Annbjørg Øverli Kristoffersen

Research Scientist

(+47) 406 30 331


Visiting address
Nylinna 226, 2849 Kapp


Application of fish sludge as fertiliser to agricultural land can contribute to closing nutrient cycles in fish farming. The effect of different treatment technologies on the nitrogen fertilisation effects of fish sludge was studied by a bioassay with barley (Hordeum vulgare), an incubation and a field experiment. Dried fish sludge resulted in relative agronomic efficiency of 50–80% compared with mineral fertiliser. The anaerobic digestate based on fish sludge (20 vol%) and dairy manure did not increase nitrogen uptake in barley. Increasing the ratio of fish sludge in the digestate increased the fertilisation effect, but requires optimisation of the biogas process. A simple logistics analysis conducted for a case hatchery showed that on-site drying and co-digestion of fish sludge in a central biogas plant can be regarded as equal in terms of costs. Norway can become an exporter of fish sludge-based recycling fertilisers if current regulations are modified to facilitate nutrient recycling.


The anticipated future changes in temperature, precipitation and snow cover caused by global warming may affect winter survival of autumn sown wheat. More variable weather conditions may cause an increased frequency of periods with alternating freezing and thawing and less stable snow covers. In the present study, the course of plant frost tolerance and growth potential was studied by exposing cold acclimated plants of winter wheat to conditions with alternating periods of freezing and thawing (either -1 °C or +5 °C), and differing durations of snow cover. Tests of frost tolerance and determination of growth potential were performed each time the temperature or snow cover conditions were changed. Periods without snow cover and + 5 °C caused dehardening, with loss of frost tolerance being more pronounced during the first dehardening period than in the second one. The ability to reharden after a dehardening period decreased towards the end of the experimental period. Mild periods during winter also seemed to exhaust plant growth potential, possibly by increasing respiration rate while photosynthesis was still restricted. The results indicate some of the challenges we may face regarding overwintering of winter wheat in a future climate.