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Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, was detected for the first time in Norway in 1986. It was a limited outbreak on the south-western coast, only on ornamentals, and particularly on Cotoneaster spp. An action group handling the eradication and containment of the disease was quickly established. Comprehensive statutory powers and resources were given by the government to do surveys and eradicate diseased or symptomless but highly susceptible plant species from contaminated areas. These activities have likely restricted fire blight to the western and southern coastal areas. Eastern and northern parts of Norway are considered free from fire blight. The disease has not been observed in important fruit-growing areas. Uncontrolled movement of beehives from areas with fire blight to areas free from the disease has contributed to its introduction to new areas. From 1969 to 2016 import of most host plants of E. amylovora from countries with fire blight was prohibited. A yearly program for annual surveys in parts of the country with commercial fruit-growing and nurseries, using digital maps on internet connected tablets with GPS and software for in situ registrations, proved to be an efficient method for discovering new outbreaks at an early stage, and to start eradication and thus limit further spread.

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Phytophthora ramorum er et patogen som kan gjøre skade på en rekke vertsplanter og som i Norge har status som karanteneskadegjører. I 2016 mottok NIBIO totalt 383 prøver fra Mattilsynet for analyse for P. ramorum. Prøvene ble analysert med real-time PCR spesifikk for P. ramorum og/eller ved isolering på semiselektivt medium PARP og påføgende mikroskoperng. Prøveantallet inkluderte prøver fra 13 importsendinger, og P. ramorum ble påvist i 6 av dem. En av de positive prøvene var av pyramidelyng (Pieris japonica) og de andre var av rododendron. Sendingene kom fra Belgia og Nederland. Det ble gjennomført kontroller i 40 planteskoler og hagesentre. I 11 av dem ble det påvist P. ramorum. I alt ble det analysert 98 prøver, og det ble påvist P. ramorum i 40 av de. Alle de positive prøvene var av rododendron. Planteskolene med påvisning var lokalisert i Øst-, Vest- og Midt-Norge. I seks av planteskolene ble det gjennomført en ‘baiting’-test av rotklumper fra planter som ikke viste Phytophthora-symptomer på blader eller kvister. I 6 rododendronprøver fra en av planteskolene ble det påvist P. ramorum etter ‘baiting’. Det ble analysert 234 prøver fra grøntanlegg, og det ble påvist P. ramorum i 55 av disse. Alle påvisningene var fra kystområder på Sør-Vestlandet, med unntak av en prøve fra Midt-Norge (Stjørdal)

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A new method for pest risk assessment and the identification and evaluation of risk-reducing options is currently under development by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Plant Health Panel. The draft method has been tested on pests of concern to the European Union (EU). The method is adaptable and can focus either on all the steps and sub-steps of the assessment process or on specific parts if necessary. It is based on assessing changes in pest population abundance as the major driver of the impact on cultivated plants and on the environment. Like other pest risk assessment systems the method asks questions about the likelihood and magnitude of factors that contribute to risk. Responses can be based on data or expert judgment. Crucially, the approach is quantitative, and it captures uncertainty through the provision by risk assessors of quantile estimates of the probability distributions for the assessed variables and parameters. The assessment is based on comparisons between different scenarios, and the method integrates risk-reducing options where they apply to a scenario, for example current regulation against a scenario where risk-reducing options are not applied. A strategy has been developed to communicate the results of the risk assessment in a clear, comparable and transparent way, with the aim of providing the requestor of the risk assessment with a useful answer to the question(s) posed to the EFSA Plant Health Panel. The method has been applied to four case studies, two fungi, Ceratocystis platani and Cryphonectria parasitica, the nematode Ditylenchus destructor and the Grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma. Selected results from these case studies illustrate the types of output that the method can deliver.

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Climate change and variability associated with natural hazards such as flooding, storms, droughts, increasing temperature, sea level rise and salinity have been a continuous threat to the life and property of Vietnamese society in the past and will continue to do so in the future in not addressed properly. A majority are smallholders, highly vulnerable and without the capacity to invest much in adaptation. Thus any new adaptation measures have to be simple, low cost, help in reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs), and easily adaptable. This manual draws lessons from selected mitigation and adaptation measures evaluated in the project. The manual examines three key aspects needed to scale-up and replicate the measures at the provincial level. The first is the institutional structures, including inputs needed, farmer and stakeholder capacity at the commune, district and provincial levels, barriers to scaling-up, and how to address them. Secondly, how demonstrating effective climate-resilient technologies on farmer fields, closely involving farmers, can provide good results for scaling-up. Third, the impacts of policies to enhance enabling environments for scaling-up. There is a need to prioritize short-term and long-term measures for scaling-up. It is important to generate funds to support the scaling-up, both from state and private sources. Active stakeholder integration is a necessary factor where the authorities, farmers, scientists, civil society and industry are working closely in the process. Knowledge transfer has to be done both through linear and non-linear extension models that will be more effective in providing timely and complete knowledge to farmers and stakeholders. […]

