/N, exchangeable acidity, base saturation, and exchangeable Ca, K, Mg, Na, S, and Fe in the organic horizon or the upper mineral soil layer. The total ecosystem C stock ranged between 197 and 277 Mg ha-1 for the birch stands, and 297 and 387 Mg ha-1 for the spruce stands. The ecosystem C accumulation varied between 32 and 142 Mg ha-1 over the past 45-60 years, whereas the net ecosystem C capture was considerably lower and potentially negative. Our results suggest that the potential to meet the governments’ targets to increase C sequestration depend on the C debt incurred from the removed birch stands, the rotation length, and potentially also the susceptibility of the different stand types to future risk factors related to climate change.

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Simple Summary Chronic Wasting Disease is a deadly infectious disease affecting cervids that was discovered in Norway in 2016. CWD can transmit through environmental reservoirs and aggregation and spatial clustering of animals may affect transmission. Deer usually forage on scattered forage, but anthropogenic food sources are often concentrated in space, leading to spatial aggregation. We determined what caused red deer to revisit the same locations in the environment, and the extent to which this was caused by anthropogenic food sources. We document that the most visited sites were indeed anthropogenic, which opens potential avenues to disease mitigation. Abstract Herbivores like cervids usually graze on widely scattered forage, but anthropogenic food sources may cause spatial revisitation and aggregation, posing a risk for transmission of infectious diseases. In 2016, chronic wasting disease (CWD) was first detected in Norway. A legal regulation to ban supplemental feeding of cervids and to fence stored hay bales was implemented to lower aggregation of cervids. Knowledge of further patterns and causes of spatial revisitation can inform disease management. We used a recently developed revisitation analysis on GPS-positions from 13 red deer (Cervus elaphus) to identify the pattern of spatial clustering, and we visited 185 spatial clusters during winter to identify the causes of clustering. Anthropogenic food sources were found in 11.9% of spatial clusters, which represented 31.0% of the clusters in agricultural fields. Dumping of silage and hay bales were the main anthropogenic food sources (apart from agricultural fields), and unfenced hay bales were available despite the regulation. The probability of the clusters being in agricultural fields was high during winter. It may be necessary to find other ways of disposing of silage and enforcing the requirement of fencing around hay bales to ensure compliance, in particular during winters with deep snow.

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Inclusion of clover in grasslands increases functional diversity, N yield and forage quality and has been advocated for mitigating nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. However, boreal grass-clover leys often show poor winter survival with considerable aboveground losses of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C). Little is known about how these losses affect off-season N2O emissions. Here we report field experiments over two winters, conducted at two coastal locations in Western and Northern Norway. N2O emissions were measured in plots with 0, 30 and 100% red (T. pretense) and white clover (T. repens) in a timothy - meadow fescue mixture. Overwinter N loss from the sward was quantified by comparing N contents in roots, stubble and herbage in autumn and spring. Additional treatments were removal of above-ground biomass in autumn and soil compaction. Off-season N2O emissions correlated positively with estimated overwinter N loss from herbage, which in turn depended on the fraction of clover in the ley. Pure grass leys emitted less N2O than leys that contained clover. Corrected for background emissions from pure grass, up to 13% of the above-ground N loss was emitted as N2O–N when clover was grown in pure stand. This fraction was much smaller, however, when clover was grown in mixture with grass (1.9 ± 0.9%), suggesting reassimilation of inorganic N. Indeed, we found significant increases in root and stubble N in mixtures throughout winter. Removal of above-ground biomass in autumn appeared to reduce the sward's ability to retain N throughout winter, and hence had no or a stimulating effect on N2O emissions. Soil compaction increased off-season N2O emissions 1.3–1.6-fold. Our results show that boreal grass-clover leys can be a significant source of N2O during winter, intricately controlled by loss and reassimilation of N. This underscores the importance of off-season plant-soil management for reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of animal production in high latitude ecosystems.

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Information about the distribution of a study object (e.g., species or habitat) is essential in face of increasing pressure from land or sea use, and climate change. Distribution models are instrumental for acquiring such information, but also encumbered by uncertainties caused by different sources of error, bias and inaccuracy that need to be dealt with. In this paper we identify the most common sources of uncertainties and link them to different phases in the modeling process. Our aim is to outline the implications of these uncertainties for the reliability of distribution models and to summarize the precautions needed to be taken. We performed a step-by-step assessment of errors, biases and inaccuracies related to the five main steps in a standard distribution modeling process: (1) ecological understanding, assumptions and problem formulation; (2) data collection and preparation; (3) choice of modeling method, model tuning and parameterization; (4) evaluation of models; and, finally, (5) implementation and use. Our synthesis highlights the need to consider the entire distribution modeling process when the reliability and applicability of the models are assessed. A key recommendation is to evaluate the model properly by use of a dataset that is collected independently of the training data. We support initiatives to establish international protocols and open geodatabases for distribution models.

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Most food in developed countries, including organic fruits and vegetables, is sold through supply chains run by large wholesalers and supermarket chains. A certain share is sold through local marketing channels such as speciality stores, food box schemes, farmers' markets, and community-supported agriculture (CSA). This study uses qualitative interviews and a quantitative survey to expose the differences between mainstream and local marketing of organic fruits and vegetables in Norway, why and to what extent farmers selling through these two sales channels are different. We find that the supermarket chains' requirements to provide large quantities of uniform product are burdensome for smaller farmers to match. Farmers supplying the mainstream supermarkets tend to be larger and more rurally located. Farmers selling through local marketing are likely to be smaller, closer to urban areas and more diversified in their production. For local marketing farmers, it is more feasible to produce according to organic principles, using local resources and crop rotation. Survey results also show that local marketing farmers are less motivated to produce fruits and vegetables by income and more motivated to produce organically to achieve better quality and sustainability. At the same time, there are also many similarities between the two groups, and we do not find evidence of a general “conventionalisation” of organic agriculture in Norway.

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Rapid technological advances in airborne hyperspectral and lidar systems paved the way for using machine learning algorithms to map urban environments. Both hyperspectral and lidar systems can discriminate among many significant urban structures and materials properties, which are not recognizable by applying conventional RGB cameras. In most recent years, the fusion of hyperspectral and lidar sensors has overcome challenges related to the limits of active and passive remote sensing systems, providing promising results in urban land cover classification. This paper presents principles and key features for airborne hyperspectral imaging, lidar, and the fusion of those, as well as applications of these for urban land cover classification. In addition, machine learning and deep learning classification algorithms suitable for classifying individual urban classes such as buildings, vegetation, and roads have been reviewed, focusing on extracted features critical for classification of urban surfaces, transferability, dimensionality, and computational expense.

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Management of Earth’s surface albedo is increasingly viewed as an important climate change mitigation strategy both on (Seneviratne et al., 2018) and off (Field et al., 2018; Kravitz et al., 2018) the land. Assessing the impact of a surface albedo change involves employing a measure like radiative forcing (RF) which can be challenging to digest for decision-makers who deal in the currency of CO2- equivalent emissions. As a result, many researchers express albedo change (1α) RFs in terms of their CO2-equivalent effects, despite the lack of a standard method for doing so, such as there is for emissions of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs; e.g., IPCC AR5, Myhre et al., 2013). A major challenge for converting 1α RFs into their CO2-equivalent effects in a manner consistent with current IPCC emission metric approaches stems from the lack of a universal time dependency following the perturbation (perturbation “lifetime”). Here, we review existing methodologies based on the RF concept with the goal of highlighting the context(s) in which the resulting CO2-equivalent metrics may or may not have merit. To our knowledge this is the first review dedicated entirely to the topic since the first CO2-eq. metric for 1α surfaced 20 years ago. We find that, although there are some methods that sufficiently address the time-dependency issue, none address or sufficiently account for the spatial disparity between the climate response to CO2 emissions and 1α – a major critique of 1α metrics based on the RF concept (Jones et al., 2013). We conclude that considerable research efforts are needed to build consensus surrounding the RF “efficacy” of various surface forcing types associated with 1α (e.g., crop change, forest harvest), and the degree to which these are sensitive to the spatial pattern, extent, and magnitude of the underlying surface forcings.

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Seed mixtures with a nurse grass that germinates quickly at low soil temperatures can be an option for faster establishment of Agrostis stolonifera (AS) putting greens after winter damage. From 2015 to 2018 Poa trivialis (PT) ‘Dark Horse’ and Lolium perenne (LP) ‘Chardin’ were evaluated as nurse grasses in comparison with pure AS ‘Independence’ at two experimental sites in each of the two major climatic zones of the Nordic countries. Poa annua (PA) ‘Two‐Putt’ was also included as a nurse grass in the northern zone. As an overall trend, establishment was faster with AS+LP than with AS+PT and AS+PA, which in turn had faster establishment than pure AS. In the northern zone, AS+PT produced better turf quality than pure AS in the seeding year and year after and tended to be superior even on average for the entire trial period (mean value 6.0 vs. 5.8 for pure AS, 5.3 for AS+LP, and 4.6 for AS+PA; scale 1–9 where 9 is the highest quality). In the same zone, AS+PT also suffered less overall winter damage than the other combinations and was less infected with microdochium patch than pure AS. In the southern zone, PT and especially LP were far more persistent than in the northern zone and compromised turfgrass quality compared with pure AS. In conclusion, we recommend PT as a nurse grass for faster establishment of AS putting in the northern zone, but not in the southern zone where AS should rather be seeded in a pure stand.

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Background Dormancy regulation in strawberry is a dynamic process that is causally interrelated with regulation of flowering. Interference between the two processes is therefore possible. Methods We studied dormancy control and its relation to flowering and runner formation in ‘Sonata’ strawberry under daylight phytotron conditions. Growth and flowering were observed in plants pretreated for 5 or 10 weeks at 10-h SD and 18-h LD at 6 and 18 ℃ and subsequently forced in a greenhouse in LD at 20 ℃ with and without previous chilling for 6 weeks at 2 ℃ in darkness. Results SD induced constrained leaf and inflorescence growth at both 6 and 18 ℃, while the typical strawberry semi-dormant condition was attained only by exposure to SD at 18 ℃ for 10 weeks, which also completely blocked runner formation. The constrained leaf and inflorescence growth observed in plants grown in SD at 18 ℃ were partially reversed by 6 weeks of chilling and gradually overcome in successively emerging leaves. While plants grown in LD at 18 ℃ for 10 weeks remained vegetative under subsequent forcing, they unexpectedly initiated flowers when subjected to chilling in darkness for 6 weeks before the forcing. Conclusions SD exposure at 18 ℃ constrained leaf and inflorescence growth in ‘Sonata’ strawberry, and when applied for 10 weeks, it induced the persistent semi-dormant state that is typical for strawberry. Transient growth constraints were also induced at 6 ℃ in both SD and LD, while the semi-dormant state was only attained by SD at the higher temperature. Flowering in complete darkness, which is known in both SD and LD plants, did also take place in ‘Sonata’ strawberry in response to chilling in the dark at 2 ℃ for 6 weeks. While the potential impact of the phenomenon seems limited for regulation of flowering in strawberry, we conclude that chilling in the dark at near-freezing temperature may substantially enhance flowering in marginally induced strawberry plants.

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Vegetation is an important component in global ecosystems, affecting the physical, hydrological and biogeochemical properties of the land surface. Accordingly, the way vegetation is parameterized strongly influences predictions of future climate by Earth system models. To capture future spatial and temporal changes in vegetation cover and its feedbacks to the climate system, dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are included as important components of land surface models. Variation in the predicted vegetation cover from DGVMs therefore has large impacts on modelled radiative and non-radiative properties, especially over high-latitude regions. DGVMs are mostly evaluated by remotely sensed products and less often by other vegetation products or by in situ field observations. In this study, we evaluate the performance of three methods for spatial representation of present-day vegetation cover with respect to prediction of plant functional type (PFT) profiles – one based upon distribution models (DMs), one that uses a remote sensing (RS) dataset and a DGVM (CLM4.5BGCDV; Community Land Model 4.5 Bio-Geo-Chemical cycles and Dynamical Vegetation). While DGVMs predict PFT profiles based on physiological and ecological processes, a DM relies on statistical correlations between a set of predictors and the modelled target, and the RS dataset is based on classification of spectral reflectance patterns of satellite images. PFT profiles obtained from an independently collected field-based vegetation dataset from Norway were used for the evaluation. We found that RS-based PFT profiles matched the reference dataset best, closely followed by DM, whereas predictions from DGVMs often deviated strongly from the reference. DGVM predictions overestimated the area covered by boreal needleleaf evergreen trees and bare ground at the expense of boreal broadleaf deciduous trees and shrubs. Based on environmental predictors identified by DM as important, three new environmental variables (e.g. minimum temperature in May, snow water equivalent in October and precipitation seasonality) were selected as the threshold for the establishment of these high-latitude PFTs. We performed a series of sensitivity experiments to investigate if these thresholds improve the performance of the DGVM method. Based on our results, we suggest implementation of one of these novel PFT-specific thresholds (i.e. precipitation seasonality) in the DGVM method. The results highlight the potential of using PFT-specific thresholds obtained by DM in development of DGVMs in broader regions. Also, we emphasize the potential of establishing DMs as a reliable method for providing PFT distributions for evaluation of DGVMs alongside RS.

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Organic agriculture is acquiring increased attention in Armenia with numerous projects and initiatives prioritizing production of ecologically clean agricultural products. Application of organic fertilizers is one of the key factors supporting sustainable organic production of fruits and vegetables, which requires knowledge of fertilization regimes adapted to crop types for achieving optimum productivity. The present study evaluates the effect of the organic fertilizer “Bioklad” (Bioklad Ltd.) on growth and development of strawberry plantlets. Three concentrations of the organic fertilizer, 1:400, 1:200 and 1:100 dilutions of the concentrate were tested. Plantlets of the cultivar ‘Sonata’ were grown for nine weeks in pots under controlled conditions in a phytotron. Yield, biomass and total phenolic content were not significantly different between Bioklad application treatments. Nevertheless, the Bioklad at the intermediate dilution 1:200 was most optimal for strawberry growth. The analysis of chemical composition of leaves indicated that nitrogen content was higher in plants grown at the lowest dilution (1:100) of Bioklad. In addition, plantlets had the lowest phenolic content at this treatment. Based on the presented results of Bioklad’s effect on strawberry plantlets growth, cost/value insight of this organic fertilizer has been estimated.

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Macrocystis pyrifera is a major habitat forming kelp in coastal ecosystems of temperate regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. We investigated the seasonal occurrence of adult sporophytes, morphological characteristics, and reproductive phenology at two sites within a wave-protected harbour and two wave-exposed sites in southern New Zealand every 3–4 months between 2012 and 2013. Seasonality in reproduction was assessed via the number of sporophylls, the occurrence of sori on sporophylls, and non-sporophyllous laminae (fertile pneumatocyst-bearing blades and fertile apical scimitars), meiospore release, and germination. We found that M. pyrifera was present and reproductive year-round in three of the four sites, and patterns were similar for the wave-exposure conditions. Sori were found on pneumatocyst-bearing blades and apical scimitars in addition to the sporophylls, and viable meiospores were released from all three types of laminae. Morphological variations between sites with different wave exposure indicate that sporophytes from wave-protected sites have bigger blades and holdfasts and are longer than those from wave-exposed sites. We discuss the implications of these biological variables for the ecology of M. pyrifera inhabiting different wave exposure environments in southern New Zealand.

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Kelps are important foundation species in coastal ecosystems currently experiencing pronounced shifts in their distribution patterns caused by ocean warming. While some populations found at species’ warm distribution edges have been recently observed to decline, expansions of some species have been recorded at their cold distribution edges. Reduced population resilience can contribute to kelp habitat loss, hence, understanding intraspecific variations in physiological responses across a species’ latitudinal distribution is crucial for its conservation. To investigate potential local responses of the broadly distributed kelp Saccharina latissima to marine heatwaves in summer, we collected sporophytes from five locations in Europe (Spitsbergen, Bodø, Bergen, Helgoland, Locmariaquer), including populations exposed to the coldest and warmest local temperature regimes. Meristematic tissue from sporophytes was subjected to increasing temperatures of 1+2, 1+4 and 1+6 ◦C above the respective mean summer temperatures (control, 1±0 ◦C) characteristic for each site. Survival and corresponding physiological and biochemical traits were analyzed. Vitality (optimum quantum yield, Fv/Fm) and growth were monitored over time and biochemical responses were measured at the end of the experiment. Growth was highest in northern and lowest in southern populations. Overall, northern populations from Spitsbergen, Bodø and Bergen were largely unaffected by increasing summer temperatures up to 1+6 ◦C. Conversely, sporophytes from Helgoland and Locmariaquer were markedly stressed at 1+6 ◦C: occurrence of tissue necrosis, reduced Fv/Fm, and a significantly elevated de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle (DPS). The variations in phlorotannins, mannitol and tissue C and N contents were independent of temperature treatments and latitudinal distribution pattern. Pronounced site-specific variability in response to increasing temperatures implies that exceeding a threshold above the mean summer temperature exclusively affect rear-edge (southernmost) populations.

