Abstract

Harvest Weed Seed Control (HWSC) systems are used to collect and/or kill weed seeds retained on the weed plants at crop harvest. The effect of HWSC methods depends on the weeds seed retention at harvest. Therefore, delay in crop harvest reduces the efficiency of HWSC. In 2018, we studied the seed production and shedding pattern of Alopecurus myosuroides in a semi-field experiment in Taastrup, Denmark, to find the seed shedding time range of this species. In 2017 and 2018, we also followed the seed shedding pattern of A. myosuroides in a wheat field. Seeds of A. myosuroides were planted in pots in a greenhouse with a constant temperature of 5°C. In December 2017, the seedlings were transplanted in a box (120 × 80 cm2) located outdoor. In spring 2018, the number of plants was reduced to 14 providing a space of 685 cm2 for each plant. We surrounded each plant with a porous net to collect the seeds. The nets were checked once a week to record the beginning of the seed shedding period. Hereafter, seeds were collected weekly using a portable vacuum cleaner. Plants in the box started seed shedding in the second week of June and seed shedding continued for 12 weeks (end of August). In the wheat field, A. myosuroides plants surrounded by a net started to shed seeds in the third week of June and continued until wheat harvest on 31 July in 2017 and in the second week of July and continued until wheat harvest on 15 August in 2018. We found a significant difference between the weekly number of shed seeds in all three experiments (P

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Abstract

Clopyralid is a systemic herbicide used in oilseed rape and other crops. It was found in Danish honey from 2016 in concentrations exceeding the maximum residue level (MRL) of 0.05 mg kg−1. About 50% of the Danish honey is based on nectar from winter oilseed rape. In 2019 and 2020, winter oilseed rape fields were sprayed with clopyralid just before the assigned spraying deadline. At flowering, nectar and pollen samples were collected and the content of clopyralid was measured. Honey and pollen samples were also collected from beehives next to ten conventional winter oilseed rape fields sprayed with clopyralid. Clopyralid was found in nectar and pollen from the experimental fields, and in honey and pollen from beehives next to the conventional fields. For most samples the content in nectar and honey exceeded the MRL. The concentrations found, may not pose any health risk for consumers, as the MRL is based on the original detection limit and not on toxicological tests. However, it can have a significant economical consequence for the beekeepers, who are not allowed to sell the honey if the concentration of clopyralid exceeds 0.1 mg kg−1. Reducing the acceptable applicable rate of clopyralid or implementing an earlier deadline for spraying of clopyralid may reduce the risk of contaminating bee food products. However, if it is not possible to obtain a satisfactory effect of clopyralid on the weed flora under these conditions, spraying with pesticides containing clopyralid should be restricted in winter oilseed rape. Determination of an MRL value based on toxicological tests might result in a higher value and make it acceptable selling the honey containing higher levels of clopyralid.

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Abstract

Seed production is an important element of weed population dynamics, and weed persistence relies upon the soil seed bank. In 2017 and 2018, we studied the relationship between the aboveground dry biomass of common weed species and their seed production. Weeds were selected randomly in the fields, and we surrounded the plants with a porous net to collect shed seeds during the growth season. Just before crop harvest, weeds were harvested, the plants’ dry weights were measured, and the number of seeds retained on the weeds was counted. A linear relationship between the biomass and the number of seeds produced was estimated. This relationship was not affected by year for Avena spica-venti, Chenopodium album, Galium aparine, or Persicaria maculosa. Therefore, the data of the two seasons were pooled and analysed together. For Alopecurus myosuroides, Anagallis arvensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Geranium molle, Polygonum aviculare, Silene noctiflora, Sonchus arvensis, Veronica persica, and Viola arvensis, the relationship varied significantly between the years. In 2017, the growing season was cold and wet, and the slope of the regression lines was less steep than in the dry season in 2018 for most species. Capsella bursa-pastoris was the most prolific seed producer with the steepest slope.

Abstract

Reusing soil can reduce environmental impacts associated with obtaining natural fresh soil during road construction and analogous activities. However, the movement and reuse of soils can spread numerous plant diseases and pests, including propagules of weeds and invasive alien plant species. To avoid the spread of barnyardgrass in reused soil, its seeds must be killed before that soil is spread to new areas. We investigated the possibility of thermal control of barnyardgrass seeds using a prototype of a stationary soil steaming device. One Polish and four Norwegian seed populations were examined for thermal sensitivity. To mimic a natural range in seed moisture content, dried seeds were moistened for 0, 12, 24, or 48 h before steaming. To find effective soil temperatures and whether exposure duration is important, we tested target soil temperatures in the range 60 to 99 C at an exposure duration of 90 s (Experiment 1) and exposure durations of 30, 90, or 180 s with a target temperature of 99 C (Experiment 2). In a third experiment, we tested exposure durations of 90, 180, and 540 s at 99 C (Experiment 3). Obtaining target temperatures was challenging. For target temperatures of 60, 70, 80, and 99 C, the actual temperatures obtained were 59 to 69, 74 to 76, 77 to 83, and 94 to 99 C, respectively. After steaming treatments, seed germination was followed for 28 d in a greenhouse. Maximum soil temperature affected seed germination, but exposure duration did not. Seed premoistening was of influence but varied among temperatures and populations. The relationships between maximum soil temperature and seed germination were described by a common dose–response function. Seed germination was reduced by 50% when the maximum soil temperature reached 62 to 68 C and 90% at 76 to 86 C. For total weed control, 94 C was required in four populations, whereas 79 C was sufficient in one Norwegian population.