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The three year multidisciplinary ClimaViet project (July 2013 to June 2016) implemented jointly by the Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VAAS) and the Norwegian Institute for Agriculture and Environmental Research (Bioforsk) is focusing mainly on the future climate change impacts on rice production in Vietnam with financial support of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Norway. As a first step, the project has reviewed the current studies and programs related to climate change and agriculture taken by other agencies in Vietnam. The existing climate scenarios were downscaled and the climate impacts on seasonality in rainfall leading to droughts and salinity in coastal areas on rice production were assessed. Potential measures leading to improved rice cropping systems and improved nutrient use efficiency are being pilottested in the three study areas located in Nam Dinh, Soc Trang and Tra Vinh provinces. The results are expected to contribute to sustained productivity and climate change mitigation. Towards the end, the project will develop the institutional and policy guidelines required to adopt the potential measures identified and tested in the project. The project involves stakeholders at the provincial and national level (VAAS, MARD, MONRE and other relevant stakeholders) for better uptake of results.

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ClimaRice II has explored the potential for climate adaptation and mitigation through online dissemination of pest risk forecasts to rice farmers. Weather-driven mathematical models incorporating scientific insights on the biological responses of plant pests to climate can be linked to automatic weather station networks to provide pest risk forecasting / forewarning / early warning to rice farmers

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Introductions of the pine wood nematode (PWN), which causes Pine Wilt Disease (PWD), have devastating effects on pine forests in regions with susceptible host trees under suitable climate conditions. Norwegian authorities have proposed a contingency plan if PWN is detected in Norway. We compare the costs of implementing this plan with the costs of further spread and damage of PWN under two climate change scenarios: present and the most likely future climate. With the present climate, PWD will not occur in Norway. Under climatic change, the cost of PWD damage is approximately 0.078–0.157 million NOK (0.01–0.02 million Euros) estimated as net present value with 2 and 4% p.a. discount rate. In contrast, the corresponding costs of implementing the suggested contingency plan will be 1.7–2.2 billion NOK (0.2–0.25 billion Euros). These costs are caused by reduced income from industrial timber production and the costs of the eradication measures. Costs related to reduced recreation or biodiversity are expected to be very high, but are not included in the above estimates. Many of the factors in the analysis are burdened with high uncertainty, but sensitivity analyses indicate that the results are rather robust even for drastic changes in assumptions. The results suggest that there is a need to revise the current PWN contingency plan in Norway.

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Gårdsvarsling gjør det mulig å beregne lokalt tilpassede plantevernvarsler ved bruk av værvarsel og radarmåling av nedbør. Vanligvis beregnes plantevernvarsler på grunnlag av data fra værstasjoner, men mange gårdsbruk ligger langt unna nærmeste målepunkt. For disse brukene vil varsler basert på værvarsler og radarmålt nedbør være et godt alternativ. Gårdsvarsler tilpasset det enkelte gårdsbruk vil derfor øke nytteverdien av varslingstjenesten innen planteskadegjørere (VIPS) for mange dyrkere.

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ClimaRice II is exploring the potential for use of mobile technologies in the context of climate change adaptation in agriculture. Modern mobile telephone technology is a key component of the ongoing communication revolution which in turn has great potentials for social change and development. The Indian telecommunication industry is the world's fastest growing industry with 811.59 million mobile phone subscribers as of March 2011. Most farmers are already using mobile phones for various day to day needs, but the technology has a wider potential in supporting their main profession; agriculture. Linking mobile technology with adaptation measures developed in ClimaRice projects could form new and powerful measures to meet the threats from climate change and provide support in sustaining rice production.

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P>Autumn growth of weeds (i) provides an opportunity for mechanical and chemical control in autumn and (ii) can be important for weed survival and infestation in the following spring. Growth characteristics of Elytrigia repens, Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis in autumn were studied in 2004 and 2005, on plants of different origins and developmental stages (planted at various times from May to August). The plants were grown outdoors in large pots and were assessed during September and October each year. The study showed that (i) all species grew in autumn, but growth ceased and the species withered at different times; S. arvensis first, followed by C. arvense and then E. repens and (ii) less developed (i.e. younger) plants grew later in the autumn. This was demonstrated by leaf area development and biomass distribution during autumn. Older plants had a greater total biomass with relatively more rhizomes or creeping roots than younger plants. In young plants of C. arvense and S. arvensis, the biomass of creeping roots increased during autumn. The total biomass, however, changed little during autumn. These growth patterns indicate that E. repens will be the easiest, S. arvensis the most difficult and C. arvense in between, regarding control of these species in autumn.

