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Abstract

Blue and yellow sticky traps equipped with blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) were evaluated for their attractiveness to the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) and compared to similar traps without light in two greenhouses with commercial production of either mixed herbs or Alstroemeria cut flowers. Blue traps were more attractive to F. occidentalis than the yellow traps in both crops, regardless of whether they were equipped with light or not. In herbs, the blue light equipped traps caught 1.7 to 2.5 times more thrips compared to blue traps without light, and 1.7 to 3.0 times more thrips than yellow traps with light. Blue light on both blue and yellow traps increased thrips catches in one out of two experiments in Alstroemeria. The blue light equipped traps caught 3.4 and 4.0 times more thrips than blue traps without light in coloured and white Alstroemeria cultivars, respectively, whereas yellow light equipped traps increased thrips catches 4.5 times compared to yellow traps without light in both coloured and white cultivars. The yellow light equipped traps caught, however, only equal to or only slightly more thrips than blue traps without light, and caught fewer thrips than the light equipped blue traps. The relative trapping efficiency of the different combinations of trap colour and light varied with experiment, crop and Alstroemeria cultivars. This suggests that factors other than merely the addition of light influenced the thrips' phototactic response to the traps. Such factors could be differences in the relative strength of the competition between attractive signals from traps and plants between the two crops and Alstroemeria cultivars, thrips density, seasonal lighting conditions or different pest management strategies and other operational procedures in the greenhouses. The light from the traps did not increase the thrips population on the plants below the traps. The implications of the results for thrips control and suggestions for further studies are discussed.

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Abstract

Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) is native to South America but has expanded its range and invaded many regions of the world, primarily on flowers and to a lesser extent on horticultural product shipments. As a result of initial invasion into an area, damage caused is usually significant but not necessarily sustained. Currently, it is an economic pest in selected native and invaded regions of the world. Adults cause damage by puncturing abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces for feeding and egg laying sites. Larvae mine the leaf parenchyma tissues which can lead to leaves drying and wilting. We have recorded 365 host plant species from 49 families and more than 106 parasitoid species. In a subset of the Argentinian data, we found that parasitoid community composition attacking L. huidobrensis differs significantly in cultivated and uncultivated plants. No such effect was found at the world level, probably due to differences in collection methods in the different references. We review the existing knowledge as a means of setting the context for new and unpublished data. The main objective is to provide an update of widely dispersed and until now unpublished data, evaluate dispersion of the leafminer and management strategies in different regions of the world, and highlight the need to consider the possible effects of climate change on further regional invasions or expansions.

Abstract

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs), high-pressure sodium lamps (HPSLs) and some cladding materials offer possibilities of influencing arthropod integrated pest management in greenhouse crops where light quality, quantity and photoperiod differ from nature. Light intensity, photoperiod and wavelength distribution affect plant functions and quality which, in turn, can be reflected in the performance of herbivores. The attenuation of UV-light in HPSL spectrum and in the natural winter daylight of northern latitudes may make plants more vulnerable to pests, whereas the high ratio of red to far-red of HPSLs may act to compensate for the effects of attenuated UV-levels. High red to far red ratio has been shown to result in increased production of plant phenolics and physical defences such as leaf toughness, which, in turn, can negatively influence the performance of some herbivore guilds on plants. Specific spectra produced by LEDs can influence plant quality and hence herbivore performance, but direct effects on arthropods can be even more pronounced, such as the inability to visually locat host plants in red and blue lights. Other direct effects of artificial light on pests and beneficial organisms include the detrimental effect of UV-C and UV-B on arthropods, diapause prevention by species-specific wavelengths or photoperiods, attraction to yellow-green and polarized light, reduced visibility of host or prey, and changes in take-off behaviour. Other effects include response to light intensity, interactive effects of light quality and photoperiod on fecundity, and species-specific effects of continuous light on the population growth of arthropods and plant-infesting fungi as well as the rhythmic expression of xenobiotic metabolising genes in arthropods. The potential of using the knowledge of photobiology and visual ecology of organisms for plant protection are discussed using whiteflies and fungal diseases of plants as the model species.

