Kjell Andreassen

Research Professor

(+47) 907 36 810
kjell.andreassen@nibio.no

Place
Ås H8

Visiting address
Høgskoleveien 8, 1433 Ås

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Abstract

The ongoing climate change may have a distinct effect on Norway spruce growth, one of the most important tree species in European forest management. Therefore, the understanding and assessment of climate-growth relationship can help to reveal relevant patterns in temporal variability that may result in lower tree vitality and decline. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the long-term climate-growth variability of Norway spruce in south-eastern Norway, at the northern edge of the temperate zone. We sampled in total 270 dominant and co-dominant trees from 18 plots in south-eastern Norway. We analysed stem cores and evaluated crown condition parameters to assess the retrospective tree growth and vitality. Despite considerable differences in the crown parameters, high similarity among tree-ring width (TRW) series allowed compiling the regional tree-ring width chronology. Correlations between TRW and climate parameters showed temporal instability in their relationship during the period 1915–2012. While we did not detect any significant relationships between TRW and climate parameters in the first half of the study period (1915–1963), a significant correlation between TRW and spring precipitation was observed for the period 1964–2012. This shift appeared concurrent with temperatures reaching above-average values compared to the average of the climate normal period 1961–1990.

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Abstract

There is evidence that recently occurring top dieback of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) tress in southern Norway is associated with drought stress. We compared functional wood traits of 20 healthy looking trees and 20 trees with visual signs of top dieback. SilviScan technology was applied to measure cell dimensions (lumen and cell wall thickness) in a selected set of trunk wood specimens where vulnerability to cavitation (P50) data were available. The wall/lumen ratio ((t/b)²) was a quite good proxy for P50. Cell dimensions were measured on wood cores of all 40 trees; theoretical vulnerability of single annual rings could be thus estimated. Declining trees tended to have lower (t/b)² before and during a period of water deficit (difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) that lasted from 2004 to 2006. The results are discussed with respect to genetic predisposition.

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Abstract

Top dieback in 40–60 years old forest stands of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] in southern Norway is supposed to be associated with climatic extremes. Our intention was to learn more about the processes related to top dieback and in particular about the plasticity of possible predisposing factors. We aimed at (i) developing proxies for P50 based on anatomical data assessed by SilviScan technology and (ii) testing these proxies for their plasticity regarding climate, in order to (iii) analyze annual variations of hydraulic proxies of healthy looking trees and trees with top dieback upon their impact on tree survival. At two sites we selected 10 tree pairs, i.e., one healthy looking tree and one tree with visual signs of dieback such as dry tops, needle shortening and needle yellowing (n = 40 trees). Vulnerability to cavitation (P50) of the main trunk was assessed in a selected sample set (n = 19) and we thereafter applied SilviScan technology to measure cell dimensions (lumen (b) and cell wall thickness (t)) in these specimen and in all 40 trees in tree rings formed between 1990 and 2010. In a first analysis step, we searched for anatomical proxies for P50. The set of potential proxies included hydraulic lumen diameters and wall reinforcement parameters based on mean, radial, and tangential tracheid diameters. The conduit wall reinforcement based on tangential hydraulic lumen diameters ((t/bht)2) was the best estimate for P50. It was thus possible to relate climatic extremes to the potential vulnerability of single annual rings. Trees with top dieback had significantly lower (t/bht)2 and wider tangential (hydraulic) lumen diameters some years before a period of water deficit (2005–2006). Radial (hydraulic) lumen diameters showed however no significant differences between both tree groups. (t/bht)2 was influenced by annual climate variability; strongest correlations were found with precipitation in September of the previous growing season: high precipitation in previous September resulted in more vulnerable annual rings in the next season. The results are discussed with respect to an “opportunistic behavior” and genetic predisposition to drought sensitivity.

