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This paper aims to study the impact of biogas technology adoption as a livestock waste technology to support Mixed Crop and Livestock (MCL) farming among smallholder farmers in Indonesia. A cross sectional survey was conducted to collect data from 351 farm households (171 biogas adopters and 180 non-adopters) in the province of Yogyakarta. This study employed treatment effects analysis based on propensity score matching techniques to evaluate the impacts of biogas technology adoption among the farm households. The results showed that the adoption of the biogas technology reduces firewood consumption of smallholder farm households in Indonesia. Unfortunately, the impact on the use of slurry for organic fertilizers and the use of gas (Liquid Petroleum Gas, LPG) as another household cooking energy could not be evaluated. This study empirically showed that the benefits of the biogas technology had not yet been optimized at the household level which may partly explain the slow rate of biogas technology diffusion among farmers. However, the consumption reduction of firewood as a benefit of using biogas contributed to behavioral changes of the women in the households especially with respect to firewood collection and cooking activities.

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We propose a theoretical framework for the relationship between animal welfare and the economic performance of livestock farms. We empirically analyse this relationship based on a unique dataset of randomly sampled Danish pig herds that includes information from unannounced inspections of the compliance with the animal welfare legislation. We find large variations in economic performance and animal welfare. The relationship between these two indicators is rather weak, but tends to be slightly positive. A possible explanation for our results is that management has a major influence on both economic performance and animal welfare so that good farm managers are able to meet all animal welfare regulations, while achieving a high economic performance.

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The aim of the article is to identify and analyse public-private incentives for the development and marketing of new animal vaccines within a real options methodological framework, and to investigate how real options methodology can be utilized to support economic incentives for vaccine development in a cost-effective way. The development of a vaccine against Campylobacter jejuni in poultry is applied as a case study. Employing the real options methodology, the net present value of the vaccine R&D project becomes larger than a purely probabilistic expected present value throughout the different stages of the project − and the net present value becomes larger, when more types of real options are taken into consideration. The insight from the real options analysis reveals opportunities for new policies to promote the development of animal vaccines. One such approach might be to develop schemes combining stage-by-stage optimized subsidies in the individual development stages, with proper account taken of investors’/developers' economic incentives to proceed, sell or cancel the project in the respective stages. Another way of using the real options approach to support the development of desirable animal vaccines could be to issue put options for the vaccine candidate, enabling vaccine developers to hedge against the economic risk from market volatility.

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Denmark is one of the EU countries with a highly recognised agricultural sector, a high level of animal health and one of the lowest medication usages. In this article we aim to provide an overview of both private and public animal health incentives nested in the cattle and pig production industry that influence the decisions and behaviours of farmers in prevention of livestock disease epidemics. Not only do individual Danish pig and cattle farmers aim at highly efficient animal production, they are also involved in collective marketing and contracting which can enhance social capital, peer pressure and instill a greater sense of ownership of disease control prevention. Public incentives including rules on how animals should be transported within Denmark, SPF certification requirements and rules on farm biosecurity further improve farmer incentives to prevent animal diseases. However, Danish pig and cattle farmers’ incentives could be further improved by specifying consequences for not following requirements such as failure to make a compulsory biosecurity plan. The relatively high compensation in case of a disease outbreak provides a safety net for farmers, encourages them to quickly report suspected notifiable diseases but it could also reduce incentives for disease prevention due to the relatively high amounts of compensation.

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Nowadays agricultural firms are more often than in the past decades forced to adapt operations, plans, strategies etc. to changes and uncertainties in their legal and business environment. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) as an approach to strategic controlling in agriculture is discussed as an answer to the growing management demands in Danish farms. A brief description of the BSC-concept, its development process as well as principle potentials and limitations is given. In a case example on a dairy farm the current Danish strategic planning framework and the BSC are compared. The need for a stricter orientation of strategic planning to external demands (customers, stakeholders) is emphasised. Necessary prerequisites for the implementation of the BSC-concept into practical farming are discussed. Finally five critical success factors to the BSC adoption by Danish farmers are identified.