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Diplodia sapinea is a cosmopolitan endophyte and opportunistic pathogen having occurred on several conifer species in Europe for at least 200 years. In Europe, disease outbreaks have increased on several Pinus spp. in the last few decades. In this study, the genetic structure of the European and western Asian D. sapinea population were investigated using 13 microsatellite markers. In total, 425 isolates from 15 countries were analysed. A high clonal fraction and low genetic distance between most subpopulations was found. One single haplotype dominates the European population, being represented by 45.3% of all isolates and found in nearly all investigated countries. Three genetically distinct subpopulations were found: Central/North European, Italian and Georgian. The recently detected subpopulations of D. sapinea in northern Europe (Estonia) share several haplotypes with the German subpopulation. The northern European subpopulations (Latvia, Estonia and Finland) show relatively high genetic diversity compared to those in central Europe suggesting either that the fungus has existed in the North in an asymptomatic/endophytic mode for a long time or that it has spread recently by multiple introductions. Considerable genetic diversity was found even among isolates of a single tree as 16 isolates from a single tree resulted in lower clonal fraction index than most subpopulations in Europe, which might reflect cryptic sexual proliferation. According to currently published allelic patterns, D. sapinea most likely originates from North America or from some unsampled population in Asia or central America. In order to enable the detection of endophytic or latent infections of planting stock by D. sapinea, new species-specific PCR primers (DiSapi-F and Diplo-R) were designed. During the search for Diplodia isolates across the world for species specific primer development, we identified D. africana in California, USA, and in the Canary Islands, which are the first records of this species in North America and in Spain.

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Composting and anaerobic digestion are the most common ways to treat organic residues. Sometimes the organic rest after anaerobic digestion is also composted. In this study we investigated greenhouse gas emissions from composting raw food waste compared to composting solid digestate of food waste. Cumulative methane emissions over 3 weeks were found to be almost 12 times higher from composting digested food waste than from raw food waste suggesting that the microbial community transferred from the anaerobic digestion to the compost process enhanced these emissions. Cumulative nitrous oxide emissions were also higher when composting solid digestate was compared to composting raw food waste, but the global warming potential was mostly driven by the impact of methane emissions. In conclusion, methane production during digestate composting can be high, therefore eliminating methane producing microbes in digestate before composting could be a promising way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

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Saprolegnia parasitica is recognized as one of the most important oomycetes pests of salmon and trout species. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and method sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were used to study the genetic diversity and relationships of Saprolegnia spp. collected from Canada, Chile, Japan, Norway and Scotland. AFLP analysis of 37 Saprolegnia spp. isolates using six primer combinations gave a total of 163 clear polymorphic bands. Bayesian cluster analysis using genetic similarity divided the isolates into three main groups, suggesting that there are genetic relationships among the isolates. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and principal coordinate analysis (PCO) confirmed the pattern of the cluster analyses. ITS analyses of 48 Saprolegnia sequences resulted in five well-defined clades. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed greater variation within countries (91.01%) than among countries (8.99%). We were able to distinguish the Saprolegnia isolates according to their species, ability to produce oogonia with and without long spines on the cysts and their ability to or not to cause mortality in salmonids. AFLP markers and ITS sequencing data obtained in the study, were found to be an efficient tool to characterize the genetic diversity and relationships of Saprolegnia spp. The comparison of AFLP analysis and ITS sequence data using the Mantel test showed a very high and significant correlation (r2 = 0.8317).

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In 2018–2019, establishment problems were encountered, after reseeding creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) on a sand-based putting green after ice encasement at the NIBIO Turfgrass Research Center, Norway. Seeds germinated, but the seedlings attained a purple color and died in large patches. Replacement of the top 3 cm layer with new sand amended with Sphagnum peat or garden compost did not solve the problem. To explain this phenomenon, we (1) analyzed the original substrate for nematodes in patches with and without reestablishment failure; and (2) conducted a factorial pot trial with creeping bentgrass and Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. commutata) seeded on different substrates, some of them in layers, and with and without phosphorus (P) fertilization. The nematode counts showed six times more stubby-root nematodes and two times more spiral nematodes and needle nematodes in the patches with dead seedlings than in the patches with healthy seedings. In the pot trial, the fastest and slowest reestablishment was observed with new sand amended with garden compost and in the two treatments that included the original substrate, respectively. Replacement of the top 3 cm of the old substrate with new garden compost resulted in stagnation of bentgrass seedlings from four weeks after seeding, while fescue seedlings were unaffected. We conclude that the failure to reestablish creeping bentgrass was primarily due to nematodes, which are likely to be more critical for seedlings than for established turf. The green was later reestablished successfully with a 100 % red fescue seed blend.

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Urban agriculture is increasingly recognized as an important sustainable pathway for climate change adaptation and mitigation, for building more resilient cities, and for citizens’ health. Urban agriculture systems appear in many forms – both commercial and non-commercial. The value of the services derived from urban agriculture, e.g. enhanced food security, air quality, water regulation, and high level of biodiversity, is often difficult to quantify to inform policymakers and the general public in their decision making. We perform a contingent valuation survey regarding four different types of urban agriculture in Oslo. The citizens of Oslo are asked about their attitudes and willingness to pay for non-commercial and commercial urban agriculture. The non-commercial agriculture consists of urban community gardens for the citizens and urban gardens for work training, education and kindergartens. On the other hand, the commercial urban agriculture consists of aquaponics and vertical production. Results show that the citizens of Oslo are willing to increase their tax payments to contribute to further development of urban farming in Oslo. Keywords: Willingness to pay; community garden; aquaponics; vertical farming; Oslo

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During a three-day field trip to the Gaupne area, Luster kommune, three main localities were visited in search of lichens. A total of 35 lichens or lichenicolous fungi were found to be new to Sogn og Fjordane, most of which are also rare on a national scale. Three species on rocks, Calogaya biatorina, Lecanora gisleriana and L. subaurea, are red-listed and two species, Blastenia monticola and Caloplaca squamuleoisidiata, are new to Norway. Most of the species new to Sogn og Fjordane are calcicolous or prefer siliceous rocks containing high levels of heavy metals. The area around Gaupne is shown to be a previously unknown lichen hot-spot.

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Wastewater (WW) has been widely recognized as the major sink of a variety of emerging pathogens (EPs), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which may disseminate and impact wider environments. Improving and maximizing WW treatment efficiency to remove these microbial hazards is fundamentally imperative. Despite a variety of physical, biological and chemical treatment technologies, the efficiency of ARG removal is still far from satisfactory. Within our recently accomplished M-ERA.NET project, novel functionalized nanomaterials, i.e., molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) films and quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) modified kaolin microparticles, were developed and demonstrated to have significant EP removal effectiveness on both Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) and Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from WW. As a continuation of this project, we took the further step of exploring their ARG mitigation potential. Strikingly, by applying MIP and QAS functionalized kaolin microparticles in tandem, the ARGs prevalent in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), e.g., blaCTXM, ermB and qnrS, can be drastically reduced by 2.7, 3.9 and 4.9 log (copies/100 mL), respectively, whereas sul1, tetO and mecA can be eliminated below their detection limits. In terms of class I integron-integrase I (intI1), a mobile genetic element (MGE) for horizontal gene transfer (HGT), 4.3 log (copies/100 mL) reduction was achieved. Overall, the novel nanomaterials exhibit outstanding performance on attenuating ARGs in WW, being superior to their control references. This finding provides additional merit to the application of developed nanomaterials for WW purification towards ARG elimination, in addition to the proven bactericidal effect.

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For non-native tree species with an origin outside of Europe a detailed compilation of enemy species including the severity of their attack is lacking up to now. We collected information on native and non-native species attacking non-native trees, i.e. type, extent and time of first observation of damage for 23 important non-native trees in 27 European countries. Our database includes about 2300 synthesised attack records (synthesised per biotic threat, tree and country) from over 800 species. Insects (49%) and fungi (45%) are the main observed biotic threats, but also arachnids, bacteria including phytoplasmas, mammals, nematodes, plants and viruses have been recorded. This information will be valuable to identify patterns and drivers of attacks, and trees with a lower current health risk to be considered for planting. In addition, our database will provide a baseline to which future impacts on non-native tree species could be compared with and thus will allow to analyse temporal trends of impacts.

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Dollar spot, caused by at least five Clarireedia species (formerly Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F. T. Benn.), is one of the economically most important turfgrass diseases worldwide. The disease was detected for the first time in Scandinavia in 2013. There is no available information from Scandinavian variety trials on resistance to dollar spot in turfgrass species and cultivars (http://www.scanturf.org/). Our in vitro screening (in glass vials) of nine turfgrass species comprising a total of 20 cultivars showed that on average for ten Clarireedia isolates of different origin, the ranking for dollar spot resistance in turfgrass species commonly found on Scandinavian golf courses was as follows: perennial ryegrass = slender creeping red fescue > strong creeping red fescue > Kentucky bluegrass = velvet bentgrass > colonial bentgrass = Chewings fescue ≥ creeping bentgrass = annual bluegrass. Significant differences in aggressiveness among Clarireedia isolates of different origin were found in all turfgrass species except annual bluegrass (cv. Two Putt). The U.S. C. jacksonii isolate MB-01 and Canadian isolate SH44 were more aggressive than C. jacksonii isolates from Denmark and Sweden (14.10.DK, 14.15.SE, and 14.16.SE) in velvet bentgrass and creeping bentgrass. The Swedish isolate 14.112.SE was generally more aggressive than 14.12.NO despite the fact that they most likely belong to the same Clarireedia sp. The U.S. C. monteithiana isolate RB-19 had similar aggressiveness as the Scandinavian C. jacksonii isolates, but was less aggressive than two U.S. C. jacksonii isolates MB-01 and SH44. Thus, aggressiveness of Clarireedia isolates was more impacted by their geographic origin and less by species of the isolate and/or the host turfgrass species.

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Proximal sensing technologies are becoming widely used across a range of applications in environmental sciences. One of these applications is in the measurement of the ground surface in describing soil displacement impacts from wheeled and tracked machinery in the forest. Within a period of 2–3 years, the use photogrammetry, LiDAR, ultrasound and time-of-flight imaging based methods have been demonstrated in both experimental and operational settings. This review provides insight into the aims, sampling design, data capture and processing, and outcomes of papers dealing specifically with proximal sensing of soil displacement resulting from timber harvesting. The work reviewed includes examples of sensors mounted on tripods and rigs, on personal platforms including handheld and backpack mounted, on mobile platforms constituted by forwarders and skidders, as well as on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The review further highlights and discusses the benefits, challenges, and some of the shortcomings of the various technologies and their application as interpreted by the authors. The majority of the work reviewed reflects pioneering approaches and innovative applications of the technologies. The studies have been carried out almost simultaneously, building on little or no common experience, and the evolution of standardized methods is not yet fully apparent. Some of the issues that will likely need to be addressed in developing this field are (i) the tendency toward generating apparently excessively high resolution micro-topography models without demonstrating the need for or contribution of such resolutions on accuracy, (ii) the inadequacy of conventional manual measurements in verifying the accuracy of these methods at such high resolutions, and (iii) the lack of a common protocol for planning, carrying out, and reporting this type of study.

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Hymenoptera is a hyperdiverse insect order represented by over 153,000 different species. As many hymenopteran species perform various crucial roles for our environments, such as pollination, herbivory, and parasitism, they are of high economic and ecological importance. There are 99 hymenopteran genomes in the NCBI database, yet only five are representative of the paraphyletic suborder Symphyta (sawflies, woodwasps, and horntails), while the rest represent the suborder Apocrita (bees, wasps, and ants). Here, using a combination of 10X Genomics linked-read sequencing, Oxford Nanopore long-read technology, and Illumina short-read data, we assembled the genomes of two willow-galling sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae: Nematinae: Euurina): the bud-galling species Euura lappo and the leaf-galling species Eupontania aestiva. The final assembly for E. lappo is 259.85 Mbp in size, with a contig N50 of 209.0 kbp and a BUSCO score of 93.5%. The E. aestiva genome is 222.23 Mbp in size, with a contig N50 of 49.7 kbp and a 90.2% complete BUSCO score. De novo annotation of repetitive elements showed that 27.45% of the genome was composed of repetitive elements in E. lappo and 16.89% in E. aestiva, which is a marked increase compared to previously published hymenopteran genomes. The genomes presented here provide a resource for inferring phylogenetic relationships among basal hymenopterans, comparative studies on host-related genomic adaptation in plant-feeding insects, and research on the mechanisms of plant manipulation by gall-inducing insects.

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Key words: Risk assessment, Crayfish, Shrimps, Crabs, Climate change, Aphanomyces astaci, White spot syndrome, Alien species, Biological invasion Introduction The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM) was requested by the Norwegian Environment Agency to assess the risk of negative impacts to biodiversity in Norway resulting from import of crustacean decapods for keeping in freshwater aquariums. VKM was asked to 1) list species of crayfish, crabs and shrimps that are currently kept in freshwater aquaria in Norway, and species that are likely to be kept in freshwater aquaria in Norway within the next 10 years, 2) assess the ability of the species to survive under Norwegian conditions and cause impacts on ecosystems and other species, and 3) state the potential negative effects on the biological diversity of diseases caused by pathogens, regulated under the Norwegian Food Act. Methods The risk assessment, without focus on pathogens, was performed in two steps. First, we used a pre-screening toolkit to identify species of crayfish, crabs and shrimps with potential to become invasive in freshwater habitats in Norway. Each species was given an invasiveness score based on 55 questions on biogeography, ecology, and climate change. In a second step, a full risk assessment, including the potential impacts of pathogens, was conducted on those species receiving the highest invasiveness score. This assessment included questions on the organism’s probability of entry and pathways of entry, establishment and spread, potential impacts on biodiversity, and how climate change scenarios might affect the assessment. Likelyhood and confidence was assessed for each question. In conclusion, each species was designated as either low-, moderate-, or high risk. Many crustacean decapod species are confirmed or suspected carriers of pathogens that can cause mass mortality among native crustaceans. The risk posed by crustaceans as carriers of pathogens may be independent of the environmental risk that they pose through ecological interactions. Therefore, the four crustacean disease pathogens that are regulated under the Norwegian Food Act, were assessed separately. These include Aphanomyces astaci causing crayfish plague, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causing white spot disease, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) causing Taura syndrome, and yellow head virus genotype 1 (YHV1) causing yellow head disease. The assessments comprised questions on the pathogen’s probability of entry (as a hitchhiker organism with imported crustaceans), pathways of entry, establishment and spread, and potential impact on crustacean biodiversity. Likelihood and confidence were assessed for each question. In conclusion, each pathogen was designated as either low-, moderate-, or high risk. In a third step, we categorized the likelihood that a crustacean species introduces a pathogen associated with a high- or moderate risk into: I) known chronic carriers, II) suspected chronic carriers, III) suspected situational carrier, IV) possible pathogen transmitters, and V) no direct or circumstantial evidence for carrier status or pathogen transmission in the genus. Results Based on information from the Norwegian Pet Trade Association, the project group listed 112 taxa (mainly species and some genera) of freshwater crayfish, crabs and shrimps that are relevant for trade in Norway. These included 38 crayfish taxa, 28 crab taxa, and 45 shrimp taxa. In addition, one marine crab was included. Sixteen species of crayfish, four species of shrimps, and two species of crabs underwent a full ecological risk assessment. The probabilities of entry both into the aquarium trade in Norway, and potentially further into Norwegian nature, were based on the prevalence of the species in the aquarium trade in Norway. We assumed that all species were equally likely to escape captivity or to be .........