Abstract

Miljødirektoratet utarbeidet i 2014 et kunnskapsgrunnlag for hvordan vi kan omstille Norge til et lavutslippssamfunn (Miljødirektoratet 2014). I rapporten ble en rekke tiltak i skog beskrevet. Denne rapporten er en del av neste fase av dette arbeidet, som er å utdype analysen av mulige tiltak og virkemidler. Her beskriver vi, på oppdrag fra Miljødirektoratet, et utvalg klimatiltak i skog. Det er på ingen måte noen uttømmende oversikt over klimatiltak, men dekker et utvalg som det var ønske om å belyse nærmere. Disse er belyst nærmere med hovedvekt på karbonopptak og –lagring. Betydning for andre økosystemtjenester, som for eksempel biodiversitet og friluftsliv, er ikke belyst. Hovedkonklusjonene fra dette arbeidet kan kort oppsummeres slik: Fra 1990 og frem til 2012 har et bruttoareal på 1,4 mill. daa blitt avskoget (NIR 2014). Basert på data fra Landsskogtakseringen ser vi at den viktigste årsaken er nedbygging av skogareal til ulike formål (73 % av arealet), etterfulgt av omdisponering til beite (16 %). Om lag 29 % av skogen som avvirkes, hogges før hogstmodenhetsalder. Av dette arealet utgjør hogstklasse IV 25 %, mens hogstklasse III eller yngre utgjør 4 %. Skog definert som ”yngre skog” etter forslag til revidert PEFC skogstandard utgjør 9 %. Generelt benyttes relativt skånsomme metoder for markberedning i Norge i dag, og disse er vurdert til sannsynligvis å ha liten eller ingen effekt på karbonmengder i jorda over tid og over det totale areal. Tettere planting gir høyere volumproduksjon tidlig i bestandets liv. I følge resultatkontrollen i 2013 hadde 29 % av det totale foryngelsesarealet et plantetall under anbefalt nivå i bærekraftforskriften. Framskrivningene av skogbestokningen viser at en fortsettelse av dagens praksis på årlig foryngelsesareal fra 2015 og frem til 2100 akkumulert gir 83,5 millioner tonn CO2 lavere opptak enn om arealet hadde vært plantet med anbefalt tetthet. Høyere plantetetthet gir også økt mulighet for å ta ut virke gjennom tynning. Vi mener det er potensial for økt tynningsaktivitet, uten at dette vil redusere produksjon (opptak) på lenger sikt. Tynning kan øke potensialet for mer bruk av GROT (heltretynning). Ved tynning og gjødsling kan andelen sagtømmer i det hogstmodne bestandet øke, og samtidig kan tynning være ønskelig for å lage stabile bestand som kan overholdes utover normal hogstmodenhetsalder. Uttak av hogstrester (GROT) gir råstoff til bioenergi, som kan brukes til å erstatte fossile brensler. Forutsatt høstet på en bærekraftig måte, kan uttaket av GROT sannsynligvis økes uten redusert fremtidig produksjon (opptak). En lavskjerm med bjørk over granforyngelse vil, dersom den skjøttes riktig, gi en høyere total volumproduksjon på arealet over ett omløp sammenlignet med et renbestand med gran.

Abstract

In this investigation we analyzed pairs of uneven-aged vs even-aged managed Norway spruce long term plots. The plots were established as parallel plots in 1920-1940’s and are followed by frequent measurements over a period of 50 to 90 years to get knowledge about growth, stability and forest management . The uneven-aged plots were managed with selection system, while the even-aged plots were managed with thinning from below. Diameters of all trees and heights of sample trees are measured. The diameters of harvested trees were 17 % larger than the remaining trees and indicate thinning from above. We experienced about 20 % lower volume production in the uneven-aged forest compared with the yield capacity (YC) with the largest deviation at the most productive sites (YC >9 m3/ha/yr). Selection system based on natural regeneration is favorable at vegetation types with easy regeneration conditions. We experienced problems to maintain a J-shaped diameter distribution at most sites with uneven-aged management due to too small harvesting (selection system), dense stands, and small natural regeneration. It is difficult to balance between dense productive stands and initiating natural regeneration under Norwegian conditions. However, problems with stability are also observed in even-aged stands.

