Abstract

In regions with short growth seasons, it is of great importance to use potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) seed tubers with a high growth vigour and a short growth cycle. Such qualities may be obtained by treatments advancing the physiological age of the seed tubers. In this study, we have exposed tubers from four cultivars to various combinations of temperature and light conditions (greensprouting) for 3–7 months in controlled climate. Subsequent sprout quality, seed tuber health and performance were studied in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Satisfactory short, sturdy and leafy sprouts were produced even after 7 months storage at 15 °C under light exposure. An assay of black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) on the tuber skin showed that light exposure significantly reduced the occurrence compared with dark-stored tubers, while the average effect of storage temperatures was insignificant. In general, green-sprouting advanced emergence and plant growth by 1–2 weeks, and showed early tuber initiation and growth, compared to untreated material. Yields, 107 days after planting in the field trial, did not deviate significantly from untreated tubers. However, plant development at harvest was in accordance with general responses to physiological ageing of potato seed tubers, i.e. still tall and immature plants from untreated tubers, and short and mature plants from aged tubers. Results demonstrated the possibility of successful long-term storage of potato seed tubers in light at elevated temperatures and a potential for earlier harvests and higher early yields from such treatments.

Abstract

Pre-sprouting of potato seed tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) in light (greensprouting) is an established practice in short growing seasons to speed up plant development. Light exposure secures short and robust sprouts for mechanical planting. In 2014–2015, different pre-sprouting treatments were investigated, including different daily durations of light exposure during 6 to 12 weeks at 10 °C in controlled environments. The effects on sprout growth, early growth vigour and field performance in four cultivars were assessed in the greenhouse and in the field. Results indicated that the light treatments involving 8, 16 and 24 h light exposure per day all strongly inhibited sprout growth, with only minor differences between treatments. Compared to untreated tubers, within all cultivars, emergence and early plant growth was clearly and similarly accelerated by all light treatments. At harvest, cultivars were differently affected by the pre-sprouting treatments with regard to haulm senescence (greenness), tuber DM and total yield, and the latest cultivars seemed to benefit more from green-sprouting than the earliest. Different daily durations of light exposure during green-sprouting had a largely similar impact on seed tuber performance in all cultivars. Dark-sprouted tubers (de-sprouted before planting) performed largely similar to control tubers from 4 °C storage. Results demonstrate a potential for shorter daily light exposure during greensprouting with less energy use and heating problems.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND Vegetable growers in Arctic areas must increasingly rely on market strategies based on regional origin and product quality. Swede roots (rutabaga) were grown in a phytotron to investigate the effect of high latitude light conditions on sensory quality and some health and sensory-related compounds. Experimental treatments included modifications of 24 h natural day length (69° 39' N) by moving plants at daily intervals to dark chambers with either no light, fluorescent growth light and/or low intensity photoperiod extension. RESULTS Shortening the photosynthetic light period to 12 h produced smaller roots than 15.7 h and 18 h, with highest scores for bitter and sulfur taste, and lowest scores for sweetness, acidic taste and fibrousness. The photoperiod in combination with the photosynthetic light period also had an influence on glucosinolate (GLS) contents, with lowest concentrations in 24 h natural light and highest in 12 h natural light. Concentrations of vitamin C, glucose, fructose and sucrose were not significantly influenced by any of the treatments. CONCLUSION High latitude light conditions, with long photosynthetic light periods and 24 h photoperiod, can enhance sweet/less bitter taste and reduce GLS contents in swede roots, compared to growth under short day conditions. This influence of light conditions on eating quality may benefit marketing of regional products from high latitudes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry

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Abstract

BACKGROUND Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is a popular vegetable grown at a wide range of latitudes. Plants were grown in 2009–2011 in pots with standardized soil, irrigation and nutrient supply under natural temperature and light conditions at four locations (42–70° N). A descriptive sensory analysis of broccoli florets was performed by a trained panel to examine any differences along the latitudinal gradient for 30 attributes within appearance, odour, taste/flavour and texture. RESULTS Average results over three summer seasons in Germany, southern Norway and northern Norway showed that the northernmost location with low temperatures and long days had highest scores for bud coarseness and uniform colour, while broccoli from the German location, with high temperatures and shorter days, had highest intensity of colour hue, whiteness, bitter taste, cabbage flavour, stale flavour and watery flavour. Results from two autumn seasons at the fourth location (42° N, Spain), with low temperatures and short days, tended toward results from the two northernmost locations, with an exception for most texture attributes. CONCLUSION Results clearly demonstrate that temperature and light conditions related to latitude and season affect the sensory quality of broccoli florets. Results may be used in marketing special quality regional or seasonal products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry