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Background: European canker, caused by Neonectria ditissima, is a disease of worldwide importance in apple production, yet knowledge about it is limited, highly regional and sometimes contradictory. This is an obstacle to successful disease management. Key aspects for Northern Europe are reviewed, based on research results from Northern Germany and Norway and on international literature data. Main topics: Trunk cankers developing on young trees within the frst 1–3 seasons of explanting can often be traced back to latent infections initiated in the nurseries. The most important nursery infection is a lateral canker on the main trunk of ‘knip’ trees, which are the standard tree type in Northern Europe. In strongly afected batches, up to 25% of trees have to be uprooted after the frst growing season due to such trunk cankers. The establishment and maintenance of healthy orchards requires clean nursery material, especially in the case of susceptible cultivars. In Northern Germany, infections within commercial orchards most often proceed through wounds caused by fruit picking or leaf fall in autumn, as shown by the appearance of cankers in the following spring and by the high efcacy of fungicide treatments at leaf fall. Ascospores, commonly thought to be relevant for long-distance spread of infections, are not released until the end of leaf fall even in wet autumn seasons in Northern Germany. Therefore, their role in the disease remains unclear. Strong nitrogen-induced vegetative growth favours apple canker. In feld trials conducted under conditions of current commercial practices, autumnal sprays with copper hydroxide or copper oxide were consistently more efcacious than copper oxychloride or captan in preventing new infections. Conclusions: Restricted fertilisation and other measures to curb excessive vegetative growth during the frst few years of an orchard, repeated canker pruning and well-timed treatments with efective fungicides in autumn are essential for IPM of apple canker. Nonetheless, canker remains capable of severely impairing the commercial success of susceptible cultivars in regions with wet climates even if all available measures are taken. This opens up long-term perspectives for the breeding of more resistant cultivars. Keywords: Ascospores, Canker pruning, Conidia, Copper hydroxide, Fertilisation, Fungicides, Latent infection, Neonectria ditissima, Nursery, Prohexadione calcium, Root pruning

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The use of peat as a growing media in horticulture is supposed to be reduced due to negative effects of its production on the environment. Interest in development of alternative growing media is therefore increasing and is enhanced by both political pressure and industry demands. Therefore, the influence of 33 growing media on the performance and productivity of two strawberry cultivars were examined in a polytunnel under Nordic conditions (60.7 N). Alternative substrates including fibers of spruce, birch and flax and coffee grounds were tested standalone or in mixes. Peat and coir were included as controls. Additionally, impregnation of the wood fibers with organic and inorganic substances was examined. All investigated growing media received identical fertigation strategies (EC 1.5). The highest average biomass production was observed for plants grown in bare peat; however, the best yield performance was noted for peat mixed with perlite and for coarse spruce fiber. Strawberries grown in these two best performing substrates showed comparable overall productivity, with 272 and 268 g of berries per plant, respectively. Both peat/perlite mix and the coarse spruce fiber had also a similar weight of berries larger than 25 mm, with 210 and 198 g plant-1, respectively. Moreover, improvement of the substrate structure by adding perlite or wood chips may have had a pronounced effect on fruiting performance. When compared to peat with added perlite (which gave the highest berry yield in the experiment; 272 g plant-1), strawberries grown in pure peat produced only 187 g plant-1. Furthermore, impregnation of spruce fiber with humic acid enhanced fruiting performance by increasing the total yield and number of large berries (≥25 mm). Future prospects for this study include establishment of an optimal structure of spruce fiber substrate suitable for strawberry production and development of the fertigation strategy optimized for the new growing media.

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Studies in natural populations are essential to understand the evolutionary ecology of senescence and terminal allocation. While there are an increasing number of studies investigating late-life variation in different life-history traits of wild populations, little is known about these patterns in social behaviour. We used long-term individual based data on yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventer) to quantify how affiliative social behaviours and different life-history traits vary with age and in the last year of life, and how patterns compare between the two. We found that some social behaviours and all life-history traits varied with age, whereas terminal last year of life effects were only observed in life-history traits. Our results imply that affiliative social behaviours do not act as a mechanism to adjust allocation among traits when close to death, and highlight the importance of adopting an integrative approach, studying late-life variation and senescence across multiple different traits, to allow the identification of potential trade-offs. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Ageing and sociality: why, when and how does sociality change ageing patterns?’

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In addition to the rapidly expanding field of using microalgae for food and feed, microalgae represent a tremendous potential for new bioactive compounds with health-promoting effects. One field where new therapeutics is needed is cancer therapy. As cancer therapy often cause severe side effects and loose effect due to development of drug resistance, new therapeutic agents are needed. Treating cancer by modulating the immune response using peptides has led to unprecedented responses in patients. In this review, we want to elucidate the potential for microalgae as a source of new peptides for possible use in cancer management. Among the limited studies on anti-cancer effects of peptides, positive results were found in a total of six different forms of cancer. The majority of studies have been performed with different strains of Chlorella, but effects have also been found using peptides from other species. This is also the case for peptides with immunomodulating effects and peptides with other health-promoting effects (e.g., role in cardiovascular diseases). However, the active peptide sequence has been determined in only half of the studies. In many cases, the microalga strain and the cultivation conditions used for producing the algae have not been reported. The low number of species that have been explored, as opposed to the large number of species available, is a clear indication that the potential for new discoveries is large. Additionally, the availability and cost-effectiveness of microalgae make them attractive in the search for bioactive peptides to prevent cancer.

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Leaf area index (LAI) is a key ecological indicator for describing the structure of canopies and for modelling energy exchange between atmosphere and biosphere. While LAI of the forest overstory can be accurately assessed over large spatial scales via remote sensing, LAI of the forest understory (LAIu) is still largely ignored in ecological studies and ecosystem modelling due to the fact that it is often too complex to be destructively sampled or approximated by other site parameters. Additionally, so far only few attempts have been made to retrieve understory LAI via remote sensing, because dense canopies with high LAI are often hindering retrieval algorithms to produce meaningful estimates for understory LAI. Consequently, the forest understory still constitutes a poorly investigated research realm impeding ecological studies to properly account for its contribution to the energy absorption capacity of forest stands. This study aims to compare three conceptually different indirect retrieval methodologies for LAIu over a diverse panel of forest understory types distributed across Europe. For this we carried out near-to-surface measurements of understory reflectance spectra as well as digital surface photography over the extended network of Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) forest ecosystem sites. LAIu was assessed by exploiting the empirical relationship between vegetation cover and light absorption (Beer-Lambert- Bouguer law) as well as by utilizing proposed relationships with two prominent vegetation indices: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and simple ratio (SR). Retrievals from the three methods were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.63–0.99, RMSE = 0.53–0.72), but exhibited also significant bias depending on the LAI scale. The NDVI based retrieval approach most likely overestimates LAI at productive sites when LAIu > 2, while the simple ratio algorithm overestimates LAIu at sites with sparse understory vegetation and presence of litter or bare soil. The purely empirical method based on the Beer-Lambert law of light absorption seems to offer a good compromise, since it provides reasonable LAIu values at both low and higher LAI ranges. Surprisingly, LAIu variation among sites seems to be largely decoupled from differences in climate and light permeability of the overstory, but significantly increased with vegetation diversity (expressed as species richness) and hence proposes new applications of LAIu in ecological modelling.

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Climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of extreme events in northern ecosystems. The outcome of these events across the landscape, might be mediated by species effects, such as niche construction, with likely consequences on vegetation resilience. To test this hypothesis, we simulated an extreme event by removing aboveground vegetation in tundra heathlands dominated by the allelopathic dwarf shrub Empetrum nigrum, a strong niche constructor. We tested the hypothesis under different climate regimes along a 200-km long gradient from oceanic to continental climate in Northern Norway. We studied the vegetation recovery process over ten years along the climatic gradient. The recovery of E. nigrum and subordinate species was low and flattened out after five years at all locations along the climatic gradient, causing low vegetation cover at the end of the study in extreme event plots. Natural seed recruitment was low at all sites, however, the addition of seeds from faster growing species did not promote vegetation recovery. A soil bioassay from 8 years after the vegetation was removed, suggested the allelopathic effect of E. nigrum was still present in the soil environment. Our results provide evidence of how a common niche constructor species can dramatically affect ecosystem recovery along a climatic gradient after extreme events in habitats where it is dominant. By its extremely slow regrowth and it preventing establishment of faster growing species, this study increases our knowledge on the possible outcomes when extreme events harm niche constructors in the tundra.

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Forest biomass harvesting guidelines help ensure the ecological sustainability of forest residue harvesting for bioenergy and bioproducts, and hence contribute to social license for a growing bioeconomy. Guidelines, typically voluntary, provide a means to achieve outcomes often required by legislation, and must address needs related to local or regional context, jurisdictional compatibility with regulations, issues of temporal and spatial scale, and incorporation of appropriate scientific information. Given this complexity, comprehensive reviews of existing guidelines can aid in development of new guidelines or revision of existing ones. We reviewed 32 guidelines covering 43 jurisdictions in the USA, Canada, Europe and East Asia to expand upon information evaluated and recommendations provided in previous guideline reviews, and compiled a searchable spreadsheet of direct quotations from documents as a foundation for our review. Guidelines were considered in the context of sustainable forest management (SFM), focusing on guideline scope and objectives, environmental sustainability concerns (soils, site productivity, biodiversity, water and carbon) and social concerns (visual aesthetics, recreation, and preservation of cultural, historical and archaeological sites). We discuss the role of guidelines within the context of other governance mechanisms such as SFM policies, trade regulations and non-state market-driven (NSMD) standards, including certification systems. The review provides a comprehensive resource for those developing guidelines, or defining sustainability standards for market access or compliance with public regulations, and/or concerned about the sustainability of forest biomass harvesting. We recommend that those developing or updating guidelines consider (i) the importance of well-defined and understood terminology, consistent where possible with guidelines in other jurisdictions or regions; (ii) guidance based on locally relevant research, and periodically updated to incorporate current knowledge and operational experience; (iii) use of indicators of sensitive soils, sites, and stands which are relevant to ecological processes and can be applied operationally; and (iv) incorporation of climate impacts, long-term soil carbon storage, and general carbon balance considerations when defining sustainable forest biomass availability. Successful implementation of guidelines depends both on the relevance of the information and on the process used to develop and communicate it; hence, appropriate stakeholders should be involved early in guideline development.

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Sporothrix (Sordariales, Ascomycota) is a well-supported monophyletic lineage within the Ophiostomatales, species of which occur in a diverse range of habitats including on forest trees, in the soil, associated with bark beetles and mites as well as on the fruiting bodies of some Basidiomycota. Several species have also been reported as important human and animal pathogens. During surveys of insect- and wound-associated Ophiostomatales from hardwood trees in Poland, many isolates with affinity to Sporothrix were recovered. In the present study, six undescribed Sporothrix spp. collected during these surveys are characterized based on their morphological characteristics and multi-locus phylogenenetic inference. They are described as Sporothrix cavum, Sporothrix cracoviensis, S. cryptarchum, S. fraxini, S. resoviensis, and S. undulata. Two of the Sporothrix spp. reside in the S. gossypina-complex, while one forms part of the S. stenoceras-complex. One Sporothrix sp. is a member of lineage F, and two other species grouped outside any of the currently defined species complexes. All the newly described species were recovered from hardwood habitats in association with sub-cortical insects, wounds or woodpecker cavities. These species were morphologically similar, with predominantly asexual states having hyaline or lightly pigmented conidia, which produce holoblastically on denticulate conidiogenous cells. Five of the new taxa produce ascomata with necks terminating in long ostiolar hyphae and allantoid ascospores without sheaths. The results suggest that Sporothrix species are common members of the Ophiostomatales in hardwood ecosystems of Poland.

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Soil erosion is generally recognized as the dominant process of land degradation. The formation and expansion of gullies is often a highly significant process of soil erosion. However, our ability to assess and simulate gully erosion and its impacts remains very limited. This is especially so at regional to continental scales. As a result, gullying is often overlooked in policies and land and catchment management strategies. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made over the past decades. Based on a review of >590 scientific articles and policy documents, we provide a state-of-the-art on our ability to monitor, model and manage gully erosion at regional to continental scales. In this review we discuss the relevance and need of assessing gully erosion at regional to continental scales (Section 1); current methods to monitor gully erosion as well as pitfalls and opportunities to apply them at larger scales (section 2); field-based gully erosion research conducted in Europe and European Russia (section 3); model approaches to simulate gully erosion and its contribution to catchment sediment yields at large scales (section 4); data products that can be used for such simulations (section 5); and currently existing policy tools and needs to address the problem of gully erosion (section 6). Section 7 formulates a series of recommendations for further research and policy development, based on this review. While several of these sections have a strong focus on Europe, most of our findings and recommendations are of global significance.

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Bicarbonate was evaluated as an alternative carbon source for a green microalga, Tetradesmus wisconsinensis, isolated from Lake Norsjø in Norway. Photosynthesis, growth, and lipid production were studied using four inorganic carbon regimes: (1) aeration only, (2) 20 mM NaHCO3, (3) 5% (v/v) CO2 gas, and (4) combination of 20 mM NaHCO3 and 5% CO2. Variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis revealed that the bicarbonate treatment supported effective photosynthesis, while the CO2 treatment led to inefficient photosynthetic activity with a PSII maximum quantum yield as low as 0.31. Conversely, bicarbonate and CO2 treatments gave similar biomass and fatty acid production. The maximum growth rate, the final cell dry weight, and total fatty acids under the bicarbonate-only treatment were 0.33 (± 0.06) day−1, 673 (± 124) mg L−1 and 75 (± 5) mg g−1 dry biomass, respectively. The most abundant fatty acid components were α-linolenic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids constituting 69% of the total fatty acids. The fatty acid profile eventuated in unsuitable biodiesel fuel properties such as high degree of unsaturation and low cetane number; however, it would be relevant for food and feed applications. We concluded that bicarbonate could give healthy growth and comparative product yields as CO2.

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Coconut is recognized for its popularity in contributing to food and nutritional security. It generates income and helps to improve rural livelihood. However, these benefits are constrained by lethal yellowing disease (LYD). A clear understanding of climate suitable areas for disease invasion is essential for implementing quarantine measures. Therefore, we used a machine learning algorithm based on maximum entropy to model and map habitat suitability of LYD and coconut under current and future climate change scenarios using three Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) (1.26, 3.70 and 5.85) for three time periods (2041–2060, 2061–2080 and 2081–2100). Outside its current range, the model projected habitat suitability of LYD in Australia, Asia and South America. The distribution of coconut exceeded that of LYD. The area under the curve value of 0.98 was recorded for LYD, whereas 0.87 was obtained for the coconut model. The predictor variables that most influenced LYD projections were minimum temperature of the coldest month (88.4%) and precipitation of the warmest quarter (7.3%), whereas minimum temperature of the coldest month (85.9%) and temperature seasonality (8.7%) contributed most to the coconut model. Our study highlights potential climate suitable areas of LYD and coconut, and provides useful information for increasing quarantine measures and developing resistant or tolerant coconut varieties against the disease. Also, our study establishes an approach to model the climatic suitability for surveillance and monitoring of the disease, especially in areas that the disease has not been reported.

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Transhumance landscapes are sensitive semi-natural environments in upland European areas. Shaped through human activities from the earliest times, they provide habitat for many threatened species and produced a rich cultural heritage. They bear witness to the complex and mutually beneficial interplay between natural resources and human activities. Today, they are threatened by societal, economic and ecological factors. The purpose of this article is to identify the roles and intangible values of transhumance systems through the analysis of three studies, in Norway, France and Spain, and to raise awareness about the benefits of continuous traditional transhumance practices for the preservation of pastoral biodiversity and the mountain landscapes’ character.

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Background Plant genome engineering mediated by various CRISPR-based tools requires specific protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs), such as the well-performed NGG, NG, and NNG, to initiate target recognition, which notably restricts the editable range of the plant genome. Results In this study, we thoroughly investigate the nuclease activity and the PAM preference of two structurally engineered SpCas9 variants, SpG and SpRY, in transgenic rice. Our study shows that SpG nuclease favors NGD PAMs, albeit less efficiently than the previously described SpCas9-NG, and that SpRY nuclease achieves efficient editing across a wide range of genomic loci, exhibiting a preference of NGD as well as NAN PAMs. Furthermore, SpRY-fused cytidine deaminase hAID*Δ and adenosine deaminase TadA8e are generated, respectively. These constructs efficiently induce C-to-T and A-to-G conversions in the target genes toward various non-canonical PAMs, including non-G PAMs. Remarkably, high-frequency self-editing events (indels and DNA fragments deletion) in the integrated T-DNA fragments as a result of the nuclease activity of SpRY are observed, whereas the self-editing of SpRY nickase-mediated base editor is quite low in transgenic rice lines. Conclusions The broad PAM compatibility of SpRY greatly expands the targeting scope of CRISPR-based tools in plant genome engineering.

