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The model FROSTOL simulates course of frost tolerance in winter wheat on a daily basis from sowing on as affected by soil temperature (2 cm), snow cover, phenological development, and a genotypic maximum level of frost tolerance (LT 50). A series of cultivar trials in Finland was used to evaluate the model's ability to estimate plant survival in natural field environments during winters with differing weather conditions. Recorded survival was compared with number of intersections between the curves of simulated LT50 and the soil temperature curve for each field. A cumulative stress level (CSL) was calculated based both on number of intersections and FROSTOL simulated stress levels. The correlation between CSL and field recordings was quite low. While the field trials characterize a general ability to stand various types of winter stress, FROSTOL estimates damage caused by the soil temperature regime only. However, FROSTOL simulations seemed to correspond reasonably well to field observations when low temperature was the eventual cause of damage.


Protected Landscapes (PLs) are increasingly used in Norway to conserve cultural (human modified) landscapes. In many cases the maintenance of agricultural activities in PLs is required to preserve landscape character. Whilst research exists on land conservation policies in general, the particular effects of PL on management and adjustment of the farms involved have not received attention in the literature. We present results from a questionnaire sent to owners of agricultural land within PLs in Norway. Whilst landowners were divided upon the effects of PLs on farm management, the economic situation of the farm was little affected. Furthermore, changes in farm management after the establishment of a PL did not seem to have been driven by the establishment of the PLs per se. Most importantly, farm management changes were related to potential options to develop the farm and its land. A statistical model showed that PL-farms did not differ significantly from farms outside PL in the development of their land use or animal husbandry. Our findings thus indicate that the establishment of PL played a minor role as a driving force of changes in farm management and farm income.




A Canadian model that simulates the course of frost tolerance in winter wheat under continental climatic conditions was adopted and further developed for use in an oceanic climate. Experiments with two cultivars were conducted during two winters in Central Norway. All plants were hardened at the same location. After hardening, in mid November, they were distributed to three locations with contrasting winter climates. Plants were sampled several times during autumn and winter and tested for frost tolerance, expressed as LT50 (the temperature at which 50% of the plants were killed). Results from the experiment were used in parameterization and cross validation of the new model, called FROSTOL, which simulates LT50 on a daily basis from sowing onwards. Frost tolerance increases by hardening and decreases by dehardening and stress, the latter caused by either low temperatures, or by conditions where the soil is largely unfrozen and simultaneously covered with snow. The functional relationships of the model are all driven by soil temperature at 2 cut depth. One of them is in addition affected by snow cover depth, and two of them are conditioned by stage of vernalization. Altogether five coefficients allotted to four of the functional relationships produced a good agreement (R-2 = 0.84) between measured and modelled values of LT50. A cross validation of the model indicated that the parameters were satisfactorily insensitive to variation in winter weather. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Achieving multifunctionality on a parcel of land, or in a landscape as a whole, requires a delicate balance between the different functions. This is particularly so when one of the desired functions is agricultural production. This paper examines the special challenges involved when cultural landscapes are protected by law. Norwegian `Landscape Protection Areas` are intended to preserve the landscape character of special landscapes. Ideally these landscapes should preserve ecological functions, whilst at the same time allowing for recreation and tourism, and the economic returns to ensure continued use of the landscape in the future. Balancing these functions is fraught with difficulties. The former agricultural systems that shaped these cultural landscapes may no longer be viable from the perspective of food production, and biodiversity is notoriously bad at paying for itself. Are the farmers that own the land willing to take on new roles as landscape managers rather than food producers? And who will pay for this? We present results of a questionnaire to farmers that own or manage farmland in Landscape Protection Areas. Of the 893 respondents, almost a quarter claimed that their farm business had been negatively affected by landscape protection. Niche products or alternative income possibilities had not been realised. We found a generally negative attitude towards municipal authorities and 24 % of respondents were strongly against the establishment of new Landscape Protection Areas, even if the State paid compensation for their economic loss. Based on results of the study we suggest that major improvements to the protection system could be made simply by improving communication between management authorities and farmers and involving farmers in making management plans.



Urbanization and an increasingly globalized food system cause growing physical and psychological distances between producers and customers. Alternative distribution initiatives with direct sale to local customers are emerging. This paper reports results of two surveys, one from producers and one from customers, in the newly introduced Norwegian farmers market system. The main aim of the research was to examine attitudes toward local foods and evaluate the potential of this new marketing channel to reduce the distances between farmers and consumers. Results show that producers were more concerned than customers regarding knowledge on how food was produced, and locally marketed, although customers were also interested in these issues. Both groups regarded as to how food was produced to be more important than where it was produced. Producers were more interested in giving customers information on agriculture than customers were in receiving this information. The attitudes toward food differed between respondents of larger urban cities and smaller cities in Norway. Producers traveled a longer distance (average 79 km) than customers (average 14 km) to come to the markets, but traveling distance differed substantially among the sites owing to market location, number of local farmers and small-scale local processors, and product diversity. Results suggest that the farmers markets have potential to reduce both physical and social distances between producers and consumers, and thereby contribute to the sustainability of local food production. Understanding farmer and consumer attitudes can contribute to organization and promotion of farmers markets in Norway and elsewhere. doi:10.1300/J064v30n04_06.