Abstract

Reliable methods are required to predict changes in soil carbon stocks. Process-based models often require many parameters which are largely unconstrained by observations. This induces uncertainties which are best met by using repeated measurements from the same sites. Here, we compare two carbon models, Yasso07 and Romul, in their ability to reproduce a set of field observations in Norway. The models are different in the level of process representation, structure, initialization requirements and calibration- and parameterization strategy. Field sites represent contrasting tree species, mixture and soil types. The number of repetitions of C measurements varies from 2 to 6 over a period of up to 35 years, and for some of the sites, which are part of long-term monitoring programs, plenty of auxiliary information is available. These reduce the danger of overparametrization and provide a stringent testbed for the two models. Focus is on the model intercomparison, using identical site descriptions to the extent possible, but another important aspect is the upscaling of model results to the regional or national scale, utilizing the Norwegian forest inventory system. We suggest that a proper uncertainty assessment of soil C stocks and changes has to include at least two (and preferably more) parametrized models.

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Abstract

Thirteen Nordic stand growth models have been validated by use of a test data set from long-term research plots in Norway. The evaluated data was from time-series of even-aged, pure stands of Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch (silver birch and downy birch). In selected models from Finland, Norway and Sweden measures of site productivity, mean tree size and various stand characteristics are represented. Different models display both strengths and weaknesses in their predicting ability. Several measures of precision and bias have been calculated and the models are ranked due to their performance. We observed site quality, stand density and average tree size as the three main components in the models. Basal area increment model for spruce from Sweden had the lowest standard deviation with 23%. The mean R2 between residuals and stand characteristics from this model was also low (1.3%), which indicates that independent variables are well included. For Scots pine and birch, Finnish volume increment models showed the best fit to the Norwegian test data, with a R2 between residuals and stand characteristics of 2.8 and 6.7%, respectively. Several of the models from Sweden and Finland predicted the growth as well as stand models frequently in use in Norway. The results indicated that similar forest conditions and traditional even-aged forest management practice in the Nordic countries could be seen as a suitable basis for developing a joint family of growth models. By careful recalibration of existing models, a reasonable accuracy could be achieved and the prediction bias could be reduced.

Abstract

Growth conditions in Fennoscandia are characterized by relatively short growth seasons and cold winters, from 130 growth days (T 5C) in the far north high mountains to more than 200 in south Sweden and Norway. Growth models from different regions predict different forest growth.In this study, we compare some models commonly applied in forest growth prognosis in pure even aged stands of Norway spruce, Scots pine and birch in Finland, Sweden and Norway. The objectives is to identify behavioural properties, accuracy and bias in selected Nordic growth models using a wide-ranging test data set from permanent research plots in Norway.Present tentative conclusions about the accuracy of growth outside the geographical range of the original base materials. With four different response variables in the tested models we emphasized relative deviations rather than absolute values as most suitable for comparisons. The models were compared by statistical tests, a visual inspection of the smoothed curve of the relative deviations in different stand properties and ranked due to their performance.We observed site index, stand density and mean tree size as the three main components in the models. For Norway spruce a basal area increment model from Sweden had the lowest standard deviation with 23 %. The mean R2 between residuals and stand characteristics from this model was also low (1.3 %), which indicates that variables are well included in the model. For Scots pine and birch, Finnish percent volume growth models showed the best fit to the Norwegian test data, with a R2 between residuals and stand characteristics of 2.8 and 6.7 %, respectively. Several of the models from Sweden and Finland predict the growth as well as stand models frequently in use in Norway.