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To investigate the possible family influence on sea lice grazing of lumpfish on Atlantic salmon, ten families of lumpfish (N = 480) with a mean (± SD) weight of 54.8 ± 9.2 g were distributed among ten sea cages (5 × 5 × 5 m) each stocked with 400 Atlantic salmon with a mean (± SD) weight of 621.4 ± 9.2 g. All the ten cages were stocked with 48 lumpfish (12% stocking density). The stocking of cages was such that each cage consisted of two random families where full- and paternal half-sib families were randomly allocated to the different cages. There were clear differences in sea lice grazing efficacy, growth and cataract prevalence between the ten families assessed in this study. Lumpfish from families 2, 6 and 10 had the lowest mean weights but showed comparable growth rates compared to the other families throughout the study and this may be as a direct result of genetic influence. In addition, fish from these families had a significantly higher incidence of lice grazing of both L. salmonis and C. elongatus compared to the other families. Using mixed linear model to analyse the data revealed significant family and paternal effect on sea lice grazing. There was a trend for a reduction in sea lice grazing with increased size within each family. The results indicated that it was the smallest size classes of lumpfish (40–140 g) which exhibited higher sea lice grazing potential compared to the larger size classes within families. There were no clear differences in the lice grazing potential between male and female lumpfish within and between families. Overall, present findings showed that sea lice grazing of both L. salmonis and C. elongatus can be enhanced using targeted family production and if this behaviour has a genetic basis it may further enhanced through selection and targeted breeding programs.

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The natural light conditions above the Arctic Circle are unique in terms of annual variation creating special growth conditions for crop production. These include low solar elevations, very long daily photosynthetic light periods, midnight sun/absence of dark nights, and altered spectral distribution depending on solar elevation. All these factors are known to affect the growth and the metabolism of plants, although their influence on northern crop plants has not yet been reviewed. The ongoing global warming is especially affecting the temperature × light interactions in the Arctic, and understanding the impact on crop production and plant metabolism will be important for an Arctic contribution to global food production. Arctic light conditions have a strong influence on the timing of plant development, which together with temperature limits the number of cultivars suitable for Arctic agriculture. This review compiles information from the reports about the effects of light conditions at high latitudes on growth, biomass production, flowering and quality of the crop plants and discusses the gained knowledge and the key gaps to be addressed.

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Many greenkeepers and authorities are concerned about the environmental risks resulting from pesticide use on golf courses. We studied leaching and surface runoff of fungicides and metabolites during two winter seasons after fall application of boscalid, pyraclostrobin, prothioconazole, trifloxystrobin and fludioxonil in field lysimeters at NIBIO Landvik, Norway. The applications were made on creeping bentgrass greens (5% slope) that had been established from seed or sod (26 mm mat) on USGA‐spec. root zones amended with Sphagnum peat or garden compost, both with 0.3‐0.4% organic carbon in the root zone. The proportions of the winter precipitation recovered as surface and drainage water varied from 3 and 91% in 2016‐17 to 33 and 55% in 2017‐18 due to differences in soil freezing, rainfall intensity and snow and ice cover. Detections of fungicides and their metabolites in drainage water were mostly within the Environmental Risk Limits (ERLs) for aquatic organisms. In contrast, concentrations in surface runoff exceeded ERLs by up to 1000 times. Greens established from sod usually had higher fungicide losses in surface runoff but lower losses in drainage water than greens established from seed. Presumably because of higher microbial activity and a higher pH that made prothioconazole‐desthio more polar, fungicide and metabolite losses in drainage water were usually higher from greens containing compost that from greens containing peat. Leaching of fungicides and metabolites occurred even from frozen greens. The results are discussed in a practical context aiming for reduced environmental risks from spraying fungicides against turfgrass winter diseases.

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Hepatitis B and C viruses chronically affect approximately 3.5% of the global population, causing more than 800,000 deaths yearly due to severe liver pathogenesis. Current HBV vaccines have significantly contributed to the reduction of chronic HBV infections, supporting the notion that virus eradication is a feasible public health objective in the near future. In contrast to HBV, a prophylactic vaccine against HCV infection is not available yet; however, intense research efforts within the last decade have significantly advanced the field and several vaccine candidates are shortlisted for clinical trials. A successful vaccine against an infectious disease of global importance must not only be efficient and safe, but also easy to produce, distribute, administer, and economically affordable to ensure appropriate coverage. Some of these requirements could be fulfilled by oral vaccines that could complement traditional immunization strategies. In this review, we discuss the potential of edible plant-based oral vaccines in assisting the worldwide fight against hepatitis B and C infections. We highlight the latest research efforts to reveal the potential of oral vaccines, discuss novel antigen designs and delivery strategies, as well as the limitations and controversies of oral administration that remain to be addressed to make this approach successful.

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Growing environmental concerns have prompted governments to make sustainable choices in agricultural resource use. Evaluating the sustainability of agricultural systems is a key issue for the implementation of policies and practices aimed at revealing sustainability. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of Norwegian dairy farms, accounting for marginal effects of environmental (exogenous) variables. We adopted the dynamic parametric approach within the input distance function framework to estimate the performance of Norwegian dairy farms, focusing on the technical efficiency and determinates. For comparison, we also estimated the static parametric model, which was used by previous studies. We used unbalanced farm-level panel data for the period 2000–2018. The result shows a mean technical efficiency score of 0.92 for the dynamic model and 0.87 for the static models. The empirical result shows that the previous studies that focused on the static model reported a biased result on the performance of dairy farms. The dynamic efficiency score suggests that Norwegian dairy farms can reduce the input requirement of producing the average output by 8% if the operation becomes technically efficient. The environmental variables have a different effect on the performance of the farmers; thus, policymakers need to place special focus on these variables for the sustainable development of the dairy sector.

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Purpose The study measures the technology gap and performance of the Norwegian dairy farms accounting for farm heterogeneity. Design/methodology/approach The analysis was based on a meta-frontier and unbalanced farm-level panel data for 1991–2014 from 417 Norwegian farms specialized in dairy production in five regions of Norway. Findings The result of the analysis provides empirical evidence of regional differences in technical efficiencies, technological gap ratios (TGRs) and input use. Consequently, the paper provides some insights into policies to increase the efficiency of dairy production in the country across all regions. Research limitations/implications The author used a meta-frontier approach for modeling regional differences based on a single-output production function specification. This approach has commonly been used in the economics literature since Battese et al. (2004). To get more informative and useful results, it would be necessary to repeat the analysis within terms of multiple input-output frameworks using, for instance, the input distance function approach. Moreover, the author estimated the meta-frontier using the non-parametric approach, thus it is also a need for further analysis if the values are different by estimating using a parametric approach. Practical implications One implication for farmers (and their advisers) is that dairy farms in all regions used available technology in the area sub-optimally. Thus, those lagging the best-performing farms need to look at the way the best-performing farmers are operating. Policymakers might reduce the gap is through training, including sharing information about relevant technologies from one area to another, provided that the technologies being shared fit the working environment of the lagging area. Moreover, some of the dairy technologies they use may not fit other regions, suggesting that agricultural policies that aim to encourage efficient dairy production, such as innovation of improved technology (like breeding, bull selection and improved feed varieties) through research and development, need to account the environmental differences between regions. Social implications For both taxpayers and consumers, one implication is that the contributions they pay that go to subsidize dairy farmers appear to bring some benefits in terms of more efficient milk production that, in turn, increases the supply of some foods so possibly making food prices more affordable. Originality/value The paper contributes to the literature in several ways. In contrast to Battese et al. (2004), the author accounts for farm-level performance differences by applying the model devised by Greene (2005), thus may serve as a model for future studies at more local levels or of other industries. Moreover, the author is fortunate to able to use a large level farm-level panel data from 1991 to 2014.

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In 2018, up to 4 million m3 Norway spruce was killed by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus in Sweden. The event was unique for Sweden, in terms of both affected volume and the fact that it was triggered by severe drought stress, not by ample availability of relatively defenseless storm-felled trees. The outbreak continued in 2019 and 2020, each year with twice as many trees killed as in 2018. The aim of this study was to quantify seasonal variation and potential lag-effects in tree defense capacity the year after a severe drought stress. Inoculation with a bark beetle-associated bluestain fungus, repeated four times with one-month-intervals between May and August 2019, were carried out at three field sites with spruce provenances of Swedish and East European origin representing early and late bud burst, respectively. All sites had experienced moderate to severe drought stress in 2018, and site-specific defense capacity correlated positively with the cumulative precipitation two months before inoculation. Sites with two-month precipitation levels <100 mm had larger necrotic lesions in the phloem following inoculation, an indication of lower tree defense capacity. Lesion size did not differ between provenances, and all trees were able to confine fungal infection successfully. There were some seasonal differences in necrotic lesion size, with the sites Skärsnäs and Norberg having significantly larger lesions in June than in May, and site Lugnet having large lesions also in May. Lesions were generally smaller in July and August than in June. The cross-sectional area and number of traumatic resin ducts was measured in sapwood samples from one site, Lugnet, to quantify an additional aspect of tree defenses. The area of resin ducts produced in May and June were larger than that in July and August. This is in line with a positive correlation between lesion area and resin duct area, indicating that a stronger fungal infection following inoculation in spring triggered a stronger induced defense response. The East European provenances had more resin ducts than Swedish provenances, but the area of resin ducts did not differ significantly between provenances.

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Invasive non-native plants challenge ecosystems restoration, and understanding the factors that determine the establishment of invasive plants is crucial to improve restoration outcomes. However, the drivers of invasibility of plant communities are not sufficiently clear, and combined effects are not understood. Therefore, we investigated the contribution of the main drivers of invasion success during early phases of restoration, i.e., biotic resistance, invasive propagule pressure, and environmental fluctuations. We compared the contribution of these drivers in a series of mesocosms experiments using designed grasslands as a model system, and Solidago gigantea as invasive model species. Two grassland communities were designed according to competitive trait hierarchies with different sowing patterns, reflecting variation in biotic resistance. We then manipulated invader propagule pressure and applied different scenarios of environmental fluctuation, i.e., flood, heat, and N fertilization. Invasive biomass was considered as proxy for invasion success, while native biomass represented restoration success. There were consistent effects of biotic resistance to S. gigantea invasion via competitive trait hierarchies in the three experiments. Communities dominated by species with high-competition traits were more resistant regardless of environmental fluctuation. Clumped seeding of the native community reduced invasibility, whereas high non-native propagule density increased invasion. The effects of environmental fluctuation were less consistent and context-dependent, thus playing a secondary role when compared to biotic drivers of invasion. Restoration initiatives on grasslands impacted by invasive plants should consider biotic resistance of the restored community as a key driver and the importance of controlling further arrivals of invasive species during community assembly.

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Conifer-feeding bark beetles are important herbivores and decomposers in forest ecosystems. These species complete their life cycle in nutritionally poor substrates and some can kill enormous numbers of trees during population outbreaks. The Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) can destroy >100 million m3 of spruce in a single year. We report a 236.8 Mb I. typographus genome assembly using PacBio long-read sequencing. The final phased assembly has a contig N50 of 6.65 Mb in 272 contigs and is predicted to contain 23,923 protein-coding genes. We reveal expanded gene families associated with plant cell wall degradation, including pectinases, aspartyl proteases, and glycosyl hydrolases. This genome sequence from the genus Ips provides timely resources to address questions about the evolutionary biology of the true weevils (Curculionidae), one of the most species-rich animal families. In forests of today, increasingly stressed by global warming, this draft genome may assist in developing pest control strategies to mitigate outbreaks.

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Globisporangium spp. are soil-inhabiting oomycetes distributed worldwide, including in polar regions. Some species of the genus are known as important plant pathogens. This study aimed to clarify the species construction of Globisporangium spp. and their long-term isolation pattern in Sanionia moss in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen Is., Norway. Globisporangium spp. were isolated at two-year intervals between 2006 and 2018 at a Sanionia moss colony, Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen Is., Norway. The isolates were obtained by using three agar media and were identified based on sequences of the rDNA-ITS region and cultural characteristics. Most of the Globisporangium isolates obtained during the survey were identified into six species. All six species were grown at 0 °C on an agar plate and used to infect Sanionia moss at 4 and/or 10 °C under an in vitro inoculation test. The total isolation frequency of Globisporangium gradually decreased throughout the survey period. The isolation frequency varied among the six species, and four of the species that showed a high frequency in 2006 were rarely isolated after 2016. The results suggested that Globisporangium inhabiting Sanionia moss in Ny-Ålesund has a unique composition of species and that most of the species reduced their population over the recent decade.

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Robust projections of changes in the hydrological cycle in a non-stationary climate rely on trustworthy estimates of the water balance elements. Additional drivers than precipitation and temperature, namely wind, radiation, and humidity are known to have a significant influence on processes such as evaporation, snow accumulation, and snow-melt. A gridded version of the rainfall-runoff HBV model is run at a 1 × 1 km scale for mainland Norway for the period 1980–2014, with the following alterations: (i) the implementation of a physically based evaporation scheme; (ii) a net radiation-restricted degree-day factor for snow-melt, and (iii) a diagnostic precipitation phase threshold based on temperature and humidity. The combination of improved forcing data and model alterations allowed for a regional calibration with fewer calibrated parameters. Concurrently, modeled discharge showed equally good or better validation results than previous gridded model versions constructed for the same domain; and discharge trend patterns, snow water equivalent, and potential evaporation compared fairly to observations. Compared with previous studies, lower precipitation and evaporation values for mainland Norway were found. The results suggest that a more robust and more physically based model for climate change studies has been obtained, although additional studies will be needed to further constrain evaporation estimates.

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The use of microalgal starch has been studied in biorefinery frameworks to produce bioethanol or bioplastics, however, these products are currently not economically viable. Using starch-rich biomass as an ingredient in food applications is a novel way to create more value while expanding the product portfolio of the microalgal industry. Optimization of starch production in the food-approved species Chlorella vulgaris was the main objective of this study. High-throughput screening of biomass composition in response to multiple stressors was performed with FTIR spectroscopy. Nitrogen starvation was identified as an important factor for starch accumulation. Moreover, further studies were performed to assess the role of light distribution, investigating the role of photon supply rates in flat panel photobioreactors. Starch-rich biomass with up to 30% starch was achieved in cultures with low inoculation density (0.1 g L−1) and high irradiation (1800 µmol m−2 s−1). A final large-scale experiment was performed in 25 L tubular reactors, achieving a maximum of 44% starch in the biomass after 12 h in nitrogen starved conditions.

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Eradication of alien invasive species in the soil with steam as an alternative to chemical fumigation may allow contaminated soil to be reused. We have investigated steam disinfestation of soil to combat invasive plant species in three experiments including different temperatures and exposure durations using a prototype stationary soil-steaming device. The experiments included effects on seed germination of bigleaf lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.), ornamental jewelweed (Impatiens glandulifera Royle), and wild oat (Avena fatua L.; one population from Poland and one from Norway), as well as effects on sprouting rhizome fragments of Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.) and Bohemian knotweed (Reynoutria x bohemica Chrtek & Chrtková). In Experiment 1, we tested four different soil temperatures of 64, 75, 79, and 98 C with an exposure duration of 90 s. In Experiments 2 and 3, we tested exposure durations of 30, 90, and 180 s and 90, 180, and 540 s, respectively, at 98 C. Seed pretreatment of 14 d cooling for L. polyphyllus and I. glandulifera, no seed pretreatment and 12-h moistening for A. fatua populations, and 5- and 10-cm cutting size for R. x bohemica were applied. Our results showed germination/sprouting was inhibited at 75 C for I. glandulifera (for 90 s) and 98 C for the other species; however, longer exposure duration was needed for L. polyphyllus. While 30 s at 98 C was enough to kill A. fatua seeds and S. canadensis and R. x bohemica rhizome fragments, 180-s exposure duration was needed to kill L. polyphyllus seeds. The results showed promising control levels of invasive plant propagules in contaminated soil by steaming, supporting the steam treatment method as a potential way of disinfecting soil to prevent dispersal of invasive species.

