Misganu Debella-Gilo

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(+47) 974 80 381
misganu.debella.gilo@nibio.no

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Ås - Bygg R9

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Raveien 9, 1430 Ås

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Sammendrag

A transition to a bioeconomy implies an increased focus on efficient and sustainable use of biological resources. A common, but often neglected feature of these resources is their location dependence. To optimize their use, for example in bioeconomic industrial clusters, this spatial aspect should be integrated in analyses. Optimal design and localization of a bioeconomic cluster with respect to the various biological and non-biological resources required for the cluster, the composition of industrial facilities in the cluster, as well as the demands of the outputs of the cluster, is crucial for profitability and sustainability. We suggest that optimal design and location of bioeconomic clusters can benefit from the use of a Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in combination with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Operations Research modeling. The integration of MCDA and GIS determines a set of candidate locations based on various criteria, including resource availability, accessibility, and usability. A quantitative analysis of the flow of resources between and within the different industries is then conducted based on economic Input-Output analysis. Then, the cluster locations with the highest potential profit, and their composition of industrial facilities, are identified in an optimization model. A case study on forest-based bioeconomic clusters in the Østfold county of Norway is presented to exemplify this methodology, the expectation being that further implementation of the method at the national level could help decision makers in the planning of a smoother transition from a fossil-based economy to a bioeconomy.

Sammendrag

This paper describes the development and utility of the Norwegian forest resources map (SR16). SR16 is developed using photogrammetric point cloud data with ground plots from the Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NFI). First, an existing forest mask was updated with object-based image analysis methods. Evaluation against the NFI forest definitions showed Cohen's kappa of 0.80 and accuracy of 0.91 in the lowlands and a kappa of 0.73 and an accuracy of 0.96 in the mountains. Within the updated forest mask, a 16×16 m raster map was developed with Lorey's height, volume, biomass, and tree species as attributes (SR16-raster). All attributes were predicted with generalized linear models that explained about 70% of the observed variation and had relative RMSEs of about 50%. SR16-raster was segmented into stand-like polygons that are relatively homogenous in respect to tree species, volume, site index, and Lorey's height (SR16-vector). When SR16 was utilized in a combination with the NFI plots and a model-assisted estimator, the precision was on average 2–3 times higher than estimates based on field data only. In conclusion, SR16 is useful for improved estimates from the Norwegian NFI at various scales. The mapped products may be useful as additional information in Forest Management Inventories.

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Aim: Identify where bioeconomic development would best be located to maximise both local resources and the reusable waste from potentially collaborating sectors. We seek to answer the questions like Where are the best locations for bioeconomic clusters and how should this be assessed? What are the tradeoffs, how can they be mapped and described, and are there any general major obstacles? What are the conditions that would aid in developing a smart bioeconomy and what are the spatial implications of different developments?

