Hyperspectral imaging has many applications. However, the high device costs and low hyperspectral image resolution are major obstacles limiting its wider application in agriculture and other fields. Hyperspectral image reconstruction from a single RGB image fully addresses these two problems. The robust HSCNN-R model with mean relative absolute error loss function and evaluated by the Mean Relative Absolute Error metric was selected through permutation tests from models with combinations of loss functions and evaluation metrics, using tomato as a case study. Hyperspectral images were subsequently reconstructed from single tomato RGB images taken by a smartphone camera. The reconstructed images were used to predict tomato quality properties such as the ratio of soluble solid content to total titratable acidity and normalized anthocyanin index. Both predicted parameters showed very good agreement with corresponding “ground truth” values and high significance in an F test. This study showed the suitability of hyperspectral image reconstruction from single RGB images for fruit quality control purposes, underpinning the potential of the technology—recovering hyperspectral properties in high resolution—for real-world, real time monitoring applications in agriculture any beyond.
Poster – EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILISER ON METABOLIC PROFILE OF HYDROPONICALLY CULTIVATED TOMATO
Dmitry Kechasov, Roald Kommedal, Michel Verheul, ...
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Lecture – Effect of organic fertiliser on productivity and quality of hydroponically cultivated tomato
Dmitry Kechasov, Michel Verheul, Paponov Ivan
Recycling of waste fractions from farms and greenhouses might reduce environmental pollution. However, recycling of nutrient solution in greenhouse is risky due to danger of disease spread. Nitrification bacteria can be used for aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate in organic waste and may function as stable microbial community protecting against pathogen attacks by enhancing induced systemic resistance of plants. We developed a hydroponic cultivation system “Organoponics” allowing growth of tomato plant on organic fertilizer with recirculation of nutrient solution. Liquid by-product of biogas production has been used as organic fertilizer. A moving-bed bioreactor was integrated in the system for aerobic nitrification of ammonia. Influence of fertilizer composition (organic, mineral matching organic, standard mineral) and addition of plant growth promoting bacteria on biomass distribution, tomato fruit quality were investigated. Plants grown on organic fertilizer were more generative with largest root index. They also produced fruits with significantly larger average size along whole cluster. Addition of the bacteria to root rhizosphere improved yield and quality parameters of plants received organic fertilization and negatively affected the same parameters in plants received mineral fertilization.
The stramenopile alga Nannochloropsis evolved by secondary endosymbiosis of a red alga by a heterotrophic host cell and emerged as a promising organism for biotechnological applications, such as the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids and biodiesel. Peroxisomes play major roles in fatty acid metabolism but experimental analyses of peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism in Nannochloropsis are not reported yet. In fungi, animals, and land plants, soluble proteins of peroxisomes are targeted to the matrix by one of two peroxisome targeting signals (type 1, PTS1, or type 2, PTS2), which are generally conserved across kingdoms and allow the prediction of peroxisomal matrix proteins from nuclear genome sequences. Because diatoms lost the PTS2 pathway secondarily, we investigated its presence in the stramenopile sister group of diatoms, the Eustigmatophyceae, represented by Nannochloropsis. We detected a full-length gene of a putative PEX7 ortholog coding for the cytosolic receptor of PTS2 proteins and demonstrated its expression in Nannochloropsis gaditana. The search for predicted PTS2 cargo proteins in N. gaditana yielded several candidates. In vivo subcellular targeting analyses of representative fusion proteins in different plant expression systems demonstrated that two predicted PTS2 domains were indeed functional and sufficient to direct a reporter protein to peroxisomes. Peroxisome targeting of the predicted PTS2 cargo proteins was further confirmed in Nannochloropsis oceanica by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Taken together, the results demonstrate for the first time that one group of stramenopile algae maintained the import pathway for PTS2 cargo proteins. To comprehensively map and model the metabolic capabilities of Nannochloropsis peroxisomes, in silico predictions needs to encompass both the PTS1 and the PTS2 matrix proteome.
We investigated the effect of supplemental LED inter-lighting (80% red, 20% blue; 70 W m−2; light period 04:00–22:00) on the productivity and physiological traits of tomato plants (Flavance F1) grown in an industrial greenhouse with high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps (235 W m−2, 420 µmol m−2 s−1 at canopy). Physiological trait measurements included diurnal photosynthesis and fruit relative growth rates, fruit weight at specific positions in the truss, root pressure, xylem sap hormone and ion compositions, and fruit quality. In the control treatment with HPS lamps alone, the ratio of far-red to red light (FR:R) was 1.2 at the top of the canopy and increased to 5.4 at the bottom. The supplemental LED inter-lighting decreased the FR:R ratio at the middle and low positions in the canopy and was associated with greener leaves and higher photosynthetic light use efficiency (PLUE) in the leaves in the lower canopy. The use of LED inter-lighting increased the biomass and yield by increasing the fruit weight and enhancing plant growth. The PLUE of plants receiving supplemental LED light decreased at the end of the light period, indicating that photosynthesis of the supplemented plants at the end of the day might be limited by sink capacity. The supplemental LED lighting increased the size of fruits in the middle and distal positions of the truss, resulting in a more even size for each fruit in the truss. Diurnal analysis of fruit growth showed that fruits grew more quickly during the night on the plants receiving LED light than on unsupplemented control plants. This faster fruit growth during the night was related to an increased root pressure. The LED treatment also increased the xylem levels of the phytohormone jasmonate. Supplemental LED inter-lighting increased tomato fruit weight without affecting the total soluble solid contents in fruits by increasing the total assimilates available for fruit growth and by enhancing root activity through an increase in root pressure and water supply to support fruit growth during the night.