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Sustainability learning is gaining popularity as an important field within sustainability research, where farm sustainability can be understood as a learning process. In this study, we seek to reveal the sustainability learning process of farmers, utilizing a framework distinguishing contextual factors (where? and when?), knowledge (what?), motivation (why?), and process (how?). The article presents a participatory inquiry mixed-methods approach, utilizing results from sustainability assessments on five farms with the SMART-farm tool as a unifying starting point for further discussions on sustainability learning in farmers' interviews and stakeholder workshops. Empirically the study is set in the horticultural production in Arctic Norway, where few studies on sustainability have been undertaken. The study shows how both the complexity of the concept of farm sustainability and contextual factors influence the sustainability learning process, for instance by giving rise to a vast number of conflicting issues while working toward farm sustainability. The sustainability learning process is found to be predominantly a social learning process. The theoretic contribution of the study lies in its novel framework that can be used to reveal important aspects of the sustainability learning process, as well as to contribute to the literature on how to proceed from sustainability assessments to implementation. A key finding from the study is that farmers will require continuous assistance in their processes toward farm sustainability, but for this to be possible, knowledge, sources of knowledge, and learning platforms for holistic sustainability need to be established.

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Loss of Arctic sea ice owing to climate change is predicted to reduce both genetic diversity and gene flow in ice-dependent species, with potentially negative consequences for their long-term viability. Here, we tested for the population-genetic impacts of reduced sea ice cover on the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sampled across two decades (1995–2016) from the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, an area that is affected by rapid sea ice loss in the Arctic Barents Sea. We analysed genetic variation at 22 microsatellite loci for 626 polar bears from four sampling areas within the archipelago. Our results revealed a 3–10% loss of genetic diversity across the study period, accompanied by a near 200% increase in genetic differentiation across regions. These effects may best be explained by a decrease in gene flow caused by habitat fragmentation owing to the loss of sea ice coverage, resulting in increased inbreeding of local polar bears within the focal sampling areas in the Svalbard Archipelago. This study illustrates the importance of genetic monitoring for developing adaptive management strategies for polar bears and other ice-dependent species.

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Maintaining standing genetic variation is a challenge in human-dominated landscapes. We used genetic (i.e., 16 short tandem repeats) and morphological (i.e., length and weight) measurements of 593 contemporary and historical brown trout (Salmo trutta) samples to study fine-scale and short-term impacts of different management practices. These had changed from traditional breeding practices, using the same broodstock for several years, to modern breeding practices, including annual broodstock replacement, in the transnational subarctic Pasvik River. Using population genetic structure analyses (i.e., Bayesian assignment tests, DAPCs, and PCAs), four historical genetic clusters (E2001A-D), likely representing family lineages resulting from different crosses, were found in zone E. These groups were characterized by consistently lower genetic diversity, higher within-group relatedness, lower effective population size, and significantly smaller body size than contemporary stocked (E2001E) and wild fish (E2001F). However, even current breeding practices are insufficient to prevent genetic diversity loss and morphological changes as demonstrated by on average smaller body sizes and recent genetic bottleneck signatures in the modern breeding stock compared to wild fish. Conservation management must evaluate breeding protocols for stocking programs and assess if these can preserve remaining natural genetic diversity and morphology in brown trout for long-term preservation of freshwater fauna.

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Premise Wetland plants regularly experience physiological stresses resulting from inundation; however, plant responses to the interacting effects of water level and inundation duration are not fully understood. Methods We conducted a mesocosm experiment on two wetland species, sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and muhly grass (Muhlenbergia filipes), that co-dominate many freshwater wetlands in the Florida Everglades. We tracked photosynthesis, respiration, and growth at water levels of −10 (control), 10 (shallow), and 35 cm (deep) with reference to soil surface over 6 months. Results The response of photosynthesis to inundation was nonlinear. Specifically, photosynthetic capacity (Amax) declined by 25% in sawgrass and by 70% in muhly grass after 1–2 months of inundation. After 4 months, Amax of muhly grass in the deep-water treatment declined to near zero. Inundated sawgrass maintained similar leaf respiration and growth rates as the control, whereas inundated muhly grass suppressed both respiration and growth. At the end of the experiment, sawgrass had similar nonstructural carbohydrate pools in all treatments. By contrast, muhly grass in the deep-water treatment had largely depleted sugar reserves but maintained a similar starch pool as the control, which is critical for post-stress recovery. Conclusions Overall, the two species exhibited nonlinear and contrasting patterns of carbon uptake and use under inundation stress, which ultimately defines their strategies of surviving regularly flooded habitats. The results suggest that a future scenario with more intensive inundation, due to the water management and climate change, may weaken the dominance of muhly grass in many freshwater wetlands of the Everglades.

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The frequency and severity of outbreaks by pestiferous insects is increasing globally, likely as a result of human-mediated introductions of non-native organisms. However, it is not always apparent whether an outbreak is the result of a recent introduction of an evolutionarily naïve population, or of recent disturbance acting on an existing population that arrived previously during natural range expansion. Here we use approximate Bayesian computation to infer the colonization history of a pestiferous insect, the winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), which has caused widespread defoliation in northern Fennoscandia. We generated genotypes using a suite of 24 microsatellite loci and find that populations of winter moth in northern Europe can be assigned to five genetically distinct clusters that correspond with 1) Iceland, 2) the British Isles, 3) Central Europe and southern Fennoscandia, 4) Eastern Europe, and 5) northern Fennoscandia. We find that the northern Fennoscandia winter moth cluster is most closely related to a population presently found in the British Isles, and that these populations likely diverged around 2,900 years ago. This result suggests that current outbreaks are not the result of a recent introduction, but rather that recent climate or habitat disturbance is acting on existing populations that may have arrived to northern Fennoscandia via pre-Roman traders from the British Isles, and/or by natural dispersal across the North Sea likely using the Orkney Islands of northern Scotland as a stepping-stone before dispersing up the Norwegian coast.

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Large population increases of Arctic-breeding waterfowls over recent decades have intensified the conflict with agricultural interests in both Eurasia and North America. In the spring-staging region Vesterålen in sub-Arctic Norway, sheep, dairy and meat farmers have reported reduced agricultural grassland yields due to pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus and barnacle geese Branta leucopsis that rest and forage in the region for 3–4 weeks in spring on their way to their breeding grounds on Svalbard. Here, we report from an experimental exclosure design where goose access to plots at three grassland fields in Vesterålen was prevented. The experiment was conducted over 3 years between 2012 and 2014. Goose abundance varied greatly between fields and years as a function of variable spring weather and forage quantity, facilitating evaluation of longer-term impacts under contrasting grazing intensities. First and second harvest yields across fields and years were 20% and 19% higher in exclosures than in plots open for grazing, while total yields (sum of first and second harvests) were on average 27% higher. Within-year effects on harvest yields varied substantially, primarily due to highly contrasting sward development during the spring-staging periods. Cool weather (2012) led to slow sward development and little or no effects on harvest yields, warmer weather (2013) resulted in generally large effects, while variable weather (2014) led to treatment effects varying across fields, with one field experiencing 61% higher yields in exclosures while there were no significant impacts on first-harvest yields at the two other fields. Goose grazing did not increase dry weight-based proportions of weeds. Overall, the farmers' reports on yield-loss due to goose grazing were confirmed, although impacts varied substantially between years. A novel finding is that second-harvest yields were also reduced. For the most affected farmers, it is unlikely that the current subsidy scheme is sufficient to cover all the their losses.

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Simple Summary: Many techniques exist to quantify enteric methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. Since measurement on the entire national cow populations is not possible, it is necessary to use estimates for national inventory reporting. This study aimed to develop (1) a basic equation of enteric CH4 emissions from individual animals based on feed intake and nutrient contents of the diet, and (2) to update the operational way of calculation used in the Norwegian National Inventory Report based on milk yield and concentrate share of the diet. An international database containing recently published data was used for this updating process. By this the accuracy of the CH4 production estimates included in the national inventory was improved. Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a basic model to predict enteric methane emission from dairy cows and to update operational calculations for the national inventory in Norway. Development of basic models utilized information that is available only from feeding experiments. Basic models were developed using a database with 63 treatment means from 19 studies and were evaluated against an external database (n = 36, from 10 studies) along with other extant models. In total, the basic model database included 99 treatment means from 29 studies with records for enteric CH4 production (MJ/day), dry matter intake (DMI) and dietary nutrient composition. When evaluated by low root mean square prediction errors and high concordance correlation coefficients, the developed basic models that included DMI, dietary concentrations of fatty acids and neutral detergent fiber performed slightly better in predicting CH4 emissions than extant models. In order to propose country-specific values for the CH4 conversion factor Ym (% of gross energy intake partitioned into CH4 ) and thus to be able to carry out the national inventory for Norway, the existing operational model was updated for the prediction of Ym over a wide range of feeding situations. A simulated operational database containing CH4 production (predicted by the basic model), feed intake and composition, Ym and gross energy intake (GEI), in addition to the predictor variables energy corrected milk yield and dietary concentrate share were used to develop an operational model. Input values of Ym were updated based on the results from the basic models. The predicted Ym ranged from 6.22 to 6.72%. In conclusion, the prediction accuracy of CH4 production from dairy cows was improved with the help of newly published data, which enabled an update of the operational model for calculating the national inventory of CH4 in Norway.

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Aim Many thematic land cover maps, such as maps of vegetation types, are based on field inventories. Studies show inconsistencies among field workers in such maps, explained by inter-observer variation in classification and/or spatial delineation of polygons. In this study, we have tested a new method to assess the accuracy of these two components independently. Location Four study sites dominated by different ecosystems in southeast Norway. Methods We have used a vegetation-based land cover classification system adapted to a map scale of 1:5,000. First, a consensus map, a map that can be considered an approximation of a flawless map, was established. Secondly, the consensus map was adapted to test the accuracy of classification and polygon delineation independently. We used 10 field workers to generate a consensus map, and 14 new field workers (in pairs) to test the accuracy (n = 7). Results The results show that the accuracy of polygon delineation is lower than that of land cover classification. This is in contrast with previous studies, but previous research designs have not enabled a separation of the two accuracy components. Conclusion We recommend strengthening the training and harmonization of field workers in general, and increasing the emphasis on polygon delineation.

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Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we asked whether PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A (PP2A), a regulatory molecular component of stress, growth, and developmental signaling networks in plants, contributes to the plant growth responses induced by the PGPR Azospirillum brasilense (wild type strain Sp245 and auxin deficient strain FAJ0009) and Pseudomonas simiae (WCS417r). The PGPR were co-cultivated with Arabidopsis wild type (WT) and PP2A (related) mutants. These plants had mutations in the PP2A catalytic subunits (C), and the PP2A activity-modulating genes LEUCINE CARBOXYL METHYL TRANSFERASE 1 (LCMT1) and PHOSPHOTYROSYL PHOSPHATASE ACTIVATOR (PTPA). When exposed to the three PGPR, WT and all mutant Arabidopsis revealed the typical phenotype of PGPR-treated plants with shortened primary root and increased lateral root density. Fresh weight of plants generally increased when the seedlings were exposed to the bacteria strains, with the exception of catalytic subunit double mutant c2c5. The positive effect on root and shoot fresh weight was especially pronounced in Arabidopsis mutants with low PP2A activity. Comparison of different mutants indicated a significant role of the PP2A catalytic subunits C2 and C5 for a positive response to PGPR.

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In the last century, local or individual-based forest management was introduced by various forest scientists including Schädelin, Abetz and Pollanschütz as an alternative to traditional global thinning methods. They suggested breaking large forest stands down into smaller neighbourhood-based units. The centre of each of these neighbourhood-based units is a frame tree (also referred to as final crop tree, elite tree or target tree) with clearly defined properties that depend on the management objectives. In each management intervention, trees in the neighbourhood of frame trees that in the next 5–10 years are likely to influence the frame trees negatively are removed selectively. In contrast to global methods, management is only carried out where there are frame trees. Local or individual-based forest management methods were first introduced in a commercial forestry context, but rather constitute generic methods that can be efficiently applied in management for conservation, carbon sequestration and recreation. They are also often applied in the context of continuous cover forestry (CCF). In this study, we analysed the behaviour of test persons selecting frame trees in 26 training sites, so-called marteloscopes, from all over Great Britain. Although the test persons were new to individual-based management, statistical performance indicators suggested that frame trees were selected in accordance with the theory of local or individual-based forest management. Unexpectedly the test persons even achieved a comparatively high degree of agreement. This result contrasts the low agreement and partly unsatisfying performance indicators incurred in the selection of frame-tree competitors, the second step of local forest management. The outcomes of this study highlight that training in individual-based forest management needs to put more emphasis on the identification of frame-tree competitors.

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The aim of this study was to contribute to closing global phosphorus (P) cycles by investigating and explaining the effect of fish sludge (feed residues and faeces of farmed fish) and manure solids as P fertiliser. Phosphorus quality in 14 filtered and/or dried, composted, separated or pyrolysed products based on fish sludge or cattle or swine manure was studied by sequential chemical fractionation and in two two-year growth trials, a pot experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) and a field experiment with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum). In fish sludge, P was mainly solubilised in the HCl fraction (66 ± 10%), commonly being associated with slowly soluble calcium phosphates, and mean relative agronomic efficiency (RAE) of fish sludge products during the first year of the pot experiment was only 47 ± 24%. Low immediate P availability was not compensated for during the second year. Thus efforts are needed to optimise the P effects if fish sludge is to be transformed from a waste into a valuable fertiliser. In manure solids, P was mainly soluble in H2O and 0.5 M NaHCO3 (72 ± 14%), commonly being associated with plant-available P, and mean RAE during the first year of the pot experiment was 77 ± 19%. Biochars based on fish sludge or manure had low concentrations of soluble P and low P fertilisation effects, confirming that treatment processes other than pyrolysis should be chosen for P-rich waste resources to allow efficient P recycling. The field experiment supported the results of the pot experiment, but provided little additional information.

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In regions with intensive agricultural production, large amounts of organic waste are produced by livestock animals. Liquid digestate from manure-based biogas production could potentially serve as fertilizer if integrated with closed horticultural irrigation systems. The aim of this experiment was to investigate how fertilizer based on liquid biogas by-products of pig manure digestion can affect the growth and production of tomato plants. Integration of a nitrification bioreactor presumes a significantly lower concentration of nutrient solutions and a higher level of oxygenation than classical mineral cultivation. Therefore, additional controls were included. We compared plant growth and fruit quality traits of tomato plants grown in a hydroponic solution with organic fertilizer with two levels of mineral fertilizer. The tomatoes grown with organic waste-based liquid fertilizer showed reduced growth rates but increased mean fruit size, resulting in no significant change in total yield compared with high-mineral cultivation. The growth rate was similarly reduced in plants cultivated with low-mineral fertilizer. Plants cultivated with organic waste-based fertilizer had high Cl− concentration in xylem sap, leaves, and, ultimately, fruits. The leaves of plants cultivated with organic waste-based fertilizer contained higher concentrations of starch and soluble carbohydrate and low concentrations of phosphorous (P) and sulfur (S). The plants grown with organic waste-based or low-mineral medium showed significantly poorer fruit quality than the plants cultivated with the high-mineral solution. The low-mineral treatment increased xylem sap contribution to fruit weight because of higher root power. The organic waste-based fertilization did not change the root power but increased fruit size. In conclusion, organic waste-based cultivation is a possible solution for sustainable plant production in greenhouses. However, additional adjustment of nutrient supply is required to improve fruit quality.

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(1) We document the invertebrate fauna collected from 24 oak canopies in east and west Norway as a contribution to the Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre’s ‘The Norwegian Taxonomy Initiative’. (2) A snap-shot inventory of the canopies was recorded by means of emitting a mist of natural pyrethrum into the canopies at night using a petrol-driven fogger and collecting the specimens in butterfly nets spread on the ground under the canopy. (3) Almost the entire catch of more than 6800 specimens was identified to 722 species. Out of 92 species new to the Norwegian fauna, 21 were new to science and, additionally, 15 were new to the Nordic fauna. Diptera alone constituted nearly half of the species represented, with 61 new records (18 new species). Additionally, 24 Hymenoptera (one new species), six oribatid mites (two new species) and one Thysanoptera were new to the Norwegian fauna. (4) Our study emphasizes the importance of the oak tree as a habitat both for a specific fauna and occasional visitors, and it demonstrates that the canopy fogging technique is an efficient way to find the ‘hidden fauna’ of Norwegian forests. The low number of red listed species found reflects how poor the Norwegian insect fauna is still studied. Moreover, the implication of the IUCN red list criteria for newly described or newly observed species is discussed.