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I denne rapporten legges det frem en metode utviklet for å identifisere konfliktområder mellom viktige naturverdier og spredning av fremmede karplantearter langs samferdselsårer. I korte trekk består metoden av en geografisk analyse der sammenfall mellom stedfestede data for samferdselsårer og tilgrensende arealer med viktige naturverdier vurderes mot truslene som forekomster av fremmede karplantearter representerer i disse potensielle konfliktområdene. Analysen tar utgangspunkt i data tilgjengelige gjennom nasjonal geografisk infrastruktur - Norge digitalt og tilsvarende nasjonale samarbeidsinitiativ som Artsdatabanken, Naturbase og lignende. [...]

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Dette er en kort beskrivelse av været i vekstsesongen 2010 basert på data registrert ved Bioforsks klimastasjoner og noen detaljer hentet fra klimatologiske oversikter utgitt av Meteorologisk institutt.

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Overvåking og kartlegging av pærebrann ble i 2008 gjort ved hjelp av mobiltelefoner med GPS og en innlagt spesialutviklet programvare. Med enkle tastetrykk på telefonen kunne man registrere i felt forekomster av vertplanter og sjukdomsangrep. Disse dataene ble så via internett over mobilnettet sendt til en digital kart-tjener. Registreringene var umiddelbart tilgjengelige i form av et eget kartlag på internett for visning sammen med annen kartinformasjon på PC. Dette digitale verktøyet har gitt en stor effektivisering og kvalitetsheving av registreringsarbeidet i felt, og gjort dataene umiddelbart tilgjengelige etter innlegging.

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Welcome Dear participants, Welcome to Norway and to the campus of the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. The organizing committee is very pleased and honoured that the meeting will be attended by close to 80 participants from 18 countries, specialized in areas ranging from molecular biology to modelling. We expect PMAC2009 to be a unique forum for an integrated perspective on plant and microbe adaptation to cold. Climate change presents a main challenge for agriculture and forestry. Scientists are asked to predict the fate of plants and microbes under new conditions. Our aim at understand the impact of climate change on plants and microbes in ?cold? environment can be approached by modelling, but no model can be better than the knowledge it is based upon. Knowledge gaps need to be filled. In this meeting, scientists in agronomy, forestry, genetics, plant physiology, plant pathology and microbiology, as well as specialists in modelling, will share new knowledge and new approaches in their respective fields, and thereby hopefully fill some of the gaps. We extend our sincere thanks to the speakers and poster holders for their positive response to our invitation to contribute at PMAC2009. And the good advices and contributions from the international committee are much appreciated. PMAC2009 could hardly have been arranged without a grant from the Norwegian Research Council. We therefore wish to express our great appreciation for this. We also wish to thank the plant breeding company Graminor for their contribution. We are looking forward to a productive and enlightening meeting during the darkest time of the year! On behalf of the local organizing committee, Anne Marte Tronsmo

Sammendrag

Tidlige og presise prognoser over norsk kornproduksjon er viktig for en god og effektiv regulering av kornmarkedet. Målet med dette prosjektet har vært å utvikle en ny og objektiv metode for å lage tidlige (per 1. august) prognoser på dekaravlinger (kg korn per daa), ved å kombinere historiske sammenhenger mellom vær og avlinger. De værbaserte prognosene for bygg hadde høyst 10 % avvik fra målingene, og avviket var mindre enn 3 % i 2005 og 2006. Dermed var metoden bedre enn dagens metode i to av tre år testet. Avviket i havreprognosene overskred ikke 7 % for den nye metoden, og var som bygg bedre enn dagens metode i to av tre år. For rug var avviket på linje med tilsvarende for havre (<7 %), men her var dagens metode noe bedre i 2006 og 2007. For hvete traff den nye metoden godt i 2005 og 2006 (<7 %), og bedre enn dagens metode i 2005, men marginalt dårligere i 2006. Begge metodene overestimerte hveteavlingene kraftig i 2007.

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Med et endret klima forventes mer høstkorndyrking. Etablerte arter som kveke og åkertistel kan bli et større problem. Ugras som åkerkvein og åkerreverumpe, utbredt lenger sør i Europa, kan bli et problem også i Norge. Vi ser for oss mer høstsprøyting, og større fare for utvikling av herbicidresistens.

