Abstract

The Christmas tree industry in Norway is increasing and Abies lasiocarpa is, together with Abies nordmanniana, the most common exotic species for Christmas tree production. A. lasiocarpa today constitutes ca. 50% of the fir sold in Norway, and there is high demand for sufficient supply of high-quality seed and knowledge of seed sources with a potential for high Christmas tree quality. Two experimental plots were established to identify seed sources with potentially high survival and satisfactory Christmas tree quality. The high variation in traits on the two sites indicates promising possibilities for further selection of A. lasiocarpa clones for growing Christmas trees in Norway. Selection for late bud break to avoid spring frost is important. Pathogens were not found in any of the studied trials, but are an important factor to consider when selecting seed sources for Christmas trees. Due to the early bud break of this species, it is also of high importance to choose planting sites with minimal risks for spring frost. Good localities are slopes where the frost drains away during cold nights. In eastern Norway, A. lasiocarpa should be used with care in districts and sites where spring frost is commonly occurring.

Abstract

Ten exotic Abies species were tested in two field trials, where the aim was to find suitable species and provenances for Christmas tree production in coastal and fjord areas in Norway. The material included 14 provenances of Abies nordmanniana, 3 provenances of Abies bornmuelleriana, 3 provenances of Abies koreana, 2 provenances of Abies amabilis, and 1 provenance each of Abies equi-trojani, Abies alba, Abies procera, Abies homolepis, Abies nephrolepis, and Abies forrestii. Field trials were established at Gulen in Sogn og Fjordane County and at Verdal in Nord-Trøndelag County. Christmas tree classification was done seven and eight growing seasons after establishment. The Christmas tree yield was higher in Gulen (64%) than in Verdal (45%), which is situated further north. Also, the survival and the height growth were higher in Gulen than in Verdal. A more humid climate and a longer growth season in Gulen may explain some of the differences. Of the 10 species, A. nordmanniana, A. homolepis, and A. bornmuelleriana produced the highest Christmas tree yield at Gulen, while A. homolepis and A. koreana had the highest yield at Verdal. Due to early bud burst, A. equi-trojani and A. bornmuelleriana are only suited for Christmas tree growing in the best climatic areas.

Abstract

This paper reports the results from a study of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of 42 small clear specimens prepared from 300 year old roundwood floor girders containing high levels of NaCl at Bryggen in Bergen, Norway. NaCl concentration was 6.5 % of the dry matter of the wood. MOE and MOR were 25 % lower than the values obtained from a reference material with equivalent annual ring width and density. The considerable reduction of MOE and MOR should be taken into consideration in conservation of load-bearing wooden structures that have been exposed to NaCl.

Abstract

The detection in 1999 of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Portugal triggered survey activities in many European countries. With the assumption that PWN would reach frequency 10 times lower than the native B. mucronatus and the requirement of a 95 % confidence limit suggested 2 995 samples to be required for a safe statement on the absence of PWN from the territory surveyed. Samples were taken from 10 circular areas with 50 km diameter erected from a point of import of risk materials. In the period 2000-2006 3 165 wood samples, 2 880 from Pinus sylvestris, 279 from Picea abies and 6 from unknown wood, were collected from 446 logging sites, in 84 municipalities and 13 counties. Of the total material 85 % of the samples came from cutting wastes, timber or lying trees. Wood showing signs of insect activity (incl. Monochamus) formed 73 % of the total material. Nematodes were recorded in 85 % of the samples. The order Rhabditida was most frequent, followed by the orders Aphelenchida, Tylenchida and Dorylaimida. Rhabditid nematodes were equally frequent in pine and spruce, while Aphelenchida (Aphelenchus, Aphelenchoides, Cryptaphelenchus, Seinura and Bursaphelenchus) and Tylenchida (Filenchus, Lelenchus, Ditylenchus, Deladenus and Nothotylenchus) tended to be more common in pinewood. Aphelenchoides was the most common genus. The genus Bursaphelenchus occurred in 1 % of the samples. B. mucronatus was detected in 0,3 % of the samples and most often in cutting waste of pine. The pine wood nematode (PWN), B. xylophilus, was not detected in this survey. The unexpected low natural occurrence of B. mucronatus indicates that the number of potential niches for PWN also is lower than expected, and hence it will be necessary to continue this surveillance program to reach 10 000 samples. The present zone sites in central and south-eastern Norway will be supplemented with 1-2 zone sites in southwestern region of the country. In the future these zone sites will function as permanent observation areas. Care will also be taken to collect all samples from detached wood with signs of Monochamus activity.