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Berries represent one of the most important and high-valued group of modern-day health-beneficial “superfoods” whose dietary consumption has been recognized to be beneficial for human health for a long time. In addition to being delicious, berries are rich in nutrients, vitamins, and several bioactive compounds, including carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and hydrolysable tannins. However, due to their high value, berries and berry-based products are often subject to fraudulent adulteration, commonly for economical gain, but also unintentionally due to misidentification of species. Deliberate adulteration often comprises the substitution of high-value berries with lower value counterparts and mislabeling of product contents. As adulteration is deceptive toward customers and presents a risk for public health, food authentication through different methods is applied as a countermeasure. Although many authentication methods have been developed in terms of fast, sensitive, reliable, and low-cost analysis and have been applied in the authentication of a myriad of food products and species, their application on berries and berry-based products is still limited. The present review provides an overview of the development and application of analytical chemistry methods, such as isotope ratio analysis, liquid and gas chromatography, spectroscopy, as well as DNA-based methods and electronic sensors, for the authentication of berries and berry-based food products. We provide an overview of the earlier use and recent advances of these methods, as well as discuss the advances and drawbacks related to their application.

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Simple Summary: Horses with free faecal liquid defecate in one solid and one liquid phase, and the liquid phase can be a concern for the horse owner and veterinarians. The causes of free faecal liquid are unknown, but previous studies have indicated that feed ration composition may play an important role in the occurrence of the condition. A study comparing feed rations, feeding practices and management factors for horses with and without free faecal liquid was performed. Horses without free faecal liquid were reported to have a lower daily intake of starch and sugar and a higher daily intake of protein and fibre compared to horses with free faecal liquid. Horses with and without free faecal liquid were fed similar amounts of wrapped forages and were subject to the same management practices. The reported differences may be of importance for the condition, but further studies are required to establish if its occurrence is due to specific feeding regimens. Abstract: Free faecal liquid (FFL) in horses is characterised by the excretion of faeces in two phases (one solid and one liquid), which may cause dermatitis on the hindlegs. The causes of FFL are not known. Results from previous studies have indicated that feed ration composition and management factors may play important roles in the occurrence of FFL. A case–control study was therefore performed in which data on feed rations, feeding practices and management factors were compared between horses with (case) and without (control) FFL on 50 private farms in Sweden and Norway. The comparisons show that case and control horses were reported to be fed similar average amounts of wrapped forage (p = 0.97) and to be subject to similar management practices, but case horses were fed higher proportions of concentrates in their diet (p < 0.001) and lower average amounts of straw and lucerne (p < 0.05) compared to control horses. Case horses were reported to be fed twice as much concentrate per 100 kg BW and day as control horses and a higher daily intake of starch and water-soluble carbohydrates (p < 0.05). Case horses also had a lower daily intake of digestible crude protein and neutral detergent fibre compared to control horses (p < 0.05). These differences were small but are of interest for further studies of factors causing FFL.

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The environmental control of dormancy and its relation to flowering and runner formation is poorly understood in everbearing (EB) strawberry cultivars. We studied the topic by growing plants of the seed-propagated F1-hybrid ‘Delizzimo’ and the runner-propagated ‘Favori’ cultivar in daylight phytotron compartments under short day (SD) and long day (LD) conditions at temperatures of 6, 16 or 26 °C for 5 and 10 weeks. This was followed by forcing at 20 °C and 20-h photoperiod for 10 weeks with and without preceding chilling at 2 °C for 6 weeks. The results showed that dormancy in EB strawberry is regulated by a complex interaction of temperature, photoperiod and chilling in much the same way as known for seasonal flowering (SF) cultivars. Surprisingly, the EB cultivars exhibited the same SD dormancy induction response as SF cultivars, despite their opposite photoperiodic flowering requirements. However, at 26 °C the EB cultivars developed partial dormancy also under LD conditions. As known for SF cultivars, none of the EB cultivars became dormant at 6 °C regardless of daylength conditions, whereas they were increasingly sensitive to SD dormancy induction at intermediate and high temperatures. Similar to SF cultivars, the EB cultivars needed exposure to SD and relatively high temperatures for at least 10 weeks for attainment of the semi-dormant state that is typical for strawberry in general. As reported for SF cultivars, there was a close interrelation between the control of flowering, runner formation and dormancy also in the EB cultivars. ‘Favori’ had an obligatory LD requirement for flowering at 26 °C and was almost day neutral at 16 °C, while ‘Delizzimo’ behaved as a quantitative LD plant at both temperatures, and both cultivars were completely day neutral at 6 °C. Except for the stricter LD control of flowering in ‘Favori’, the overall environmental responses were quite similar in the two genetically distant cultivars. Chilling for six weeks at 2 °C was adequate for complete reversal of the constrained elongation of leaf petioles and flower trusses in dormant plants, but had little or no effect on the degree of flowering and runner formation.

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There is a need for mapping of forest areas with young stands under regeneration in Norway, as a basis for conducting tending, or precommercial thinning (PCT), whenever necessary. The main objective of this article is to show the potential of multitemporal Sentinel-1 (S-1) and Sentinel-2 (S-2) data for characterization and detection of forest stands under regeneration. We identify the most powerful radar and optical features for discrimination of forest stands under regeneration versus other forest stands. A number of optical and radar features derived from multitemporal S-1 and S-2 data were used for the class separability and cross-correlation analysis. The analysis was performed on forest resource maps consisting of the forest development classes and age in two study sites from south-eastern Norway. Important features were used to train the classical random forest (RF) classification algorithm. A comparative study of performance of the algorithm was used in three cases: I) using only S-1 features, II) using only S-2 optical bands, and III) using combination of S-1 and S-2 features. RF classification results pointed to increased class discrimination when using S-1 and S-2 data in relation to S-1 or S-2 data only. The study shows that forest stands under regeneration in the height interval for PCT can be detected with a detection rate of 91% and F-1 score of 73.2% in case III as most accurate, while tree density and broadleaf fraction could be estimated with coefficient of determination ( R2 ) of about 0.70 and 0.80, respectively.

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The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum is known to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites during plant infection. This includes several nonribosomal peptides. Recently, the fusaoctaxin (NRPS5/9) and gramilin (NRPS8) gene clusters were shown to be induced by host interactions. To widen our understanding of this important pathogen, we investigated the involvement of the NRPS4 gene cluster during infection and oxidative and osmotic stress. Overexpression of NRPS4 led to the discovery of a new cyclic hexapeptide, fusahexin (1), with the amino acid sequence cyclo-(d-Ala-l-Leu-d-allo-Thr-l-Pro-d-Leu-l-Leu). The structural analyses revealed an unusual ether bond between a proline Cδ to Cβ of the preceding threonine resulting in an oxazine ring system. The comparative genomic analyses showed that the small gene cluster only encodes an ABC transporter in addition to the five-module nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). Based on the structure of fusahexin and the domain architecture of NRPS4, we propose a biosynthetic model in which the terminal module is used to incorporate two leucine units. So far, iterative use of NRPS modules has primarily been described for siderophore synthetases, which makes NRPS4 a rare example of a fungal nonsiderophore NRPS with distinct iterative module usage.

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Promoting the consumption of fruits is a key objective of nutrition policy campaigns due to their associated health benefits. Raspberries are well appreciated for their remarkable flavor and nutritional value attributable to their antioxidant properties. Consequently, one of the objectives of present-day raspberry breeding programs is to improve the fruit’s sensory and nutritive characteristics. However, developing new genotypes with enhanced quality traits is a complex task due to the intricate impacts genetic and environmental factors have on these attributes, and the difficulty to phenotype them. We used a multi-platform metabolomic approach to compare flavor- and nutritional-related metabolite profiles of four raspberry cultivars (‘Glen Ample’, ‘Schönemann’, ‘Tulameen’ and ‘Veten’) grown in different European climates. Although the cultivars appear to be better adapted to high latitudes, for their content in soluble solids and acidity, multivariate statistical analyses allowed us to underscore important genotypic differences based on the profiles of important metabolites. ‘Schönemann’ and ‘Veten’ were characterized by high levels of anthocyanins and ellagitannins, respectively, ‘Tulameen’ by its acidity, and ‘Glen Ample’ for its content of sucrose and β-ionone, two main flavor contributors. Our results confirmed the value of metabolomic-driven approaches, which may foster the development of cultivars with enhanced health properties and flavor.

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This study explores cell wall changes in Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) after modification with acetylation or furfurylation and subsequent prolonged subjection to the brown rot fungus R. placenta with the aim of better understanding the modus operandi of these two modifications. Both modifications have shown good durability in field tests, but in order to learn from their possible limitations, we used optimal environmental conditions for fungal growth, and extended the testing period compared to standard tests. Hyphae were found in acetylated wood after two weeks, and after 28 weeks of decay abundant amounts of encapsulated hyphae were present. In furfurylated wood, mass loss and a few hyphae were seen initially, but no further development was seen during weeks 18–42. The general degradation pattern was qualitatively the same for unmodified, acetylated and furfurylated wood: carbohydrates decreased relative to lignin. Acetyl groups were lost from acetylated wood during decay (earlier results), while the furan polymer did not seem to be altered by the fungus. Based on these findings it is hypothesized that modifications such as furfurylation that enhance moisture exclusion within the cell wall through impregnation polymerization offer better long term protection compared to modifications such as acetylation that depend on the replacement of hydroxyl groups with ether bound adducts that can be removed by fungi.

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The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) fine tunes the growth–defense dilemma by inhibiting plant growth and stimulating the accumulation of secondary compounds. We investigated the interactions between JA and phytochrome B signaling on growth and the accumulation of selected secondary metabolites in Hypericum perforatum L., a medically important plant, by spraying plants with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and by adding far-red (FR) lighting. MeJA inhibited plant growth, decreased fructose concentration, and enhanced the accumulation of most secondary metabolites. FR enhanced plant growth and starch accumulation and did not decrease the accumulation of most secondary metabolites. MeJA and FR acted mostly independently with no observable interactions on plant growth or secondary metabolite levels. The accumulation of different compounds (e.g., hypericin, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acid) in shoots, roots, and root exudates showed different responses to the two treatments. These findings indicate that the relationship between growth and secondary compound accumulation is specific and depends on the classes of compounds and/or their organ location. The combined application of MeJA and FR enhanced the accumulation of most secondary compounds without compromising plant growth. Thus, the negative correlations between biomass and the content of secondary compounds predicted by the growth-defense dilemma were overcome.

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Mixed-species stands have been found to be more productive than would be expected from the performance of their component species in monocultures due to facilitation and complementarity between species, although these interactions depend on the combination of species present. Our study focuses on monospecific and mixed-species stands of Scots pine and Norway spruce using 20 triplets established in nine countries along a climatic gradient across Europe. Differences in mean tree and stand characteristics, productivity and stand structure were assessed. Basal area increment in mixed stands was 8% higher than expected while volume increment was only 2% greater. Scots pine trees growing in mixed-species stands showed 11% larger quadratic mean diameter, 7% larger dominant diameter, 17% higher basal area and 25% higher stand volume than trees growing in monospecific stands. Norway spruce showed only a non-significant tendency to lower mean values of diameters, heights, basal area, as well standing volume in mixtures than monocultures. Stand structure indices differed between mixed stands and monocultures of Scots pine showing a greater stratification in mixed-species stands. Furthermore, the studied morphological traits showed little variability for trees growing in monospecific stands, except for diameter at breast height, crown length and crown length ratio. For trees growing in mixed stands, all the morphological traits of the trees were identified as different. Some of these morphological traits were associated with relative productivity. Nevertheless, relative productivity in mixed-species stands was not related to site conditions.

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Mixed forests are suggested as a strategic adaptation of forest management to climate change. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) are tree species of high economic and ecological value for European forestry. Both species coexist naturally in a large part of their distributions but there is a lack of knowledge on the ecological functioning of mixtures of these species and how to manage such stands. This paper analyses these species' intra-and inter-specific competition, including size-symmetric vs. size-asymmetric competition, and explore the effect of weather conditions on tree growth and competition. We studied basal area growth at tree level for Scots pine and Norway spruce in mixed versus pure stands in 22 triplets of fully-stocked plots along a broad range of ecological conditions across Europe. Stand inventory and increment cores provided insights into how species mixing modifies tree growth compared with neighbouring pure stands. Five different competition indices, weather variables and their interactions were included and checked in basal area growth models using a linear mixed model approach. Interspecific size-asymmetric competition strongly influenced growth for both tree species, and was modulated by weather conditions. However, species height stratification in mixed stands resulted in a greater tree basal area growth of Scots pine (10.5 cm 2 year − 1) than in pure stands (9.3 cm 2 year − 1), as this species occupies the upper canopy layer. Scots pine growth depended on temperature and drought, whereas Norway spruce growth was influenced only by drought. Interspecific site-asymmetric competition increased in cold winters for Scots pine, and decreased after a drought year for Nor-way spruce. Although mixtures of these species may reduce tree size for Norway spruce, our results suggest that this could be offset by faster growth in Scots pine. How inter-specific competition and weather conditions alter tree growth may have strong implications for the management of Scots pine-Norway spruce mixtures along the rotation period into the ongoing climate change scenario.

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Although artificial-selection experiments seem well suited to testing our ability to predict evolution, the correspondence between predicted and observed responses is often ambiguous due to the lack of uncertainty estimates. We present equations for assessing prediction error in direct and indirect responses to selection that integrate uncertainty in genetic parameters used for prediction and sampling effects during selection. Using these, we analyzed a selection experiment on floral traits replicated in two taxa of the Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) species complex for which G-matrices were obtained from a diallel breeding design. After four episodes of bidirectional selection, direct and indirect responses remained within wide prediction intervals, but appeared different from the predictions. Combined analyses with structural-equation models confirmed that responses were asymmetrical and lower than predicted in both species. We show that genetic drift is likely to be a dominant source of uncertainty in typically-dimensioned selection experiments in plants and a major obstacle to predicting short-term evolutionary trajectories.

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Integrated pest management (IPM) was introduced in the 1960s as a response to increasing pesticide use and has since evolved from being understood mainly as an economic issue to also including environmental and human health considerations. The EU has made IPM mandatory for all farmers through the Sustainable Use of Pesticides Directive (SUD). Using a mixed-methods approach, this paper examines how Norwegian cereal farmers have responded to this requirement. The qualitative results show that most farmers have an understanding of IPM that goes beyond economic considerations only. The quantitative results display that farmers’ intrinsic motivation for IPM changed after introduction of the SUD. There is increased emphasis on using methods other than spraying, producing grain without traces of pesticides, and preventing pesticide resistance. Farmers’ self-reported knowledge of IPM increased, and 41% of farmers stated that they use IPM to a greater extent than before the SUD was introduced. These results demonstrate that mandatory IPM requirements have been a successful strategy for increasing farmers use of IPM in Norway. Clearer IPM provisions and increased intrinsic motivation for IPM among farmers will, however, be important to reduce the risks from pesticides further.

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Simple Summary Sugarcane, an important cash crop in Malawi, is susceptible to numerous insect pests, and many farmers rely heavily on chemical insecticides for their control. Biopesticides containing insect pathogens are used in several countries outside Malawi; however, the occurrence and use of insect pathogens is limited in Malawi. In this study, we evaluated the natural occurrence of insect pathogenic fungi in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and in soil samples from sugarcane fields in Chikwawa District, southern Malawi. Insect pathogenic fungi from soil were isolated by baiting using larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella). Insect pathogenic fungi were also isolated from surface-sterilized sugarcane leaves, stems, and roots. We found three types of insect pathogenic fungi: Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium spp., and Isaria spp. Beauveria bassiana and Isaria spp. were found mostly from sugarcane leaves and stems, while Metarhizium spp. was mainly found in soils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of B. bassiana and Isaria spp. occurring naturally as endophytes in sugarcane. Further, it is the first report of B. bassiana, Isaria spp. and Metarhizium spp. in the soil of sugarcane fields in Africa. Abstract The natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungal endophytes in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and in soil samples from sugarcane fields was evaluated in Chikwawa District, southern Malawi. Fungi from soil were isolated by baiting using Galleria mellonella larva. Fungal endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilized plant tissue sections. Forty-seven isolates resembled the genus Beauveria, 9 isolates were Metarhizium, and 20 isolates were Isaria. There was no significant difference in the number and type of fungal isolates collected from soil and from plant tissue. There was, however, a significant difference in the part of the plant where fungal species were isolated, which fungal species were isolated, and the number of fungal species isolated at each location. Phylogenetic analysis of 47 Beauveria isolates based on DNA sequencing of the Bloc intergenic region indicated that these isolates all belonged to B. bassiana and aligned with sequences of B. bassiana isolates of African and Neotropical origin. The Malawian B. bassiana isolates formed a distinct clade. No larvae died from infestation by multiple fungi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of B. bassiana and Isaria spp. occurring naturally as endophytes in sugarcane. Further, it is the first report of B. bassiana, Isaria spp., and Metarhizium spp. in the soil of sugarcane fields in Africa.