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Abstract

Novel lighting technology offers the possibility of improved arthropod integrated pest management (IPM) in artificially lighted crops. This review compiles the current knowledge on how greenhouse pest and beneficial arthropods are directly affected by light, with the focus on whiteflies. The effect of ultraviolet depletion on orientation and colour-coded phototaxis are to some extent studied and utilised for control of the flying adult stage of some pest species, but far less is known about the visual ecology of commercially used biological control agents and pollinators, and about how light affects arthropod biology in different life stages. Four approaches for utilisation of artificial light in IPM of whiteflies are suggested: (a) use of attractive visual stimuli incorporated into traps for monitoring and direct control, (b) use of visual stimuli that disrupt the host-detection process, (c) radiation with harmful or inhibitory wavelengths to kill or suppress pest populations and (d) use of time cues to manipulate daily rhythms and photoperiodic responses. Knowledge gaps are identified to design a road map for research on IPM in crops lighted with high-pressure sodium lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photoselective films. LEDs are concluded to offer possibilities for behavioural manipulation of arthropods, but the extent of such possibilities depends in practice on which wavelength combinations are determined to be optimal for plant production. Furthermore, the direct effects of artificial lighting on IPM must be studied in the context of plant-mediated effects of artificial light on arthropods, as both types of manipulations are possible, particularly with LEDs.

Abstract

The effect of different light environments on trap catches of Frankliniella occidentalis and Trialeurodes vaporariorum was investigated in a commercial greenhouse rose production unit during late autumn. Two top light treatments were used: 1) High pressure sodium lamps (HPSLs) and 2) HPSLs and light emitting diodes (LEDs) with 20% blue and 80% red light. More thrips and fewer whiteflies were caught on yellow sticky traps, and more thrips were found in the flowers, in areas were LEDs were used in addition to HPSLs compared to areas where only HPSLs were used. No effect of the light treatments was found on the population level of Amblyseius swirskii, but a lower ratio of predatory mites to thrips was found on the plants where LEDs were used. The results suggest that using blue and red LEDs as interlighting, or otherwise supplementary to HPSLs, will change thrips and whitefly spatial distribution in the rose crop, and that natural enemy release rates probably need to be adjusted accordingly.

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Abstract

This review describes the effects of the current and emerging lighting technologies on plants, and the plant-mediated effects on herbivorous and beneficial arthropods in high-technology year-round greenhouse production, where light quality, quantity and photoperiod differ from the natural environment. The spectrum provided by the current lighting technology, high-pressure sodium lamp (HPSL), differs considerably from that of solar radiation. The major plantmediated effects on arthropods were predicted to result from (a) extended photoperiods and lower light integrals, (b) the attenuation of ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, particularly UV-B, (c) the high red: far-red (R : FR) ratio and lower blue : red (B : R) in comparison with solar radiation and (d) the high proportion of yellowwavelengths during winter months. Of these light factors (a-d) (ceteris paribus), (a) and (b) were hypothesised to result in increased performance of herbivores in winter months, whereas the high R : FR ratio decreased herbivore performance or not affected it, at least when interlights are used. The predictions obtained on the basis of this review are also discussed in relation to the modifying factors prevailing in these production environments: enriched CO2 levels, high nutrient amounts, optimised irrigation and temperatures optimal for plants" needs. Based on the carbon/nitrogen and growth/differentiation balance theories, these modifying factors tend to produce plants that allocate most resources to growth at the expense of defensive secondary metabolism and physicochemical defensive structures. At the end, this review discusses knowledge gaps and future research prospects, in which light-emitting diodes, the emerging lighting technology, play an important role by enabling the targeted manipulation of plant responses to different wavelengths.

