This study examines the relationships between profitability, nitrogen (N) surplus, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), and energy intensity and factors influencing these relationships in dairy farming. In-depth data from 10 conventional and 8 organic dairy farms in Western Norway were analyzed. Organic farms had lower N surplus per hectare (local, onfarm) and per unit output (global, cradle-to-farm-gate), and lower estimated GHG emissions and energy intensity per unit output, whereas labor input and farm profits did not differ. Higher profitability tended to be associated with improved performance of the environmental indicators examined. Intensification through increased use of concentrates tended to improve profit and reduce N surplus, GHG emissions, and energy intensity per unit output within each farming system while N surplus per hectare could be negatively affected. To ensure a balanced representation of the environmental consequences of both organic and conventional farming systems,our results give support to extensive examination of both area and product-based environmental performance indicators.


Mapping and valuating ecosystem services has gained increasing attention over the last years and remains high in the research agenda. In this paper, a mixed methods approach is used to valuate ecosystem services provided by the Divici-Pojejena wetland in Romania. A qualitative part relied on focus group discussions and interviews to identify key stakeholders and the ecosystem services provided by the wetland site. The benefit transfer (BT) method was used for the monetary valuation of the identified ecosystem services that the wetland provides. Bird watching opportunities, water quality, and flood prevention services are among the highest valued services, while the amenity services are the least valued among all wetland services.


Division of Survey and Statistics

Farmers and the city: enhancing added value and sustainability through optimized use of urban and peri-urban farm resources (URBANFARMS)

The project aims at elaborating effective strategies for professional farmers in cities and peri-urban areas to make use of the vicinity of the city to increase added value from their production in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable way. The project shall identify land resources that are not in optimal use, and demonstrate business models that increase the use of local nutrients and of the nearby city's market and purchasing power.

Active Updated: 14.02.2020
End: mar 2023
Start: apr 2019
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Division of Food Production and Society

Sustainable growth of the Norwegian Horticulture Food System – GreenRoad GS35 (“GrøntStrategi mot 2035)

The main aim of GreenRoad is to deliver knowledge and solutions for increased value creation and sustainability in the horticultural food system in Norway. The project will define and prioritize areas and regions suitable for production of selected horticultural crops, assessing environmental, climatic, topographic, economic, social, legal and political constraints and opportunities for increased horticultural production, also in new regions (WP1). The environmental, economic and social sustainability of different strategies for increased horticultural production will be assessed, and new assessment methodologies developed (WP2). GreenRoad will also generate new biological and technical knowledge on methods for increased, improved, sustainable production of high quality horticultural products, taking into account provision of ecosystem services (biodiversity and pollinating activities), circularity of organic resources and the use of waste heat (WP3). The project will assess sustainable value creation barriers and opportunities at all stages in the supply chain, with a focus on seasonal labour supply, retail market structure and labelling strategies, and with Finland as a contrasting case. Business and policy measures to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables will be identified (WP4). Partners and stakeholders will be involved throughout the project in focus groups and other forms of participatory research, and their feedback will contribute to develop innovation platforms and pathways towards GS35 (WP5). A case study on apples binds the different WPs together with a “farm to fork” perspective. The project involves a variety of different disciplines (biology, geography, economy, sociology…) who will collaborate in different WPs. There is a strong involvement of business and national and international research partners.

Active Updated: 13.10.2021
End: dec 2024
Start: jan 2021