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Abstract

In this survey of 2002, 600 samples were collected from 83 forest blocks in the counties Akershus, Buskerud, Oppland and Østfold. The sampling activity involved 16 municipallities situated mainly within the three zone sites A, B, and C. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 89%, while samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies) made up 10% of the total sample volume. Timber and forest debris were the most common objects sampled. Sixty-five percent of the pine samples and 81% of the spruce samples showed signs of Monochamus activity. Nematodes were common and occurred in 94% of the samples analysed. Thirteen samples of pinewood were positive for the genus Bursaphelenchus. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was recorded for the third time in Norway, and was detected in forest debris attacked by Monochamus at Bjørdalen in the municipality of Eidsberg in the county of Østfold. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected in this survey.

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Abstract

In this survey of 2003, 600 samples were collected from 96 forest blocks in the counties of Aust-Agder and Vest-Agder in southern Norway. The sampling activity involved 19 municipalities situated mainly within the two zone sites D and E close to Kristiansand and Arendal. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 92%, while samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies) made up 8% of the total sample volume. Timber and forest debris was the most common objects sampled. Ninety-eight percent of the samples, regardless of tree species, showed signs of Monochamus activity. Nematodes were common and occurred in 90% of the samples analysed. Eight samples of pinewood were positive for the genus Bursaphelenchus. This genus did not occur in spruce. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was detected in 6 samples of forest debris of pine attacked by Monochamus and collected in the county of Aust-Agder. In the municipality of Evje and Hornes B. mucronatus was detected at Skjerkelia and Sutestad. In the municipality of Froland the nematode was found in two samples from Budalsfjellet, and in one sample from Mjålandsvatn. In the municipality of Birkenes one sample from Vågsdalen contained B. mucronatus. This is the fourth report on the occurrence of B. mucronatus in Norway. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected.

Abstract

In this survey of 2002, 600 samples were collected from 83 forest blocks in the counties Akershus, Buskerud, Oppland and stfold. The sampling activity involved 16 municipallities situated mainly within the three zone sites A, B, and C. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 89%, while samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies) made up 10% of the total sample volume. Timber and forest debris were the most common objects sampled.Sixty-five percent of the pine samples and 81% of the spruce samples showed signs of Monochamus activity. Nematodes were common and occurred in 94% of the samples analysed. Thirteen samples of pinewood were positive for the genus Bursaphelenchus. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was recorded for the third time in Norway, and was detected in forest debris attacked by Monochamus at Bjrdalen in the municipality of Eidsberg in the county of stfold. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected in this survey.

Abstract

In this survey of 2003, 600 samples were collected from 96 forest blocks in the counties of Aust-Agder and Vest-Agder in southern Norway. The sampling activity involved 19 municipalities situated mainly within the two zone sites D and E close to Kristiansand and Arendal. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 92%, while samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies) made up 8% of the total sample volume. Timber and forest debris was the most common objects sampled. Ninety-eight percent of the samples, regardless of tree species, showed signs of Monochamus activity. Nematodes were common and occurred in 90% of the samples analysed. Eight samples of pinewood were positive for the genus Bursaphelenchus. This genus did not occur in spruce. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was detected in 6 samples of forest debris of pine attacked by Monochamus and collected in the county of Aust-Agder. In the municipality of Evje and Hornes B. mucronatus was detected at Skjerkelia and Sutestad. In the municipality of Froland the nematode was found in two samples from Budalsfjellet, and in one sample from Mjålandsvatn. In the municipality of Birkenes one sample from Vågsdalen contained B. mucronatus. This is the fourth report on the occurrence of B. mucronatus in Norway. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected.