Unni Myrheim Roos

Engineer

(+47) 406 22 636
unni.myrheim.roos@nibio.no

Place
Apelsvoll

Visiting address
Nylinna 226, 2849 Kapp

Abstract

Effects of annual versus biennial cropping with varying shoot densities on plant structure, berry yield and quality were studied in ‘Glen Ample’ raspberry over a period of four seasons (two cropping years). In the vegetative phase, primocane height and internode length were larger in the annual than in the biennial cropping system. These parameters as well as Botrytis infestation increased with increasing shoot density. In both cropping years, berry yields per unit area were about 20% higher in the biennial cropping system, whereas yields per shoot were not significantly different in the two systems. In both cropping systems, yields per shoot strongly declined with increasing shoot density, while yields per metre row increased slightly. Regardless of cropping system, yields per metre row did not increase with increasing shoot density beyond eight shoots per metre. The concentrations of dry matter, soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid as well as the intensity of juice colour all declined with increasing shoot density. We conclude that under controlled shoot density conditions, there is little scope for biennial yield increases that fully compensates for the lost crops every second year. However, the system greatly facilitates berry harvest and eases plant disease pressure.

Abstract

As part of an overall assessment of the commercial suitability of strawberry cultivars for the Nordic environment, we studied 13 diverse cultivars in an experimental field in South East Norway. Early-maturing cultivars were characterized by early initiation of floral primordia and early flowering and fruit maturation. High temperatures in July and early August delayed floral initiation in the early cultivars, resulting in more synchronous initiation of early and late cultivars. The recent Norwegian cultivar ‘Nobel’, which has an everbearing parent, differed from the other cultivars by early initiation also at elevated summer temperature. Inadequate yield and berry size were identified as important causes for outdating of older cultivars, such as ‘Senga Sengana’ and ‘Glima’. Overall, the high-yielding and large-fruited ‘Sonata’ was judged as the best fresh consumption cultivar in Norway, and market trends indicate that it will continue to expand its market share at the expense of ‘Korona’, mainly because of inadequate fruit firmness and shelf life of the latter. Adequate yields and berry quality justify the use of the late maturing ‘Florence’ for prolongation of the fresh market season. The results are discussed together with practical experiences and market preferences in an attempt to provide overall cultivar recommendations for Norway.

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Abstract

The effects of timing of nitrogen (N) fertilization relative to the beginning of a 4-week floral-inducing short-clay (SD) period have been studied in 'Korona' strawberry plants under controlled environment conditions. Groups Of low fertility plants were fertilized with 100 ml of calcium nitrate solution for 3 days a week for a period of 3 weeks starting at various times before and at the beginning of the SD period, as well as at different times during the SD period. All plants, including SD and long day (LD) control plants, received a weekly fertilization with a low concentration complete fertilizer Solution throughout the experiment. Leaf at-ea. fresh and dry matter increments of leaves, crowns and roots, as well as leaf chlorophyll concentration (SPAD Values) were monitored during the experimental period. A general enhancement of growth took place at all times of N fertilization. This was paralleled by an increase in leaf chlorophyll concentration, indicating that the control plants were in a mild state of N deficiency. When N fertilization was started 2 weeks before beginning of the SD period, flowering was delayed by 7 days, and this was gradually changed to an advancement of 8 days when the same treatment was started 3 weeks after the first SD. The amount of flowering was generally increased by N fertilization although the effect varied greatly with the time of N application. The greatest flowering enhancement Occurred when N fertilization started I week after the first SD when the number of flowering crowns and the number of inflorescences per plant were more than doubled compared with the SD control, while fertilization 2 weeks before SD had no significant effect on these parameters. Importantly, the total number of crowns per plant was not affected by N fertilization at any time, indicating that enhancement of flowering was not due to an increase in potential inflorescence sites. No flowering took place in the control plants in LD. Possible physiological mechanisms involved and practical applications of the findings are discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Abstract

Techniques for the production of raspberry long canes with high yield potential were studied on a research station and in two commercial nurseries in South Norway. Potted 'Glen Ample' plants were grown in the open and in polyethylene greenhouses during two seasons in order to optimize Cultural practices. Dates of propagation and transfer to the production sites were varied. Following cold storage from December to early June, the canes were tipped (cut) at 160 cm height and grown in open plastic tunnels in the fruiting season for the evaluation of growth and yield performance. Remarkable berry yields of 1.5-3.8 kg per plant (cane) were regularly achieved. When grown in the open, later starts than June 1 (June 15 and July 1) successively reduced yields. On the other hand, an earlier start involves risks of growth cessation due to low spring temperature. When grown in greenhouses, high yields were still possible when plants were transferred from propagation conditions as late as July 1, although optimal yields of nearly 4 kg per plant were obtained with transfer on June 15. In a year with unusually high summer temperatures, the yields of canes produced in the open and in greenhouses did not vary significantly, whereas in the second year with normal summer temperatures, canes produced in greenhouses consistently out-yielded those produced in the open by about I kg per cane. Regression analyses revealed that high yields were associated with fruiting cane architecture traits such as cane height, number and length of laterals, and a low proportion of dormant buds. The single most important component was lateral length which alone accounted for 82% of the yield variation. Since lateral lengths increased from the shoot tip towards the base, cane heights in excess of 2 m are required for the attainment of top yields as the uppermost nodes with short and low-yielding laterals then can be eliminated by tipping. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.