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Dette er en kort oppsummering av været sommeren 2009 basert på data registrert ved Bioforsks klimastasjoner, supplert med noen detaljer fra klimatologiske månedsoversikter fra Meteorologisk institutt. Med vekstsesong mener vi her perioden fra og med mai måned til ut september.

Sammendrag

Jordtemperatur brukes flittig av agronomer for å bestemme når det er på tide å sette i gang tiltak i våronna. Når jordtemperaturen stiger over 5 ºC om våren regnes vekstsesongen for å være i gang. Klimatologer bruker derimot kriterier basert på temperaturen i lufta til å beregne tidspunkt for vekstsesongens start, slutt og lengde. Stemmer klimatologen og agronomens tilnærminger overens? Kan jordtemperaturer tilføre oss kunnskap om klimaendringer utover luftas temperatur?

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Pine Wood Nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) is the causal organism of Pine Wilt Disease (PWD), the worst forest pest of Japan. In Europe PWN is known to exist in Portugal. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet) is concerned about the plant health risks and the consequences to the society if PWN should establish in Norway. Mattilsynet needs a scientific assessment of the proposed measures in a contingency plan for PWN. Mattilsynet also needs the risks connected with recent spread of PWN in Portugal to be evaluated before possible changes can be made in the current phytosanitary policy of Norway. On this background Mattilsynet requested a pest risk assessment of PWN from the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM). To answer the request, VKM commissioned a draft pest risk assessment report from the Norwegian Institute for Agricultural Sciences and Environmental Research (Bioforsk). A working group appointed by VKM’s Panel on Plant Health (Panel 9) has been involved during Bioforsk’s work on the report. VKM’s Panel 9 has used the report as a basis for VKM’s opinion. The current document answers Part 1 of Mattilsynet’s request, and was adopted by Panel 9 on a meeting 3rd September 2008. VKM’s Panel 9 gives the following main conclusions of the risk assessment: The PRA area of this assessment is Norway. PWN is not known to occur in Norway. With present trade pattern the probability of entry of PWN into Norway is expected to be high. The most probable pathway for entry of PWN into Norway would be wood packaging material (WPM). The probability that PWN will establish and spread in Norway is considered as high. With regard to the so-called Pest Free Areas (PFAs) of Portugal, the criteria given in ISPM No. 4 (FAO 1995) for establishing and maintaining PFAs have not been met, and the data available is not sufficient to confirm the existence of PFAs. Acceptance of untreated conifer wood from all parts of Portugal will result in a very high probability of entry and a high probability of establishment and spread of PWN and its vector to Norway. Uncertainty factors: To the best of our knowledge PWN is absent from the PRA area. The beetle M. sutor is regarded as a potential vector or PWN, but this has so far not been demonstrated in nature. The currently low vector densities may retard establishment of the PWN and PWD, but it will probably not stop establishment in a longer perspective. Lack of information on the dynamics of PWN populations in cool climates complicates estimates of the spread of the nematode and PWD. Custom routines may fail in their detection of PWN. Import of a seemingly harmless material might therefore pose an unknown risk. WPM follows consignments of all kinds and is a good example of a hazardous material, which often escapes plant health inspections. Detailed assessments of economic consequences of a possible establishment and spread of PWN in Norway, the effects of global warming and other climate changes on the probability for PWD outbreaks, and the effect of possible phytosanitary measures, will be given in Part 2.

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Klimaendringer kan føre til at flerårige ugras vokser lenger utover høsten og derved skaper større problemer i påfølgende vekstsesong. Spesielt kveke vokser langt utover høsten ved økende temperatur. Kveketilveksten økte også ved en økning i CO2-konsentrasjon. Kveke hadde høyest og åkertistel lavest frosttoleranse. Kun i åkerdylle ble frosttoleransen dårligere med et varmere klima før frysing.

Sammendrag

This report assesses the plant health risk for the bacterial plant disease fire blight for the Pest Risk Assessment area of Norway. In addition to providing an updated pest categorisation for fire blight in relation to Norway, the report provide new results on fruit tree blossom infection risk based on examination of historical climate and phenology data. The report conclude that if E. amylovora is introduced into the main fruit growing districts of Norway, it is expected that the damage and losses to commercial fruit production and nurseries will be minor, under the current phytosanitary regime in Norway. Relaxation of the regulations in force for fighting fire blight in Norway will increase the expected damage and losses to commercial fruit production and nurseries to a moderate level.