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Sammendrag

In 2012, the Norwegian Environmental Agency funded an extension to the Global Pollination Project, coordinated by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) to expand the number of connected countries from 7 fully participating to in total 13 countries. This international effort seeks to build capacity for pollination studies and add to the knowledge base for the Intergovernmental Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). IPBES is currently conducting its first fast track case study on pollination. Specifically, the Global Pollination Project implements the “Protocol to detect and assess pollination deficits in crops: a handbook for its use” (Vaissière et al. 2011), developed through the FAO. The proto-col outlines a unified method to investigate pollination and measure pollination deficits in vari-ous agricultural systems around the world. NINA (the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research) was tasked with setting up a Norwegian collaboration to implement the protocol in Norway, to analyse its applicability to Nordic conditions and evaluate its strength in relation to alternative research strategies. The present report is the result of this effort. This report does not communicate the final results of the analyses, as they will be conducted in the two larger “host-projects” that made the implementation of the protocol possible. Instead, it outlines the rationale of the protocol, and evaluates its potential for providing management rel-evant information on pollination deficits, with particular emphasis on Norway. We discuss the state and trends of pollination dependent crops in Norway, as a background for the need for pollination in Norwegian Agriculture. The protocol is general enough to be applied to a wide variety of settings, and we did not expe-rience any fundamental problems of implementing it in a Nordic setting. We did however notice challenges to an effective implementation, which might be especially pronounced in a Norwe-gian or Scandinavian setting. First, it can be difficult to find a wide enough range of factors that influence pollinators to efficiently analyse the importance of pollination without resorting to ma-nipulative treatments. For example, the amount of flower resources and fragmentation of habi-tat are factors known to influence pollinators. But many crops are spatially aggregated to rela-tively narrow valleys and therefore experience similar surroundings. Secondly, it can be chal-lenging to find enough replicate farms since Norway is a relatively small agricultural nation. Thirdly, pollinators in Norway (as in many other parts of the world) are intractably linked to ag-ricultural and animal husbandry practices that provide a diversity of flowering resources neces-sary for pollinating insects, yet these practices and resulting resources in the surrounding land-scape is not sufficiently captured by the survey protocol. The protocol is designed to estimate differences in yield given differences in pollination, and various methods are available to approach optimal pollination, that acts as benchmark. Esti-mating the effect of pollination on yield is the foundation to understanding the status of pollina-tion deficits for any crop. The protocol appears to be a successful effort to create a unified standard of measuring pollination and pollination deficits by this definition. It thus marks a great improvement for pollination research in agriculture internationally. Pollination, Ecosystem services, Bees, Bumble bees, Pollination deficit Protocol, FAO, IPBES, Policy, apple, red clover, Norway, pollinering, økosystemtjenester, bier, humler, protokoll for polline-ringsunderskudd, FAO, IPBES, eple, rødkløver

Sammendrag

The Norwegian landscape is changing as a result of forest regeneration within the cultural landscape, and forest expansion has impacts on accessibility, visibility, and landscape aesthetics, thereby affecting the country's tourism industry. This study aimed at identifying the potential areas of forest regeneration and anticipated subsequent landscape effects on different categories of tourist locations in southern Norway. Deforested areas with a potential for forest regeneration were identified from several map sources by GIS-analyses, and 180 tourist locations were randomly selected from the Norwegian national tourism database (Reiselivsbasen), and then buffered by 2 km radius for land cover classes. The findings revealed that approximately 15% of southern Norway has the climatic potential for future forest regeneration, in addition to 5% of cultivated land. Future forest regeneration will affect the landscapes surrounding the tourist locations of rural south Norway, and while the potential is nationwide, it is not uniformly distributed. Two important tourist landscape regions seem especially exposed to forest regeneration: the coastal heath region and the mountain landscapes. Large parts of these areas do not have sufficient numbers of domestic grazing animals necessary to maintain the present character of the landscape.

Sammendrag

Reiselivet i Norge har de siste tiåra vært oppmerksomme på landskapsendringene som skjer i Norge. I følge reiselivsnæringa truer gjengroing av kulturlandskapet viktige segmenter innen det norske reiselivet. Samtidig legges det årlig ned et sted mellom 1500 - 2000 gardsbruk i Norge.

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Sammendrag

En produksjonslinje for publisering av jordsmonndata og annen relevant jordbruksstatistikk per vassdragsenhet (REGINE-enhet) er etablert. Her presenteres statistikken for Drammensvassdraget. Informasjonskilden for denne rapporten er først og fremst jordsmonndatabasen, men det er også lagt inn noe informasjon fra produksjonsregisteret (temaene planteproduksjon og dyretetthet). Jordsmonndatabasen dekker kun dyrket mark og bare den sydlige halvdelen av vassdraget. Jordsmonnstatistikken er utarbeidet for vassdragsenheter på overordnet nivå som har mer enn 80 % dekning av jordsmonndata. Kartlagt areal er ikke representative for vassdraget som helhet. Det er også utarbeidet en mer detaljert statistikk for følgende enheter: Vigga-Randsfjorden i Oppland, Simoa i Buskerud og deler av Vestfossenelvas nedslagsfelt i Vestfold. Her er det også laget statistikk som viser hvordan egenskapene varierer med avstanden fra vannstrengen.

Sammendrag

Reiselivets landskap er vurdert m.h.p. gjengroing av kulturlandskap. Særlig utsatt for gjengroing av utmark er reiselivskategoriene gardsturisme og hoteller. Seterregionene og kystregionene vil i framtiden være spesielt utsatt for gjengroing av utmarkas kulturlandskap.