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With large area of primary tropical rainforest converted into rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation in Southeast Asia, it is necessary to examine the change in soil CO2 and CH4 emissions, and their underlying drivers in tropical rainforest (TRF) and rubber plantation. In TRF and RP in Xishuangbanna Southwest China, we measured the soil CO2 , CH4 , temperature, and water content once each week from 2003 to 2008, and twice weeks in 2013 and 2014. Additionally, the concentrations of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fractions from 2013 to 2014 were observed. Inputs of litter and live, dead, decomposed fine roots dynamics were also included. TRF transplanted to RP did not change significantly the annual soil CO2 emissions (TRF, 359 ± 91 and RP 352 ± 41 mg CO2 m−2 h−1) but decreased soil CH4 uptake significantly (TRF, −0.11 ± 0.18 mg CH4 m−2 h−1) RP, −0.020 ± 0.087 mg CH4 m−2 h−1). The most important influence on soil CO2 and CH4 emissions in the RP was the leaf area index and soil water content, respectively, whereas the soil water content, soil temperature, and dead fine roots were the most important factors in the TRF. Variations in the soil CO2 and CH4 caused by land-use transition were individually explained by soil temperature and fine root growth and decomposition, respectively. The results show that land-use change varied the soil CH4 and CO2 emission dynamics and drivers by the variation of soil environmental and plant's factors.

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Horticultural production systems are under pressure to find environmentally friendly growing media. Peat is currently the most popular substrate for fresh potted herbs production; however, this raw material is not sustainable due to the large amount of greenhouse gases released during its harvesting. Therefore, the goal of the study was to test the performance of various commercial wood fiber products and compare them with peat and coir in an ebb-and-flow production system with basil (Ocimum basilicum L. 'Marian'). Basil plants were grown in three different pot sizes (6, 9 and 12 cm in diameter) and under various fertigation regimes (EC 1, 2 and 3). Height and biomass of the plants were recorded when the best performing plants reached the commercial stage. The tallest plants and greatest biomass were produced in peat and coir, however, the results confirm that wood fiber can be a promising substrate alternative. Further research is needed to study, among others topics, how to modify some properties of wood fibers to fulfil their potential as a replacement for non-sustainable growing media in production of herbs in pots.

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In this study, the nutrient dynamic and growth performance of lettuce in a closed recirculating hydroponic system were investigated. Lettuce was grown in three parallel nutrient film technique (NFT) units, illuminated with LED-light. A balanced standard nutrient solution (NS) was used, and the electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were adjusted regularly to constant average values of 1.16 mS cm‑1 and 6.2 with standard deviations of ±0.12 and ±0.5, respectively. The volume of NS in each unit was kept at 20 L by adding refill solution to replace nutrient uptake and transpiration. Lettuce growth during the first six weeks in the NFT-system was normal and stable. After six weeks, a decrease in concentrations of N, P, and K was observed, with a corresponding decline in yield of lettuce. After ten weeks, lettuce weight at harvest was reduced by 56% in average compared to the control, and the concentrations of N, P and K in the NS were reduced by 54.5, 90.5 and 96.6%, respectively. Contrarily, more slowly absorbed nutrients like Ca, S, Zn, Cu, and B experienced increases by factors of 2.2, 2.9, 6.6, 4.9 and 2.5, respectively. The depletion and accumulation of nutrients in the NS were reflected in corresponding deficiency and excess levels of nutrients in leaf tissue compared to norm-values of healthy lettuce. The study showed that after six weeks, corresponding to a yield of 1 kg lettuce per 10 L tank volume of NS, the reduced growth implied that the recirculated NS should have been discharged and replaced, or a “tailor-made” refill solution should have been used to avoid depletion of some nutrients. Based on the foliar analysis and calculations of actual nutrient absorption rates, the composition of such a refill NS was suggested.

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Increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change are considered the main factors accelerating the long-term growth of forests. Quantification of changes in growth rate can be extremely useful in monitoring and assessing the impact of climate change on site productivity. In this study, we carried out a country-wide analysis of long-term (100 years) dynamics and changes in the height growth rate and site index (SI) of Scots pine in Poland. To ensure representativeness we used a large sample of stem analysis trees collected on 312 plots selected using stratified sampling. To control the effect of site fertility and thus avoid the over-representation of older stands on infertile sites, we measured a range of soil properties that, together with environmental indicators characterising climatic conditions and topography, were used in growth trend modelling as explanatory variables. We found that trees planted in successive years have grown faster. The SI calculated for individual trees is linearly dependent on the year of germination and with increasing age of germination, the SI at the base age of 100 years has increased by 8.4 cm per year. Despite the differences in the growth dynamics of pines planted in different germination years, tree growth follows the same growth pattern. The observed continuous changes in site productivity correspond to an increase in the SI by over 29% between 1900 and 2000. A consequence of continuous changes in site conditions and height growth rate is ambiguity in derived SI values. Under changing site conditions, SI values calculated based on stand height and age depend not only on site productivity but also the year of germination. As a consequence, stands growing under identical site conditions show different SIs, which should be acknowledged if the SI is to be used in forest management. Therefore, determining the SI of newly established stands based on the SI of older generations requires the application of an amendment to account for stand age. Continuously improving our understanding of potential climate change impacts on forest ecosystems is essential and provide information to support forest managers seeking to develop effective adaptation measures and determine sustainable forestry production. As such, our results provide valuable support when making long-term decisions and developing effective adaptation strategies in forest management.

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The effect of agricultural practices on water quality of Old Woman Creek (OWC) watershed was evaluated in a hydrological model using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) climate data and 20 different global circulation models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). A hydrological model was set up in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), while calibration was done using a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm and Pareto Optimization with PRISM climate data. Validation was done using the measured data from the USGS gage station at Berlin Road in the OWC watershed and water quality data were obtained from the water quality lab, Heidelberg University. Land use scenario simulations were conducted by varying percentages of agricultural land from 20% to 40%, 53.5%, 65%, and 80% while adjusting the forest area. A total of 105 simulations was run for the period 2015–2017: one with PRISM data and 20 with CMIP5 model data for each of the five land use classes scenarios. Ten variables were analyzed, including flow, sediment, organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, mineral phosphorus, chlorophyll a, CBOD, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. For all the variables of interest, the average of the 20 CMIP5 simulation results show good correlation with the PRISM results with an underestimation relative to the PRISM result. The underestimation was insignificant in organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, total nitrogen, chlorophyll a, CBOD, and total phosphorus, but was significant in CMIP5 flow, sediment, mineral phosphorus, and dissolved oxygen. A weak negative correlation was observed between agricultural land percentages and flow, and between agricultural land percentages and sediment, while a strong positive correlation was observed between agricultural land use and the water quality variables. A large increase in farmland will produce a small decrease in flow and sediment transport with a large increase in nutrient transport, which would degrade the water quality of the OWC estuary with economic implications.

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The biosynthesis of anthocyanins has been shown to be influenced by light quality. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the light-mediated regulation of fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis are not well understood. In this study, we analysed the effects of supplemental red and blue light on the anthocyanin biosynthesis in non-climacteric bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). After 6 days of continuous irradiation during ripening, both red and blue light elevated concentration of anthocyanins, up to 12- and 4-folds, respectively, compared to the control. Transcriptomic analysis of ripening berries showed that both light treatments up-regulated all the major anthocyanin structural genes, the key regulatory MYB transcription factors and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic genes. However, higher induction of specific genes of anthocyanin and delphinidin biosynthesis alongside ABA signal perception and metabolism were found in red light. The difference in red and blue light signalling was found in 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), ABA receptor pyrabactin resistance-like (PYL) and catabolic ABA-8'hydroxylase gene expression. Red light also up-regulated expression of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) domain transporters, which may indicate involvement of these proteins in vesicular trafficking of anthocyanins during fruit ripening. Our results suggest differential signal transduction and transport mechanisms between red and blue light in ABA-regulated anthocyanin and delphinidin biosynthesis during bilberry fruit ripening.

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It is not known to what degree growth and fruit yield are source-limited in everbearing strawberry plants. The growth and yield performance effect of bi-weekly removal of all runners and/or one or two leaves during the cropping season of tunnel-grown ‘Favori’ everbearing strawberry plants was determined. Plants were grown on a table-top system in an open plastic tunnel under natural light conditions in Norway from May to October. Removal of runners and leaves was bi-weekly from 5 June until 25 September. Fruits were harvested from 5 July to 7 October. Bi-weekly runner removal increased total and marketable yield and number and size of fruits, while increasing leaf thinning had the opposite effects. However, none of the treatments affected the fruit number and yield of the first fruiting flush. The treatments did not affect realization of the yield potential of the plants at planting, whereas the continued floral initiation and fruit growth were enhanced by runner removal. Increasing leaf thinning had the opposite effects. Both floral initiation and fruit growth in heavily flowering and fruiting everbearing strawberry are source-limited owing to the high fruit/leaf ratio of such plants.

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In the Arctic part of the Nordic region, cultivated crops need to specifically adapt to adverse and extreme climate conditions, such as low temperatures, long days, and a short growing season. Under the projected climate change scenarios, higher temperatures and an earlier spring thaw will gradually allow the cultivation of plants that could not be previously cultivated there. For millennia, Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been a major cultivated protein plant in Nordic countries but is currently limited to the southern parts of the region. However, response and adaptation to the Arctic day length/light spectrum and temperatures are essential for the productivity of the pea germplasm and need to be better understood. This study investigated these factors and identified suitable pea genetic resources for future cultivation and breeding in the Arctic region. Fifty gene bank accessions of peas with a Nordic landrace or cultivar origin were evaluated in 2-year field trials at four Nordic locations in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway (55° to 69° N). The contrasting environmental conditions of the trial sites revealed differences in expression of phenological, morphological, crop productivity, and quality traits in the accessions. The data showed that light conditions related to a very long photoperiod partly compensated for the lack of accumulated temperature in the far north. A critical factor for cultivation in the Arctic is the use of cultivars with rapid flowering and maturation times combined with early sowing. At the most extreme site (69°N), no accession reached full maturation. Nonetheless several accessions, predominantly landraces of a northern origin, reached a green harvest state. All the cultivars reached full maturation at the sub-Arctic latitude in northern Sweden (63°N) when plants were established early in the season. Seed yield correlated positively with seed number and aboveground biomass, but negatively with flowering time. A high yield potential and protein concentration of dry seed were found in many garden types of pea, confirming their breeding potential for yield. Overall, the results indicated that pea genetic resources are available for breeding or immediate cultivation, thus aiding in the northward expansion of pea cultivation. Predicted climate changes would support this expansion.

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Given the increasing attention on the occurrence of microplastics in the environment, and the potential envi-ronmental threats they pose, there is a need for researchers to move quickly from basic understanding to applied science that supports decision makers in finding feasible mitigation measures and solutions. At the same time, they must provide sufficient, accurate and clear information to the media, public and other relevant groups (e.g., NGOs). Key requirements include systematic and coordinated research efforts to enable evidence-based decision making and to develop efficient policy measures on all scales (national, regional and global). To achieve this, collaboration between key actors is essential and should include researchers from multiple disciplines, policy-makers, authorities, civil and industry organizations, and the public. This further requires clear and informative communication processes, and open and continuous dialogues between all actors. Cross-discipline dialogues between researchers should focus on scientific quality and harmonization, defining and accurately communi-cating the state of knowledge, and prioritization of topics that are critical for both research and policy, with the common goal to establish and update action plans for holistic benefit. In Norway, cross-sectoral collaboration has been fundamental in supporting the national strategy to address plastic pollution. Researchers, stakeholders and the environmental authorities have come together to exchange knowledge, identify knowledge gaps, and set targeted and feasible measures to tackle one of the most challenging aspects of plastic pollution: microplastic. In this article, we present a Norwegian perspective on the state of knowledge on microplastic research efforts. Norway’s involvement in international efforts to combat plastic pollution aims at serving as an example of how key actors can collaborate synergistically to share knowledge, address shortcomings, and outline ways forward to address environmental challenges.

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To evaluate the performance of new wood-based products, reference wood species with known performances are included in laboratory and field trials. However, different wood species vary in their durability performance, and there will also be a within-species variation. The primary aim of this paper was to compare the material resistance against decay fungi and moisture performance of three European reference wood species, i.e., Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Wood material was collected from 43 locations all over Europe and exposed to brown rot (Rhodonia placenta), white rot (Trametes versicolor) or soft rot fungi. In addition, five different moisture performance characteristics were analyzed. The main results were the two factors accounting for the wetting ability (kwa) and the inherent protective properties of wood (kinh), factors for conversion between Norway spruce vs. Scots pine sapwood or European beech for the three decay types and four moisture tests, and material resistance dose (DRd) per wood species. The data illustrate that the differences between the three European reference wood species were minor, both with regard to decay and moisture performance. The results also highlight the importance of defined boundaries for density and annual ring width when comparing materials within and between experiments. It was concluded that with the factors obtained, existing, and future test data, where only one or two of the mentioned reference species were used, can be transferred to models and prediction tools that use another of the reference species

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Service life planning with timber requires reliable models for quantifying the effects of exposure-related parameters and the material-inherent resistance of wood against biotic agents. The Meyer-Veltrup model was the first attempt to account for inherent protective properties and the wetting ability of wood to quantify resistance of wood in a quantitative manner. Based on test data on brown, white, and soft rot as well as moisture dynamics, the decay rates of different untreated wood species were predicted relative to the reference species of Norway spruce (Picea abies). The present study aimed to validate and optimize the resistance model for a wider range of wood species including very durable species, thermally and chemically modified wood, and preservative treated wood. The general model structure was shown to also be suitable for highly durable materials, but previously defined maximum thresholds had to be adjusted (i.e., maximum values of factors accounting for wetting ability and inherent protective properties) to 18 instead of 5 compared to Norway spruce. As expected, both the enlarged span in durability and the use of numerous and partly very divergent data sources (i.e., test methods, test locations, and types of data presentation) led to a decrease in the predictive power of the model compared to the original. In addition to the need to enlarge the database quantity and improve its quality, in particular for treated wood, it might be advantageous to use separate models for untreated and treated wood as long as the effect of additional impact variables (e.g., treatment quality) can be accounted for. Nevertheless, the adapted Meyer-Veltrup model will serve as an instrument to quantify material resistance for a wide range of wood-based materials as an input for comprehensive service life prediction software.

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Durability-based designs with timber require reliable information about the wood properties and how they affect its performance under variable exposure conditions. This study aimed at utilizing a material resistance model (Part 2 of this publication) based on a dose–response approach for predicting the relative decay rates in above-ground situations. Laboratory and field test data were, for the first time, surveyed globally and used to determine material-specific resistance dose values, which were correlated to decay rates. In addition, laboratory indicators were used to adapt the material resistance model to in-ground exposure. The relationship between decay rates in- and above-ground, the predictive power of laboratory indicators to predict such decay rates, and a method for implementing both in a service life prediction tool, were established based on 195 hardwoods, 29 softwoods, 19 modified timbers, and 41 preservative-treated timbers.

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We compiled data from several independent, long-term silvicultural studies on USDA Forest Service experimental forests across a latitudinal gradient in the northeastern and north-central U.S.A. to evaluate factors influencing aboveground live-tree carbon sequestration and mortality. Data represent five sites with more than 70,000 repeated tree records spanning eight decades, five ecoregions, and a range of stand conditions. We used these data to test the relative influence of factors such as climate, treatment history (uneven-aged or no management), species composition, and stand structural conditions on aboveground live-tree carbon sequestration and mortality in repeatedly measured trees. Relative to no management, we found that uneven-aged management tended to have a positive effect on carbon sequestration at low stocking levels and in areas of favorable climate (expressed as a combination of growing season precipitation and annual growing degree days > 5 ◦C). In addition, losses of carbon from the aboveground live-tree pool due to tree mortality were lower in managed than unmanaged stands. These findings suggest that there may be conditions at which rate of sequestration in living trees is higher in stands managed with uneven-aged silviculture than in unmanaged stands, and that this benefit is greatest where climate is favorable.