Abstract

Continuous light is a promising method to reduce the problems with rose powderymildew in greenhouse rose production. The effects of such a light regime on the performance of insect pests on roses have so far not been investigated. In the present study, survival, developmental time, and reproduction during one generation of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), were characterized on roses, Rosa x hybrida cv. Passion, grown in climate chambers with long-day conditions (L20:D4) or continuous light (L24:D0) at 21 oC and fluctuating relative humidity (mean 74%, range 47–96%). Whiteflies reared under continuous light had lower immature survival and fecundity and shorter female longevity than whiteflies reared under long-day conditions, but immature developmental time was only slightly affected. Life-table analysis showed that the net reproductive rate (Ro) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were reduced by 85 and 76%, respectively, and the time for the population to double its size (D) was 4.2 times longer under continuous light. Thismean that the whitefly population growth under continuous light was strongly reduced compared with the traditional light regime used in rose production.

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Abstract

To study physiological and biochemical effects of demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides on non-target insects, larvae of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L., were exposed orally to propiconazole, (R,S)-1-[2-(2,4-diclophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioolan-2-ylmetyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole (100, 200 and 600 mg L−1) and fenpropimorph, (±)-cis-4-[3-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-2-methylpropyl] 2,6-dimethylmorpholinc (10, 100, 200 and 600 mg L−1) in a semi-synthetic diet. Ten mg L−1 of fenpropimorph reduced larval weight and induced in vitro glutathione S-transferase activity. Reduced larval and pupal growth rate, reduced survival, prolonged developmental time, and altered patterns of larval survival and adult emergence were found for one or both fungicides in at least one of the concentrations tested. The results suggest, that although the use of agricultural fungicides is generally regarded as of minor ecotoxicological consequence for insects, feeding on DMI-treated crops may influence insect fitness, and may also leave them susceptible to pesticide treatments or to residues of pesticides and other pollutants in their food. Standard methods to detect such effects should be developed for use in the environmental risk assessment of these products.

Abstract

Developmental time and survival of eggs, larvae, pupae and adult females of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were investigated at different temperatures within the range of 5 to 23oC. In addition, the influence of temperature during the larval period on the weight of the succeeding pupae was studied, as well as the effect of temperature on fecundity of adult females. The lower developmental thresholds (Tb) and thermal requirement (DD) were established for all developmental stages and the larval instars using linear regression analysis. Tb and DD were 8.6°C and 75 degree-days for eggs, 5.4°C and 496 degree-days for the total larval period, 7.2°C and 304 degree-days for pupae, and 5.0°C and 56 degree-days for adult females, respectively. Pupal mortality was low at all temperatures. The survival of eggs and larvae was highest at 18oC, whereas mortality was 100% at 8.5oC. Larval mortality was highest in the first instar and decreased with increasing age. Pupae gained the highest weight when the larvae were reared at 18oC, and decreased with declining temperature. Temperature had no significant effect on total fecundity or fertility. Fecundity was basically unimodal distributed at all temperatures. At low temperatures the egg deposition period was markedly prolonged.

Abstract

In the present study the predation rate of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on eggs and larvae of the lepidopterous species Mamestra brassicae (L.) was investigated including the prey"s influence on survival and development. The experiments were done at 20 +/- 1 degrees C and L:D = 16:8. C. carnea larvae were fed on eggs and first instar larvae of M. brassicae, respectively. In both cases the daily predation rate of C. carnea increased slowly during the two first instars and reached a peak in the third larval instar. During the third instar 87% and 85% of the total numbers of M. brassicae eggs and larvae, respectively, were consumed. C. carnea preyed on a mean total of 312 M. brassicae eggs and 232 M. brassicae larvae during its larval development. The mean daily predation rate of C. carnea reached a maximum of 106.6 eggs of M. brassicae and 46.1 larvae of M. brassicae. C. carnea consumed a total of 32 mg of M. brassicae eggs and 70 mg of M. brassicae larvae during its larval development. The developmental time of C. carnea fed on M. brassicae eggs and larvae was 27.4 and 21.5 days, respectively. Almost 10% of C. carnea died when reared on M. brassicae eggs and 15% died when reared on M. brassicae larvae. The quality aspect of the prey is discussed.