Abstract

Soil disinfestation by steaming is being reconsidered for its efficiency in controlling or even eradicating pathogens, nematodes and weed seeds, particularly to avoid excess use of pesticides. Most weeds within a field result from seeds in the soil seedbank and therefore management of weed seeds in the soil seedbank offers practical long-term management of weeds, especially those difficult to control. We investigated the possibility of thermal control of seeds of grass weeds Bromus sterilis (barren brome) and Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass) using a prototype of a soil steaming device. Five different soil temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90 and 99°C with an exposure duration of 3 min were tested. Four replications of 50 seeds of each species were placed in polypropylene-fleece bags. Bags in the same replicate of each target temperature were placed at the bottom of one plastic perforated basket container and covered by a 7-cm soil layer. Each basket was placed in the steaming container and steam was released from the top and vacuumed from the bottom of the container. Soil temperature was monitored by 10 thermocouples and steaming was stopped when 5 of the thermocouples had reached the target temperature. The basket was then removed from the steaming container after 3 min exposure time. Bags were taken out, opened, placed on soil surface in pots and covered by a thin layer of soil. Seed germination was followed for 8 weeks in the greenhouse. Non-steamed seeds were used as controls. It was shown that soil temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90 and 99°C lasting for 3 min reduced the seed germination of barren brome by 83, 100, 100, 95 and 100% and seed germination of barnyardgrass by 74, 69, 83, 89 and 100% respectively, compared to the controls. Germination rate of control seeds were 94 and 71% for barren brome and barnyardgrass, respectively. These results show a promising seed mortality level of these two weed species by steaming and that steam is a potential method to control weed seeds, however further studies are needed to investigate the effect of other factors such as soil type and moisture content. Keywords: Non-chemical weed control, thermal soil disinfection, weed seedbank

Abstract

Harvest weed seed control takes advantage of seed retention at maturity by collecting weed seeds as they pass through the harvester. We assessed the seed production and shedding pattern of common weed species in two wheat and two oat fields in Denmark. The aim was to evaluate the possibility of harvesting retained seeds on weeds at crop harvest by a combine harvester based on estimation of weeds seed retention. Before flowering, ten plants of each weed species were selected and surrounded by a seed trap comprising of a porous net. When the plants started shedding seeds, the seeds were collected from the traps and counted weekly until crop harvest. Just before crop harvest, the retained seeds on the plants were counted and the ratio of harvestable seeds and shed seeds during the growing season were determined. The seed production and shedding patterns varied between the species. In oat, Anagallis arvensis L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Chenopodium album L., Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á. Löve, Geranium molle L., Persicaria maculosa Gray, Polygonum aviculare L., Silene noctiflora L., Sinapis arvensis L., Sonchus arvensis L., Spergula arvensis L., Stellaria media (L.) Vill.,Veronica persica Poir., and Viola arvensis Murray retained on average 61, 52, 67, 44, 58, 32, 59, 95, 67, 23, 45, 56, 51, and 33%, respectively, of their produced seeds at crop harvest. In wheat, Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. and Apera spica-venti (L.) P. Beauv. retained on average 34 and 33%, respectively, of their seeds at harvest. Silene noctiflora was classified as a good target for harvest weed seed control; A. myosuroides, A. spica-venti, C. bursa-pastoris, C. album, F. convolvulus, G. molle, P.maculosa, Sinapis arvensis, Sonchus arvensis, Spergula arvensis and V. arvensis were classified as intermediate targets; and A. arvensis, P. aviculare, S. media and V. persica were classified as poor targets. The research shows that there is a great potential to reduce the input of weed seeds to the soil seed bank by harvest weed seed control. Keywords: Harvest weed seed control; Soil seed bank ; Weed seed retention

Abstract

Eradication of alien invasive species in the soil with steam as an alternative to chemical fumigation may allow contaminated soil to be reused. We have investigated steam disinfestation of soil to combat invasive plant species in three experiments including different temperatures and exposure durations using a prototype stationary soil-steaming device. The experiments included effects on seed germination of bigleaf lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.), ornamental jewelweed (Impatiens glandulifera Royle), and wild oat (Avena fatua L.; one population from Poland and one from Norway), as well as effects on sprouting rhizome fragments of Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.) and Bohemian knotweed (Reynoutria x bohemica Chrtek & Chrtková). In Experiment 1, we tested four different soil temperatures of 64, 75, 79, and 98 C with an exposure duration of 90 s. In Experiments 2 and 3, we tested exposure durations of 30, 90, and 180 s and 90, 180, and 540 s, respectively, at 98 C. Seed pretreatment of 14 d cooling for L. polyphyllus and I. glandulifera, no seed pretreatment and 12-h moistening for A. fatua populations, and 5- and 10-cm cutting size for R. x bohemica were applied. Our results showed germination/sprouting was inhibited at 75 C for I. glandulifera (for 90 s) and 98 C for the other species; however, longer exposure duration was needed for L. polyphyllus. While 30 s at 98 C was enough to kill A. fatua seeds and S. canadensis and R. x bohemica rhizome fragments, 180-s exposure duration was needed to kill L. polyphyllus seeds. The results showed promising control levels of invasive plant propagules in contaminated soil by steaming, supporting the steam treatment method as a potential way of disinfecting soil to prevent dispersal of invasive species.