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Abstract

Models for predicting diameter increment in multi-storey spruce stands following mountain forest selective cutting (MFS) were developed. They were based on increment cores, tree ring analyses and stump registrations. The presented models rely upon time series data from 1600 trees in thirty-one Norway spruce stands in south-eastern and central parts of Norway. The selective cuttings were heavy; on average two thirds of the standing volume were cut. The increment following the interventions was highly variable, resulting in large random variability in the models with R2 varying between 0.18–0.31 for individual tree diameter growth and 0.40–0.50 for mean tree stand diameter growth. Dummy variables referring to three first 5-year periods after cutting were found to increase the precision and significantly reduce the random error. Selected models were validated using a test material from central Norway and also compared with the mostly applied Norwegian diameter increment models. Despite a large random variation in all models, the model performances appeared logical and the general fit to the data was acceptable. Based on tests, two diameter increment models are recommended for future yield prognoses in MFS. The models should also be of interest for wider use in other parts of the Nordic and Baltic boreal zone.

Abstract

In South-east Norway, several scattered observations of reduced growth and dieback symptoms were observed over the last 20 years in 40-60 years old Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees. Typical symptoms start with yellowing in the top and subsequent dieback downwards from the top. These symptoms are often combined with bark beetle (Ips typographus), honey fungus (Armillaria spp.) infections, and a sudden decrease in diameter and height growth. After about 1-5 years, most of the symptomatic trees are dead.We selected 11 representative stands in six counties. In each stand all trees in ten 250 m2 plots were evaluated, in total about 4000 trees. In each of these 110 plots, one symptomatic and one non-symptomatic tree were investigated in more detail. We measured tree diameter, height, took increment cores and assessed crown condition, wounds, resin flow, stem cracks, bark beetle infection and Armillaria presence. In addition, internode lengths of the last 20 years were measured in two of the stands.Preliminary results of internode lengths and increment cores showed a sudden decrease of height and diameter growth in the symptomatic trees. Many of these trees had a secondary infection of bark beetles and Armillaria. Some years appear to be typical problem years for many of the trees. These years also correspond with summer drought, i.e. negative Palmer drought severity indexes which were estimated for each stand. In comparison, the non-symptomatic trees, growing close to the symptomatic ones, showed none or minor growth reductions and discolouration.Climate change and increased summer drought may worsen spruce dieback problems. Management adaptions are uncertain. We conclude that Norway spruce is sensitive to drought, which reduce the growth and weaken the health, and probably reduce the defence against secondary infections.

Abstract

Fourteen Nordic increment functions have been validated by use of with a test data set from long-term research plots in Norway of even-aged, pure stands of Scots pine, Birch and Norway spruce. In selected functions from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden measures of site productivity, mean tree size and various stand characteristics are represented. Different models display both strengths and weaknesses in their predicting ability. Some measures of precision and bias have been calculated and the functions are ranked due to their performance. Basal area increment models for spruce and pine from Sweden, and a Finish volume increment model for birch has the best fit to the Norwegian test data. Some of the growth models developed outside Norway estimate the growth with about the same accuracy as the models frequently used and developed in Norway. The results indicate that forest conditions and traditional even-aged forest management practice in the Nordic countries seem to have small influence on the relative growth of even-aged stands. By careful recalibration of existing functions from other Nordic countries with data from Norway, a reasonable accuracy could be achieved in Norwegian forest with a reduction of the bias.

Abstract

Four Norway spruce stands treated with single tree selection were studied 11 years after the cuttings. In each of the stands we performed four strengths of cuttings in 0.2 ha plots, with removals ranging from zero to 70 % of the basal area. We investigated accumulated and annual growth, changes in stand structure, tree age and tree damage. 10-20 % of the living trees were still damaged 11 years after the cutting. The diameter distribution displayed a reverse J-curve in all plots both before and after the cuttings. Eleven years later, the curve is only slightly changed. Annual ring widths from 300 increment cores were analysed. Most trees started to increase the growth two or three years after the cutting. This improved growth accelerated the following six or seven years with 20-80 % increase. Both small and large trees reacted, including severely suppressed trees. The initial crown volume and crown vitality after cutting is essential for the increased growth since several years are necessary to build up a larger and better crown. A reduced volume per hectare provided an increased growth for each of the remaining trees and indicates less competition for nutrients and light after cutting. The observed growth during the 11-year post-harvest period was about 10 % less than the estimated yield capacity for even-aged stands.

