Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2021

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Abstract

Simple Summary: Many techniques exist to quantify enteric methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. Since measurement on the entire national cow populations is not possible, it is necessary to use estimates for national inventory reporting. This study aimed to develop (1) a basic equation of enteric CH4 emissions from individual animals based on feed intake and nutrient contents of the diet, and (2) to update the operational way of calculation used in the Norwegian National Inventory Report based on milk yield and concentrate share of the diet. An international database containing recently published data was used for this updating process. By this the accuracy of the CH4 production estimates included in the national inventory was improved. Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a basic model to predict enteric methane emission from dairy cows and to update operational calculations for the national inventory in Norway. Development of basic models utilized information that is available only from feeding experiments. Basic models were developed using a database with 63 treatment means from 19 studies and were evaluated against an external database (n = 36, from 10 studies) along with other extant models. In total, the basic model database included 99 treatment means from 29 studies with records for enteric CH4 production (MJ/day), dry matter intake (DMI) and dietary nutrient composition. When evaluated by low root mean square prediction errors and high concordance correlation coefficients, the developed basic models that included DMI, dietary concentrations of fatty acids and neutral detergent fiber performed slightly better in predicting CH4 emissions than extant models. In order to propose country-specific values for the CH4 conversion factor Ym (% of gross energy intake partitioned into CH4 ) and thus to be able to carry out the national inventory for Norway, the existing operational model was updated for the prediction of Ym over a wide range of feeding situations. A simulated operational database containing CH4 production (predicted by the basic model), feed intake and composition, Ym and gross energy intake (GEI), in addition to the predictor variables energy corrected milk yield and dietary concentrate share were used to develop an operational model. Input values of Ym were updated based on the results from the basic models. The predicted Ym ranged from 6.22 to 6.72%. In conclusion, the prediction accuracy of CH4 production from dairy cows was improved with the help of newly published data, which enabled an update of the operational model for calculating the national inventory of CH4 in Norway.

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Abstract

The environmental sustainability of food production systems, including net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, is of increasing importance. In Norwegian pork production, animal performance is high in terms of reproduction, growth, and health. The development and use of an IPCC methodology-based model for estimating GHG emissions from pork production could be helpful in identifying the effects of progress in genetics and management. The objective was to investigate whether an IPCC methodology-based model was able to reflect the effects of the progress in genetics and management in pork production on the GHG emissions per kg carcass weight (CW). It is hypothesized that this progress has led to low GHG emissions intensities in Norwegian pork compared to global levels and that expected improvements will give a lasting reduction in GHG emissions intensities. A model ‘HolosNorPork’ for estimating net farm gate GHG emissions intensities was developed, including allocation procedures, at the pig production unit level. The model was run with pig production data from in average 632 farms from 2014 to 2019. The estimates include emissions of enteric and manure storage methane, manure storage nitrous oxide emissions, as well as GHG emissions from production and transportation of purchased feeds, and direct and indirect GHG emissions caused by energy use in pig-barns. The model was able to estimate the effects on net GHG emissions intensities from pork production on the basis of production characteristics. The estimated net GHG emissions intensity was found to have decreased from on average 2.49 to 2.34 kg CO2 eq. kg−1 CW over the investigated period. For 2019 the net GHG emission for the one-third lower performing farms was estimated to 2.56 kg CO2 eq. kg−1 CW, whereas for the one-third medium and one-third best performing farms the estimates were 2.36 and 2.16 kg CO2 eq. kg−1 CW, respectively. The net GHG emissions intensity for pork carcasses from boars was estimated to be 2.07 kg CO2 eq. kg−1 CW. For the health regimes investigated, Conventional and Specific-Pathogen Free (SPF), the estimated GHG emissions intensities for 2019 were 2.37 and 2.24 kg CO2 eq. kg−1 CW, respectively. The effects on net GHG emissions intensities of breeding and management measures were estimated to be profound, and this progress in pig production systems contributes to an on-going strengthening of pork as a sustainable source for human food supply.

Abstract

Urban agriculture is increasingly recognized as an important sustainable pathway for climate change adaptation and mitigation, for building more resilient cities, and for citizens’ health. Urban agriculture systems appear in many forms – both commercial and non-commercial. The value of the services derived from urban agriculture, e.g. enhanced food security, air quality, water regulation, and high level of biodiversity, is often difficult to quantify to inform policymakers and the general public in their decision making. We perform a contingent valuation survey regarding four different types of urban agriculture in Oslo. The citizens of Oslo are asked about their attitudes and willingness to pay for non-commercial and commercial urban agriculture. The non-commercial agriculture consists of urban community gardens for the citizens and urban gardens for work training, education and kindergartens. On the other hand, the commercial urban agriculture consists of aquaponics and vertical production. Results show that the citizens of Oslo are willing to increase their tax payments to contribute to further development of urban farming in Oslo. Keywords: Willingness to pay; community garden; aquaponics; vertical farming; Oslo

2020

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Abstract

Emission intensities from beef production vary both among production systems (countries) and farms within a country depending upon use of natural resources and management practices. A whole-farm model developed for Norwegian suckler cow herds, HolosNorBeef, was used to estimate GHG emissions from 27 commercial beef farms in Norway with Angus, Hereford, and Charolais cattle. HolosNorBeef considers direct emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from on-farm livestock production and indirect N2O and CO2 emissions associated with inputs used on the farm. The corresponding soil carbon (C) emissions are estimated using the Introductory Carbon Balance Model (ICBM). The farms were distributed across Norway with varying climate and natural resource bases. The estimated emission intensities ranged from 22.5 to 45.2 kg CO2 equivalents (eq) (kg carcass)−1. Enteric CH4 was the largest source, accounting for 44% of the total GHG emissions on average, dependent on dry matter intake (DMI). Soil C was the largest source of variation between individual farms and accounted for 6% of the emissions on average. Variation in GHG intensity among farms was reduced and farms within region East, Mid and North re-ranked in terms of emission intensities when soil C was excluded. Ignoring soil C, estimated emission intensities ranged from 21.5 to 34.1 kg CO2 eq (kg carcass)−1. High C loss from farms with high initial soil organic carbon (SOC) content warrants further examination of the C balance of permanent grasslands as a potential mitigation option for beef production systems.

Abstract

«Norwegian Agriculture – Status and Trends 2019» provides a brief overview of major aspects of agriculture in Norway and summarises some of the information that is annually published within the sector.

2018

2017