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Abstract

Swede is a root vegetable grown under a range of growth conditions that may influence the product quality. The objective of this controlled climate study was to find the effect of growth temperature on sensory quality and the contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and soluble sugars. High temperature (21 °C) enhanced the intensities of sensory attributes like pungent odour, bitterness, astringency and fibrousness, while low temperature (9 °C) was associated with acidic odour, sweet taste, crispiness and juiciness. Ten glucosinolates were quantified, with progoitrin as the dominant component followed by glucoberteroin, both with highest content at 21 °C. Vitamin C also had its highest content at 21 °C, while the total sugar content was lowest at this temperature. In conclusion, the study demonstrated clear effects of growth temperature on sensory quality and some chemical properties of swede and indicated a good eating quality of swedes grown at low temperatures.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND Plants grown at different latitudes experience differences in light spectral composition. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italica) plants were grown in climate-controlled chambers under supplemental wavelengths (red, far-red, red + far-red or blue) from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The light treatments were combined with two cold climate temperatures (12 and 15 °C) during broccoli head formation to investigate the effects on morphology and content of health- and sensory-related compounds: glucosinolates, flavonols, ascorbic acid and soluble sugars. RESULTS Supplemental far-red and red + far-red light led to elongated plants and the lowest total glucosinolate content in broccoli florets. The content of quercetin was highest with supplemental red light. Vitamin C was not significantly affected by the light treatments, but 12 °C gave a higher content than 15 °C. CONCLUSION The effects of supplemental red and far-red light suggest an involvement of phytochromes in the regulation of glucosinolates and flavonols. A shift in red:far-red ratio could cause changes in their content besides altering the morphology. The sugar and vitamin C content appears to be unaffected by these light conditions. Supplemental blue light had little effect on plant morphology and content of the health- and sensory related compounds.

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Abstract

In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glucosinolates and other phytochemical compounds present in the Brassicaceae in relation to plant protection and human health. Current knowledge of the factors that influence phytochemical content and profile in the Brassicaceae is also summarized and multi-factorial approaches are briefly discussed. Variation in agronomic conditions (plant species, cultivar, developmental stage, plant organ, plant competition, fertilization, pH), season, climatic factors, water availability, light (intensity, quality, duration) and CO2 are known to significantly affect content and profile of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as the glucosinolates and leaf surface waxes play an important role in interactions with pests and pathogens. Factors that affect production of phytochemicals are important when designing plant protection strategies that exploit these compounds to minimize crop damage caused by plant pests and pathogens. Brassicaceous plants are consumed increasingly for possible health benefits, for example, glucosinolate-derived effects on degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, factors influencing phytochemical content and profile in the production of brassicaceous plants are worth considering both for plant and human health. Even though it is known that factors that influence phytochemical content and profile may interact, studies of plant compounds were, until recently, restricted by methods allowing only a reductionistic approach. It is now possible to design multi-factorial experiments that simulate their combined effects. This will provide important information to ecologists, plant breeders and agronomists.

Abstract

During the first half of the 1990-ies, the microlepidopteran Argyresthia retinella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) had an outbreak in mountain birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh. ssp. czerepanovii (Orlova) Hamet-Ahti) forests along the coast of northern Norway. In these regions, A. retinella has a univoltine life history and passes the winter as diapausing eggs, contradictory to previous reports from more southern latitudes of Europe, where newly hatched larvae overwinter. Eggs were deposited under lichen, mainly on branches and twigs, and avoided freezing by their ability to supercool. The mean supercooling points (SCPs) from October to March ranged between -35.5 and -36.5 C (lowest in January), and the eggs did not survive exposure below these temperatures. Diapause was terminated in the middle of February, and in April and May the SCP rose to about -30 C. Pre-freeze mortality was evident and had a significant impact on survival when eggs were exposed to temperatures above the SCP.