Abstract

This study is a part of a larger project designed to find out the causes of top dieback symptoms in Norway spruce in SE Norway. Because sapwood tracheids constitute a water transport system while parenchyma serves as a reserve tissue (Sellin, 1991), the separation and quantification of the sapwood and heartwood may contribute to understanding of the healthy tree functioning. As the extent of sapwood is related to tree vitality, it reflects the tree growth, health and effect of environmental factors (Sandberg & Sterley, 2009). Therefore, the sapwood cross-sectional area is widely used as a biometric parameter indicating the tree vitality, although its estimation and evaluation is prone to scaling errors....

Abstract

Four forest management systems, clear cutting, mountain forest selective cutting (50-90 % of volume removed), group system and single tree selection system (20-50 % of volume removed) were compared in two Norway spruce mountain forest stands. The sites are located 650 m.a.s.l., which is about 100 meter below the alpine tree line in this region. The background for this experiment was that the forest owner wanted to examine alternatives to clear cutting with silvicultural methods where some trees were left in the stand to protect regenerating against frost, to maintain biodiversity, and for recreational reasons in such areas close to the tree line. In twenty 400 m2 systematically sampled plots we assessed or measured vegetation type, regeneration, diameter of all trees > 2.5 dbh, tree heights, annual growth from increment cores, tree quality, old stumps and windthrows. In addition, time studies of the four harvesting methods were performed close to each other in the area. The following mean values were estimated in the two stands before cutting: Area 7 hectares, volume 170 m3/ha, mean diameter 23 cm, mean height 18 m, stems 550/ha, seedlings 150/ha, productivity 3 m3/ha/yr. The diameter distribution of the two stands was almost similar to a reverse J-shaped curve, but a larger amount of trees in some medium and large diameter classes were observed. However, most of the 230 m3 harvested trees were medium and large sized. Annual increment indicated growth reactions 3 years after harvesting. The operational costs were estimated according to time studies of the harvesting and extraction of 580 trees. Analyses of net present value, where bare land value and all future revenues and expenses were estimated and discounted backwards to the harvesting year, indicates less profitability for group selection and selection system than clear cutting and mountain forest selective cutting.

Abstract

In Norway, it is planned to double the stationary use of bioenergy from all sources by up to 14 TWh before 2020, with much of this increase coming from forest resources, including residues like branches and tops (which are not much used today) being removed after tree harvest. This removal will reduce the supply of nutrients and organic matter to the forest soil, and may in the longer term increase the risk for future nutrient imbalance, reduced forest production, and changes in biodiversity and ground vegetation species composition. However, field experiments have found contrasting results (e.g. Johnson and Curtis 2001; Olsson et al. 1996). Soil effects of increased biomass removal will be closely related to soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics, litter quality, and turnover rates. The SOM pool is derived from a balance between above- and below-ground input of plant material and decomposition of both plants and SOM. Harvest intensity may affect the decomposition of existing SOM as well as the build-up of new SOM from litter and forest residues, by changing factors like soil temperature and moisture as well as amount and type of litter input. Changes in input of litter with different nutrient concentrations and decomposition patterns along with changes in SOM decomposition will affect the total storage of carbon, nitrogen and other vital nutrients in the soil. To quantify how different harvesting regimes lead to different C addition to soil, and to determine which factors have the greatest effect on decomposition of SOM under different environmental conditions, two Norway spruce forest systems will be investigated in the context of a research project starting in 2008/2009, one in eastern and one in western Norway, representing different climatic and landscape types. At each location, two treatment regimes will be tested: Conventional harvesting, with residues left on-site (CH) Aboveground whole-tree harvest, with branches, needles, and tops removed (WTH). Input of different forest residues will be quantified post harvest. Soil water at 30 cm soil depth will be analysed for nutrients and element fluxes will be estimated to provide information about nutrient leaching. Soil respiration will be measured, along with lab decomposition studies under different temperature and moisture regimes. Long term in situ decomposition studies will be carried out in the WTH plots using three different tree compartments (needles, coarse twigs, fine roots) decomposing in litter bags, in order to determine their limit value. The structure of the fungal community will be determined by soil core sampling and use of molecular techniques allowing qualitative and quantitative estimation. Understorey vegetation will be sampled to determine the biomass, and the frequency of all vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens will be estimated. After harvesting, replanting will be carried out. Seedling survival, causes of mortality and potential damage, growth, and needle nutrients will be monitored. Results from these studies will be used to identify key processes explaining trends observed in two series of ongoing long-term whole-tree thinning trials. We shall combine knowledge obtained using field experiments with results of modelling and data from the Norwegian Monitoring Programme for Forest Damage and National Forest Inventory. This will help us to predict and map the ecologically most suitable areas for increased harvesting of branches and tops on a regional scale based on current knowledge, and to identify uncertainties and additional knowledge needed to improve current predictions.

