Abstract

Pathogenic soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) belonging to the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya cause diseases in potato and numerous other crops. Seed potatoes are the most important source of infection, but how pathogen-free tubers initially become infected remains an enigma. Since the 1920s, insects have been hypothesized to contribute to SRE transmission. To validate this hypothesis and to map the insect species potentially involved in SRE dispersal, we have analyzed the occurrence of SRE in insects recovered from potato fields over a period of 2 years. Twenty-eight yellow sticky traps were set up in 10 potato fields throughout Norway to attract and trap insects. Total DNA recovered from over 2,000 randomly chosen trapped insects was tested for SRE, using a specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) TaqMan assay, and insects that tested positive were identified by DNA barcoding. Although the occurrence of SRE-carrying insects varied, they were found in all the tested fields. While Delia species were dominant among the insects that carried the largest amount of SRE, more than 80 other SRE-carrying insect species were identified, and they had different levels of abundance. Additionally, the occurrence of SRE in three laboratory-reared insect species was analyzed, and this suggested that SRE are natural members of some insect microbiomes, with herbivorous Delia floralis carrying more SRE than the cabbage moth (Plutella xylostella) and carnivorous green lacewing larvae (Chrysoperla carnea). In summary, the high proportion, variety, and ubiquity of insects that carried SRE show the need to address this source of the pathogens to reduce the initial infection of seed material.

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Abstract

Soft rot and blackleg of potato caused by pectinolytic bacteria lead to severe economic losses in potato production worldwide. To investigate the species composition of bacteria causing soft rot and black leg of potato in Norway and Poland, bacteria were isolated from potato tubers and stems. Forty-one Norwegian strains and 42 Polish strains that formed cavities on pectate medium were selected for potato tuber maceration assays and sequencing of three housekeeping genes (dnaX, icdA and mdh) for species identification and phylogenetic analysis. The distribution of the species causing soft rot and blackleg in Norway and Poland differed: we have demonstrated that mainly P. atrosepticum and P. c. subsp. carotovorum are the causal agents of soft rot and blackleg of potatoes in Norway, while P. wasabiae was identified as one of the most important soft rot pathogens in Poland. In contrast to the other European countries, D. solani seem not to be a major pathogen of potato in Norway and Poland. The Norwegian and Polish P. c. subsp. carotovorum and P. wasabiae strains did not cluster with type strains of the respective species in the phylogenetic analysis, which underlines the taxonomic complexity of the genus Pectobacterium. No correlation between the country of origin and clustering of the strains was observed. All strains tested in this study were able to macerate potato tissue. The ability to macerate potato tissue was significantly greater for the P. c. subsp. carotovorum and Dickeya spp., compared to P. atrosepticum and P. wasabiae.

Abstract

The genus Pectobacterium, which belongs to the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, contains numerous species that cause soft rot diseases in a wide range of plants. The species Pectobacterium carotovorum is highly heterogeneous, indicating a need for re-evaluation and a better classification of the species. PacBio was used for sequencing of two soft-rot-causing bacterial strains (NIBIO1006T and NIBIO1392), initially identified as P. carotovorum strains by fatty acid analysis and sequencing of three housekeeping genes (dnaX, icdA and mdh). Their taxonomic relationship to other Pectobacterium species was determined and the distance from any described species within the genus Pectobacterium was less than 94% average nucleotide identity (ANI). Based on ANI, phylogenetic data and genome-to-genome distance, strains NIBIO1006T, NIBIO1392 and NCPPB3395 are suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Pectobacterium, for which the name Pectobacterium polaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIBIO1006T (=DSM 105255T=NCPPB 4611T).