Abstract

This study examines the relationships between profitability, nitrogen (N) surplus, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), and energy intensity and factors influencing these relationships in dairy farming. In-depth data from 10 conventional and 8 organic dairy farms in Western Norway were analyzed. Organic farms had lower N surplus per hectare (local, onfarm) and per unit output (global, cradle-to-farm-gate), and lower estimated GHG emissions and energy intensity per unit output, whereas labor input and farm profits did not differ. Higher profitability tended to be associated with improved performance of the environmental indicators examined. Intensification through increased use of concentrates tended to improve profit and reduce N surplus, GHG emissions, and energy intensity per unit output within each farming system while N surplus per hectare could be negatively affected. To ensure a balanced representation of the environmental consequences of both organic and conventional farming systems,our results give support to extensive examination of both area and product-based environmental performance indicators.

Abstract

Mapping and valuating ecosystem services has gained increasing attention over the last years and remains high in the research agenda. In this paper, a mixed methods approach is used to valuate ecosystem services provided by the Divici-Pojejena wetland in Romania. A qualitative part relied on focus group discussions and interviews to identify key stakeholders and the ecosystem services provided by the wetland site. The benefit transfer (BT) method was used for the monetary valuation of the identified ecosystem services that the wetland provides. Bird watching opportunities, water quality, and flood prevention services are among the highest valued services, while the amenity services are the least valued among all wetland services.