Ståle Haaland

Research Scientist

(+47) 986 77 200
staale.haaland@nibio.no

Place
Ås F20

Visiting address
Fredrik A. Dahls vei 20, 1430 Ås

To document

Abstract

Transport and turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is important in the C cycle of organic soils. The concentration of DOC in soil water is buffered by adsorption to the soil matrix, and has been hypothesized to depend on the pool size of adsorbed DOC. We have studied the effect of frequent artificial excessive leaching events on concentration and flux of DOC in shallow, organic rich mountain soils. Assuming a constant Kd value for DOC adsorption to the soil matrix, we used these data to assess the change in the pool of adsorbed (or potential) DOC in the soil. The study involved manipulation of precipitation amount and frequency in summer and autumn in small, heathland catchments at Storgama, southern Norway. The shallow soils (16-34 cm deep on average) limit the possibility for changes in water flow paths during events. The mini-catchments range in size from 75 to 98 m(2). Our data show that after leaching of about 1.2 g DOC m(-2) the DOC concentration in runoff declines by approximately 50%. From this we conclude that the pool size of adsorbed potential DOC in the shallow soils at any time is of the order 2-3 g m(-2). Frequent episodes suggest that the replenishment rate, which depends on the decomposition rate of soil organic matter, is fast and the potential DOC pool could be fully restored probably within days during summer, but with some more time required in autumn, due to lower temperatures. Both pool size of potential DOC and replenishment rate are seasonally dependent. The pool of potential DOC, and thus the DOC concentration in discharge, is at their maximum in the growing season. However, under non-leaching conditions, the concentration of DOC in soil water and thus the pool size of potential DOC seems to level off, possibly due to conversion of DOC to less reversibly bound forms, or to further decomposition to CO2.

To document

Abstract

Side effects related to liming have been studied in four dimictic lakes (553-642 ma.s.l.; 59 degrees 57'N) in Finnemarka, a forested area in Southern Norway with poor catchment buffer capacity. Data series from lake profiles have been sampled two decades apart; 10 years prior to liming and after 10 years of liming. Water samples were collected during spring after ice breakup and during summer after the development of thermal stratification. Before liming, there were very low concentrations of bicarbonate (HCO3-; or alkalinity) in the lakes. After 10 years of liming, up to 90% of the ions in hypolimnion originate from lime products. Hence, liming strengthened the chemical stratification and increased the vertical stability. Differences in chemocline developments between lakes were explained by differences in physical properties, i.e. their depth/surface area ratio. The chemocline developments lead to increased concentrations of organic matter in the hypolimnion with a subsequent reduction in oxygen concentrations. Lime additions during late spring, as an alternative to early autumn, lead to pronounced anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion.

To document

Abstract

Published data of pH and conductivity in some acid humic waters have shown erroneous corresponding values. This means that the values were not consistent with each other according to well-recognized hydrochemistry. A main questions was arised in this connection. Were the measurements correct and if not which of them were wrong, pH, conductivity or both ? Assessment on basis of calculated and measured conductivity values, by using published data and own measurements, indicate primarily erroneous pH measurements. This makes the scientific papers which are based on these remarkable results partly of questionable value. Conductivity should generally act as a controlling parameter even if the latter also could have some uncertainties.