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Vaccinium genus berries—wild bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and cultivated highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.)—are consumed worldwide, and their consumption has a trend of stable increase. Thus, considering their wide use in ethnomedicine, for juice and jam production, as functional food, as well as their use in preparations of extracts which have application potential in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, studies regarding the composition of these berries are of special importance. The aim of this study is to characterise the elemental and isotopic composition, as well as variation in element concentration in bilberries gathered from different sites in Northern Europe and in commercially available blueberry samples from across the World. Furthermore, our aim was to develop tools for authenticity and quality control of these berries. The elemental composition of berries was analysed using inductively coupled plasma with optical emission detection (ICP-OED), while isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used for the determination of isotope ratio values. The results demonstrated detectable differences between macro- and microelement values in bilberries. IRMS analysis of blueberries revealed significant differences in isotope ratios based on the place of origin, indicating the possibility to use this analytical method for authenticity testing. In none of the samples, pollution was detected, even though there were indications of different growth conditions and geochemical differences affecting bilberry composition.

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The maximum size-density relationship describes site carrying capacity, i.e., the maximum number of trees of a given size that can be stocked per unit area (self-thinning line). We analysed whether the self-thinning lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) have remained unchanged over time in South Germany, Norway and Finland, i.e., over a wide climatic gradient from Central Europe up to the Arctic circle. The analyses are based on long-term growth and yield experiments measured on individual tree basis over several decades, the oldest experiments established during the early 20th century. The stochastic frontier analysis was used to analyse changes in the species-specific self-thinning lines. The results show that the self-thinning lines have shifted upwards over time in all the regions. Thus, currently stands sustain higher stand densities than in the past. The increase of the maximum density for a given average stem size was more pronounced for pine than for spruce, but similar in all studied geographical regions. In addition, increasing site index was associated with increasing site carrying capacity for spruce and pine in all regions. The results imply that environmental changes have altered site properties in similar fashion across the whole study region. In practical forestry, increased site carrying capacity will reduce mortality and loss of growing stock.

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How aquatic primary productivity influences the carbon (C) sequestering capacity of wetlands is uncertain. We evaluated the magnitude and variability in aquatic C dynamics and compared them to net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) rates within calcareous freshwater wetlands in Everglades National Park. We continuously recorded 30-min measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO), water level, water temperature (Twater), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). These measurements were coupled with ecosystem CO2 fluxes over 5 years (2012–2016) in a long-hydroperiod peat-rich, freshwater marsh and a short-hydroperiod, freshwater marl prairie. Daily net aquatic primary productivity (NAPP) rates indicated both wetlands were generally net heterotrophic. Gross aquatic primary productivity (GAPP) ranged from 0 to − 6.3 g C m−2 day−1 and aquatic respiration (RAq) from 0 to 6.13 g C m−2 day−1. Nonlinear interactions between water level, Twater, and GAPP and RAq resulted in high variability in NAPP that contributed to NEE. Net aquatic primary productivity accounted for 4–5% of the deviance explained in NEE rates. With respect to the flux magnitude, daily NAPP was a greater proportion of daily NEE at the long-hydroperiod site (mean = 95%) compared to the short-hydroperiod site (mean = 64%). Although we have confirmed the significant contribution of NAPP to NEE in both long- and short-hydroperiod freshwater wetlands, the decoupling of the aquatic and ecosystem fluxes could largely depend on emergent vegetation, the carbonate cycle, and the lateral C flux.

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The effect of the projected 21st century climate change on water quality in Old Woman Creek (OWC) watershed was evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the precipitation and temperature projections from three best Global Climate Circulation Model (GCM)l ensemble downloaded from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). These three best GCMs (GFDL-ESM2M, MPI-ESM-MR, EC-EARTH) were identified as those closest to the multivariate ensemble average of twenty different GCM-driven SWAT simulations. Seasonal analysis was undertaken in historical (1985–2014), current to near future (2018–2045), mid-century (2046–2075), and late-century (2076–2100) climate windows. The hydrological model calibration was carried out using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and pareto optimization. Simulations were made for stream flow and nine water quality variables (sediment, organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, mineral phosphorus, chlorophyll a, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus) of interest. The average of twenty different CMIP5-driven SWAT simulation results showed good correlation for all the 10 variables with the PRISM-driven SWAT simulation results in the historical climate window (1985–2014). For the historical period, the result shows an over-estimation of flow, sediment, and organic nitrogen from January to March in simulations with CMIP5 inputs, relative to simulations with PRISM input. For the other climate windows, the simulation results show a progressive increase in stream flow with peak flow month shifting from April to March. The expected seasonal changes in each water quality variable have implications for the OWC estuary and Lake Erie water quality.

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Propionate and propionyl-CoA accumulation have been associated with the development of mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, we show that propionate induces intestinal damage in zebrafish when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The intestinal damage was associated with oxidative stress owing to compromised superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) activity. Global lysine propionylation analysis of the intestinal samples showed that Sod2 was propionylated at lysine 132 (K132), and further biochemical assays demonstrated that K132 propionylation suppressed Sod2 activity. In addition, sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) played an important role in regulating Sod2 activity via modulating de-propionylation. Finally, we revealed that intestinal oxidative stress resulting from Sod2 propionylation contributed to compositional change of gut microbiota. Collectively, our results in this study show that there is a link between Sod2 propionylation and oxidative stress in zebrafish intestines and highlight the potential mechanism of intestinal problems associated with high propionate levels.

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Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a leading cause of liver-related pathologies and a global health problem, currently affecting more than 71 million people worldwide. The development of a prophylactic vaccine is much needed to complement the effective antiviral treatment available and achieve HCV eradication. Current strategies focus on increasing the immunogenicity of the HCV envelope glycoprotein E2, the major target of virus-neutralizing antibodies, by testing various expression systems or manipulating the protein conformation and the N-glycosylation pattern. Here we report the first evidence of successful production of the full-length HCV E2 glycoprotein in Nicotiana benthamiana, by using the Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression technology. Molecular and functional analysis showed that the viral protein was correctly processed in plant cells and achieved the native folding required for binding to CD81, one of the HCV receptors. N-glycan analysis of HCV-E2 produced in N. benthamiana and mammalian cells indicated host-specific trimming of mannose residues and possibly, protein trafficking. Notably, the plant-derived viral antigen triggered a significant immune response in vaccinated mice, characterized by the presence of antibodies with HCV-neutralizing activity. Together, our study demonstrates that N. benthamiana is a viable alternative to costly mammalian cell cultures for the expression of complex viral antigens and supports the use of plants as cost-effective production platforms for the development of HCV vaccines.

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Pratylenchus goodeyi appears to be the most prevalent nematode pest of enset in Ethiopia, where it can occur in extremely high densities. However, the damage to yield or how different enset cultivars react to the nematode has yet to be determined. The current study therefore sought to establish a first assessment of these reactions by enset to P. goodeyi infection. Determining pest resistant cultivars is an important task in developing management strategies. Our study evaluated nine enset cultivars to establish host response and identify potential sources of resistance. In addition, the pathogenicity of P. goodeyi was assessed on three enset cultivars. After 9 months’ growth, significant differences in final population densities (Pf) and reproduction factor (RF) were observed amongst the nine cultivars, with ‘Gefetanuwa’ the most susceptible (Pf = 25 799 and RF = 12.9), and similarly in a repeat experiment for 4.5 months (Pf = 126 534 and RF = 63.3). ‘Maziya’ and ‘Heila’ were the most resistant in the first experiment (Pf < 455 and RF < 0.2) as well as in the repeat, together with ‘Kellisa’ (Pf < 5255 and RF < 2.6). In the pathogenicity experiment four inoculum densities significantly affected the Pf and RF but not among the three cultivars ‘Maziya’, ‘Arkiya’ and ‘Heila’. This is the first known study to assess genotype reaction to P. goodeyi, which shows that there are significant differences in the reactions of different cultivars and that resistance appears to be present in enset.

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1. It is common practice for ecologists to examine species niches in the study of community composition. The response curve of a species in the fundamental niche is usually assumed to be quadratic. The centre of a quadratic curve represents a species' optimal environmental conditions, and the width its ability to tolerate deviations from the optimum. 2. Most multivariate methods assume species respond linearly to niche axes, or with a quadratic curve that is of equal width for all species. However, it is widely understood that some species have the ability to better tolerate deviations from their optimal environment (generalists) compared to other (specialist) species. Rare species often tolerate a smaller range of environments than more common species, corresponding to a narrow niche. 3. We propose a new method, for ordination and fitting Joint Species Distribution Models, based on Generalized Linear Mixed-effects Models, which relaxes the assumptions of equal tolerances. 4. By explicitly estimating species maxima, and species optima and tolerances per ecological gradient, we can better explore how species relate to each other.

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There are still uncertainties regarding the long-term impact of no-tillage farming practices on separate soil functions in the United Kingdom. This paper aimed to evaluate the chemical and physical processes in two different agricultural soils under no-tillage and conventional management practices to determine their impact on water related soil functions at field scale in the United Kingdom. The field-scale monitoring compares two neighboring farms with similar soil and topographic characteristics—one of the farms implemented no-tillage practices in 2013, while the second farm is under conventional soil management with moldboard plowing. Two soil types were evaluated under each farming practice: (1) a free-draining porous limestone, and (2) a lime-rich loamy soil with high silt and clay content. Field monitoring was undertaken over a two-year period and included nutrient analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples, bulk density, soil moisture, infiltration capacity, surface runoff, and analysis of phosphorus (P) and suspended solids in watercourses in close proximity to the test fields. The conversion to no-tillage changed the soil structure, leading to a higher bulk density and soil organic matter content and thereby increasing the soil moisture levels. These changes impacted the denitrification rates, reducing the soil nitrate (NO3) levels. The increased plant material cover under no-tillage increased the levels of soil phosphate (PO43–) and PO43– leaching. The extent to which soil functions were altered by farming practice was influenced by the soil type, with the free-draining porous limestone providing greater benefits under no-tillage in this study. The importance of including soils of different characteristics, texture, and mineralogy in the assessment and monitoring of farming practice is emphasized, and additionally the between field and in-field spatial variability (both across the field and with depth) highlighted the importance of a robust sampling strategy that encompasses a large enough sample to effectively reveal the impact of the farming practice.

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The biosynthesis of polyphenolic compounds in cabbage waste, outer green leaves of white head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), was stimulated by postharvest irradiation with UVB lamps or sunlight. Both treatments boosted the content of kaempferol and quercetin glycosides, especially in the basal leaf zone, as determined by the HPLC analysis of leaf extracts and by a non-destructive optical sensor. The destructive analysis of samples irradiated by the sun for 6 days at the end of October 2015 in Skierniewice (Poland) showed an increase of leaf flavonols by 82% with respect to controls. The treatment by a broadband UVB fluorescent lamp, with irradiance of 0.38 W m−2 in the 290–315 nm range (and 0.59 W m−2 in the UVA region) for 12 h per day at 17 °C along with a white light of about 20 μmol m−2 s−1, produced a flavonols increase of 58% with respect to controls. The kinetics of flavonols accumulation in response to the photochemical treatments was monitored with the FLAV non-destructive index. The initial FLAV rate under the sun was proportional to the daily radiation doses with a better correlation for the sun global irradiance (R2 = 0.973), followed by the UVA (R2 = 0.965) and UVB (R2 = 0.899) irradiance. The sunlight turned out to be more efficient than the UVB lamp in increasing the flavonols level of waste leaves, because of a significant role played by UVA and visible solar radiation in the regulation of the flavonoid accumulation in cabbage. The FLAV index increase induced on the adaxial leaf side was accompanied by a lower but still significant FLAV increase on the unirradiated abaxial side, likely due to a systemic signaling by mean of the long-distance movement of macromolecules. Our present investigation provides useful data for the optimization of postharvest photochemical protocols of cabbage waste valorization. It can represent a novel and alternative tool of vegetable waste management for the recovery of beneficial phytochemicals.

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Difenoconazole is a widely used triazole fungicide that has been frequently detected in the environment, but comprehensive study about its environmental fate and toxicity of potential transformation products (TPs) is still lacking. Here, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the degradation kinetics, pathways, and toxicity of transformation products of difenoconazole. 12, 4 and 4 TPs generated by photolysis, hydrolysis and soil degradation were identified via UHPLC-QTOF/MS and the UNIFI software. Four intermediates TP295, TP295A, TP354A and TP387A reported for the first time were confirmed by purchase or synthesis of their standards, and they were further quantified using UHPLC-MS/MS in all tested samples. The main transformation reactions observed for difenoconazole were oxidation, dechlorination and hydroxylation in the environment. ECOSAR prediction and laboratory tests showed that the acute toxicities of four novel TPs on Brachydanio rerio, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum are substantially lower than that of difenoconazole, while all the TPs except for TP277C were predicted chronically very toxic to fish, which may pose a potential threat to aquatic ecosystems. The results are important for elucidating the environmental fate of difenoconazole and assessing the environmental risks, and further provide guidance for scientific and reasonable use.

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Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is the most important forage legume in the Nordic region, but its utilization is limited by poor persistency. The improvement of cultivated red clover can potentially take advantage of the numerous wild populations and landraces conserved in gene banks; however, there is often limited information available on the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of this material. We characterized 48 populations conserved at NordGen for a number of traits and compared them to commercial cultivars. The material was evaluated in field trials at four locations over two years and in an experiment under controlled conditions. Considerable variation was identified, with stem length, growth type and flowering date having the highest broad sense heritabilities. Traits related to plant size were strongly associated with late flowering and upright growth and differed between landraces/cultivars on the one hand and wild populations on the other. There was a large genotype by environment interaction on winter survival, which only partially correlated with freezing tolerance under controlled conditions. A majority of gene bank accessions exceeded the commercial cultivars in winter survival and freezing tolerance and can therefore be a genetic resource for future improvement of these traits. The phenotypic variation among accessions was associated with two main axes of climatic variation at the collection site. Petiole length of young plants under controlled conditions as well as plant size in the field increased with increasing summer temperature and decreasing summer precipitation, while number of leaves and an apparent vernalization requirement, recorded under controlled conditions, increased with decreasing annual and winter temperature. We discuss the implications these results have for collection, conservation and utilization of red clover genetic resources in the Nordic region.

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Soil depth represents a strong physiochemical gradient that greatly affects soil-dwelling microorganisms. Fungal communities are typically structured by soil depth, but how other microorganisms are structured is less known. Here, we tested whether depth-dependent variation in soil chemistry affects the distribution and co-occurrence patterns of soil microbial communities. This was investigated by DNA metabarcoding in conjunction with network analyses of bacteria, fungi, as well as other micro-eukaryotes, sampled in four different soil depths in Norwegian birch forests. Strong compositional turnover in microbial assemblages with soil depth was detected for all organismal groups. Significantly greater microbial diversity and fungal biomass appeared in the nutrient-rich organic layer, with sharp decrease towards the less nutrient-rich mineral zones. The proportions of copiotrophic bacteria, Arthropoda and Apicomplexa were markedly higher in the organic layer, while patterns were opposite for oligotrophic bacteria, Cercozoa, Ascomycota and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Network analyses indicated more intensive inter-kingdom co-occurrence patterns in the upper mineral layer (0–5 cm) compared to the above organic and the lower mineral soil, signifying substantial influence of soil depth on biotic interactions. This study supports the view that different microbial groups are adapted to different forest soil strata, with varying level of interactions along the depth gradient.

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Aquaculture has undergone rapid development in the past decades. It provides a large part of high-quality protein food for humans, and thus, a sustainable aquaculture industry is of great importance for the worldwide food supply and economy. Along with the quick expansion of aquaculture, the high fish densities employed in fish farming increase the risks of outbreaks of a variety of aquatic diseases. Such diseases not only cause huge economic losses, but also lead to ecological hazards in terms of pathogen spread to marine ecosystems causing infection of wild fish and polluting the environment. Thus, fish health is essential for