Abstract

Growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees and nitrogen deposition were analysed at about 500 forest plots throughout Norway in six fiveyear periods from 1977 to 2006. Growth was calculated from five repeated calliper measurements of all trees during this period and using treering series from increment cores of a subsample of trees. From the growth data a `relative growth` variable was extracted, being the deviation in % between observed and expected growth rates. The expected growth was estimated from growth models based on site productivity, age and stand density at each plot. The plots were categorized into four age classes. The nitrogen deposition was estimated for each plot for the same five year periods by geographical interpolation of deposition observations at monitoring stations made by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research. Nitrogen deposition from 1977 to 2006 ranged from 1 to 24 kg/ha/yr at the study plots, with about 15 kg/ha/yr in the southernmost region and 3 kg/ha/yr in the northern region of Norway. For the entire 30year period we found a long term relationship between growth and nitrogen deposition, corresponding to a forest growth increase of 0.7% per kg total nitrogen deposition per hectare and year (r2 = 0.13). This is in line with studies carried out on other data sets and for shorter time periods. This apparent fertilizing effect was most pronounced for the youngest forest, while the effect was weak for the oldest forest. The growth increase was observed in the southernmost part of Norway, the region with the highest nitrogen deposition. However, the relationship between nitrogen deposition and growth varied considerably between the time periods. In two of the periods the relationship was slightly negative: these periods corresponded well with summer droughts occurring in the southernmost part of Norway. Drought, as well as other climatic factors, will influence the shortterm variations in forest growth and may obscure the fertilizing effect of nitrogen deposition in some periods. In conclusion, nitrogen deposition has most likely increased growth in Norway spruce in southern Norway. However, our study also shows that inferences from such correlative studies should be drawn with care if the growth period is shorter than 10–15 years because climatic factors produce temporal variations in the relationship between nitrogen deposition and forest growth.

Abstract

This analysis is based on climatic data and increment cores from about 550 Forest officers from latitude 58-70N and longitude 6-18E. The strength of the data is the high number of plots scattering over most of the Norway spruce forest area in Norway. Tree ring-widths were transformed to ring indices to remove age disturbances and strengthen the climatic signal on the tree growth.We used regression analyses to examine the annually growth responses of these ring indices against 42 monthly climatic variables. The climatic variables we used were mean month temperature, precipitation and Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) with a range from previous year July to current years August.The results showed some correlations of climate on growth, with the June weather as most important. The most important variable in the lowlands (altitude 500 m) of southeastern Norway was the June precipitation, and the June temperature in the rest of the country.