Sammendrag

“Landbruksklimaet” de siste tjue åra, i form av over hundre millioner målte timeverdier av ulike klimavariable, er nå samlet og gjort tilgjengelige på ett sted. Landbruksmeteorologisk tjeneste, LMT, i Bioforsk forvalter denne klimadatabasen som oppdateres hver time med nye data fra et nettverk av 80 værstasjoner lokalisert i de viktigste landbruksområdene i Norge.

Sammendrag

The detection in 1999 of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Portugal triggered survey activities in many European countries. With the assumption that PWN would reach frequency 10 times lower than the native B. mucronatus and the requirement of a 95 % confidence limit suggested 2 995 samples to be required for a safe statement on the absence of PWN from the territory surveyed. Samples were taken from 10 circular areas with 50 km diameter erected from a point of import of risk materials. In the period 2000-2006 3 165 wood samples, 2 880 from Pinus sylvestris, 279 from Picea abies and 6 from unknown wood, were collected from 446 logging sites, in 84 municipalities and 13 counties. Of the total material 85 % of the samples came from cutting wastes, timber or lying trees. Wood showing signs of insect activity (incl. Monochamus) formed 73 % of the total material. Nematodes were recorded in 85 % of the samples. The order Rhabditida was most frequent, followed by the orders Aphelenchida, Tylenchida and Dorylaimida. Rhabditid nematodes were equally frequent in pine and spruce, while Aphelenchida (Aphelenchus, Aphelenchoides, Cryptaphelenchus, Seinura and Bursaphelenchus) and Tylenchida (Filenchus, Lelenchus, Ditylenchus, Deladenus and Nothotylenchus) tended to be more common in pinewood. Aphelenchoides was the most common genus. The genus Bursaphelenchus occurred in 1 % of the samples. B. mucronatus was detected in 0,3 % of the samples and most often in cutting waste of pine. The pine wood nematode (PWN), B. xylophilus, was not detected in this survey. The unexpected low natural occurrence of B. mucronatus indicates that the number of potential niches for PWN also is lower than expected, and hence it will be necessary to continue this surveillance program to reach 10 000 samples. The present zone sites in central and south-eastern Norway will be supplemented with 1-2 zone sites in southwestern region of the country. In the future these zone sites will function as permanent observation areas. Care will also be taken to collect all samples from detached wood with signs of Monochamus activity.

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Potensiell planteproduksjon er avhengig av jord- og værfaktorer. Jordskifteretten vil bruke disse data som grunnlag for verdsetting av jordbruksarealer. Basert på eksisterende data om planteproduksjon, vær og jordsmonn ble sammenhengen statistisktestet for korn, potet og eng. For korn og potet ble det utviklet modeller som kan bli brukbare i verdsettingssammenheng.

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Fagområdet landbruksmeteorologi er kort beskrevet som en kobling av fysisk meteorologi mot biologiske kunnskaper med anvendelse i plantedyrking. Landbruksmeteorologiens plass i Planteforsk som et eget prosjekt, Landbruksmeteorologisk tjeneste (LMT),med en driftsdel og en forskningsdel knyttet til organisasjonens nettverk av automatiske stasjoner er det dernest gjort rede for. Nettverket av automatstasjoner er beskrevet, og den bruk som gjøres av dette nettverket og de viktigste brukergrupper man har, er nevnt. Praktisk anvendelse av faget i varsling (taktisk bruk) og i klimasammenhenger (strategisk bruk) er berørt, og til slutt er sagt noen ord om hva anvendt forskning dreier seg om.

Sammendrag

Avlingsmengde og arealproduktivitet er viktige faktorer ved verdsetting av et jordskifte. I dette prosjektet, som er et samarbeid mellom NIJOS, Planteforsk og NLH, har formålet vært å styrke grunnlaget for verdsetting av jord ved å undersøke sammenhenger mellom avlingsmengde, jord og klima. Avlingsdata for korn, eng og potet, fra verdiprøvingsforsøk utført i regi av Planteforsk ble koblet til jordsmonndata fra NIJOS og klimadata fra både Planteforsk og DNMI. Analysen av datamaterialet bekreftet velkjente effekter av jordsmonn på avlingsmengde. Avlingstall for bestemte jordtyper i gitte regioner ble beregnet. Imidlertid viste det seg at datamaterialet var for begrenset til å komme fram til generelt gyldige modeller for jordsmonnegenskaper og avlingsnivå. Det kom også fram at det er nødvendig med en bedre organisering av klima- og plantedata. Tilrettelegging av dataene til dette prosjektet tok derfor relativt mye tid, slik at noen analysemetoder forble uprøvd. Emneord: Verdsetting, innmark, planteproduksjonsforsøk