Abstract

This study is based on data from the Level I and from forest Officers plots. We combined three sets of data on growth, deposition and soil chemistry, totally 204 plots in south-eastern and mid-Norway. As response variable we used observed growth in % of estimated growth calculated from standard Norwegian growth models. In this way we filtered out the influence of site and stand properties as this were included in the model.The dependent deposition variable used was the N deposition from the national air and precipitation monitoring program. The dependent soil chemistry variables were N, C/N ratio, base saturation, pH, Al, and Ca/Al ratio. Soil chemistry variables should reflect the properties that most likely are influenced by S and N deposition, and that could influence the trees in the hypothesised ways.We used analyses of covariance as statistical method. Growth was positively correlated to nitrogen deposition and to soil nitrogen, and negatively correlated to the C/N ratio in the soil. Also, nitrogen deposition was positively correlated to soil nitrogen and negatively to soil C/N.It was concluded that N deposition probably has increased N availability and thereby growth in southernmost Norway with an order of magnitude around 25%. There were no relationships between growth and the soil acidification variables pH, base saturation, Al concentration or Ca/Al-ratio, and we concluded that no evidence for negative effects of soil acidification on forest growth was found.

Abstract

We examined growth responses of Norway spruce using tree-ring series from increment cores and monthly climate variables over the period 19001998. The 1398 cores were selected from 588 plots scattered all over Norway. We correlated tree-ring indices with temperature, precipitation, Palmer drought severity index and length of the growing season.The weather in June had the largest influence on ring widths. However, two different, and almost opposite, response types were found: Tree growth was restricted by June precipitation in the lowlands in southeastern Norway, but by the June temperature in other regions and at high altitudes.In order to define the shift between these two main response types, we correlated response functions with various 30-year mean climatic variables, including humidity and aridity indices. The 30-year mean June temperature was the variable most clearly showing this shift in response, with a threshold at 1213C. At sites with normal temperature below this threshold, spruce responded positively to unusually warm and dry June months, and vice versa.

Abstract

In this study, forest treated with different strengths of selective cutting (2570 % of volume removed) was remeasured after twelve years in 2005. At each of the sixteen 0.2 ha plots, including four repeats of each treatment, all trees larger than dbh 2.5 cm were calipered. We investigated growth, changes in stand structure, tree age, tree damage and crown condition.The diameter distribution displayed a reverse J-curve at all plots both before and after the cuttings. Twelve years later the curve is only slightly changed. Increment cores from 300 trees were taken to analyse annual growth reactions in different diameter classes. Most trees reacted with increased growth from the second or third year after the cutting.This improved growth accelerated the following six or seven years with 20-80% increase. Both small and large trees reacted, including severely suppressed trees. The initial crown volume and crown vitality after cutting is essential for the increased growth since several years are necessary to build up a larger and better crown. The relationship between increased growth and reduced volume per hectare indicates less competition between trees regarding nutrients and light after the cutting.

Abstract

Distance-independent individual tree growth models based on about 30,000 observations from the National Forest Inventory and the Norwegian Forest Research Institute have been developed for the main tree species in Norway.The models predict 5-year basal area increment over bark for trees larger than 5cm at breast height. Potential input variables were of four types: size of the tree, competition indices, site conditions, and stand variables including species, mixtures and layers. The squared correlation coefficient (R2) varied from 0.26 to 0.55.The accuracy of the models was tested by comparing the individual tree models with Norwegian diameter increment models. The accuracy is similar, but individual tree models forecast diameter distributions directly. The inclusion of species mixture and layer as variables increases the reliability of the models in mixed and in uneven-aged stands

Abstract

Six experimental sites in the coastal spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) forest of central Norway were investigated. A comparison of different silviculture systems was performed based on the present situation of mature stands, and a single tree selection system, a group system and a clearcutting system were studied. The diameter distribution shows the classical inverse J-shaped curve at five of six sites. The mean tree volume removed in the selection system was 0.6 m3, and about 0.3 m3 for the other two methods. The harvesting cost was about 14 Euro/m3 for clearcutting, and about 10% higher for the group and selection systems. In simulations of all future revenues and expenses based on the observed stand conditions, cutting and extraction costs, the net present value (NPV) was app. 15% lower for the group and selection systems compared to clearcutting. A lower stem volume production in uneven-aged stands and higher administration and harvesting costs had only a minor influence on the NPV. One percent higher interest rate lowered the NPV of the group and selection systems to 75% of the clearcutting method.